Challenge of Technology Mediated Social Participation
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Challenge of Technology Mediated Social Participation

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Jennifer Preece's presentation from the UPA Israel June 2010 meeting

Jennifer Preece's presentation from the UPA Israel June 2010 meeting

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  • Readers – 0.5 Billion Contributors – 1 in 1000 register to contribute and average 1 contribution each Leaders – 16,000 admins – i.e. less than 1 in 1 million become admins
  • Has motivational structure
  • 8M people have downloaded Solved 500 crimes
  • A few months ago over 50,000 people using it.
  • A way of knowing where damage is so they can allocate scarse resources Local publicity about weather
  • Transparancy effort is post hundreds of thousands of data set Recovery.gov tracks spending of $787B Gov agencies state the money that is allocataed. Government contractors (44,000) report quarterly about what they are doing and how many jobs they are creating.
  • five stages of emotional response: (1) denial , (2) bargaining, (3) anger, (4) despair, (5) acceptance . ...
  • Physical volunteering in parks etc.
  • Readers – 0.5 Billion Contributors – 1 in 1000 register to contribute and average 1 contribution each Leaders – 16,000 admins – i.e. less than 1 in 1 million become admins
  • Todd Beamer – United 93
  • Todd Beamer – United 93

Challenge of Technology Mediated Social Participation Challenge of Technology Mediated Social Participation Presentation Transcript

  • Challenge of Technology Mediated Social Participation
    • Jenny Preece, Dean & Professor
    • College of Information Studies
    • “ Maryland’s iSchool”
    • University of Maryland, USA
    • [email_address]
    • www.ischool.umd.edu/people/preece
  • This talk
    • Who I am & the iSchool
    • Interaction Design & Online Communities
    • Technology Mediated Social Participation
    • Reader-to-Leader Framework
  • College of Information Studies “Maryland’s Information School”
    • Accredited iSchool
      • 8 th among US public universities
      • 5 specialties in top 10
    • 500+ graduate students
      • Master of Library Science
      • Master of Information Management
      • Master of Human-Computer Interaction*
      • Doctor of Information Studies
    • www.ischool.umd.edu
  • What We Do People Technology Information Environment & Context
  • Lots of Research Computational Linguistics and Information Processing (CLIP) The Center for Advanced Study of Communities and Information (CASCI) The Center for Information Policy and e-Government (CIPEG) The Human-Computer Interaction Lab (HCIL) Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities (MITH) The Center for Library and Information Innovation (CLII) The Cloud Computing Center
  • Interaction Design
    • Designing interactive products to support how people communicate & interact
    • Usability goals
      • Effective, Efficient, Accessible, etc.
    • User experience goals
      • Enjoyable, satisfying
      • Supporting sociability, etc.
  • Sociability, Usability & Community
    • Sociability considerations
      • People who participate
      • Purposes they try to achieve
      • Policies & norms that guide them
    • Usability of software
      • Support individual HCI
      • Support sociability of community
    • 430.2 Million unique Facebook visitors (2009)
    • Users share 3.5 Billion pieces of content per day
    • 2 nd largest site after Google
    • If it was a nation - 3 rd largest after China and India
    • Australians average 7 hours per day
    • Americans 6 hours
    • Spanish 4.5 hours
    Facebook
  • Levontin7
  • Sociability & Usability Leaders Entertainment Support Information Governance Recognition & feedback Effort & “usability”
  • What do they want to do?
    • Content: search, retrieve, browse, edit, tag
    • Communicate: one-one, one-many, many-many
    • Collaborate: small group, community, society
    • Media: text, music, sound, pictures, video
    • Applications: phone, camera, texting, web, GPS
    • Connectivity: occasional, anywhere-anytime
    Education, Work, Leisure, Entertainment, Daily life
  • Goals
    • The purpose of social media is transformation, not just communication
    • Reduce deaths: medical errors, obesity & smoking
    • Promote energy conservation
    • Prevent disasters & terrorism
    • Increase community safety
    • Improve education
    • Facilitate good government
    • Resolve conflicts
  • Good Challenges
      • Harness online communities to:
        • Revive world economies
        • Disaster relief – eg Haiti, Katrina
        • Environment – eg Encylopedia of Life
        • Health – eg Patients Like Me
      • But we need:
        • Participation
        • Leaders
        • Motivate & build trust
  • Bad Challenges
      • Malicious attacks
      • Privacy violations
      • Lack of trust
      • Failure to be universal
      • Unreliable when needed
      • Misuse by
        • Terrorists & criminals
        • Promoters of racial hatred
        • Political oppressors
  • Vision: Technology Mediated Social Participation
    • 1) Focus on National Priorities & Impact
      • Disaster response, community safety
      • Health, energy, education, e-government
      • Environmental awareness, biodiversity
    • 2) Develop Theories of Social Participation
      • How do networks evolve? Can we predict areas of growth, stability, decline, infections, disruptions?
      • Can we guide intervention to stop terrorists, slow epidemics, promote health?
    • 3) Provide Technology Infrastructure
      • Scalable, reliable, universal, manageable
      • Protect privacy, stop attacks, resolve conflicts
  • Vision: Technology Mediated Social Participation
    • 1) Focus on National Priorities & Impact
      • Disaster response, community safety
      • Health, energy, education, e-government
      • Environmental awareness, biodiversity
    • 2) Develop Theories of Social Participation
      • How do networks evolve? Can we predict areas of growth, stability, decline, infections, disruptions?
      • Can we guide intervention to stop terrorists, slow epidemics, promote health?
    • 3) Provide Technology Infrastructure
      • Scalable, reliable, universal, manageable
      • Protect privacy, stop attacks, resolve conflicts
  • Wikipedia
  • ` All Users From Reader to Leader: Motivating Technology-Mediated Social Participation Preece & Shneiderman, AIS Trans. Human-Computer Interaction1 (1), 2009 aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol1/iss1/5/ Reader Contributor Collaborator Leader
  • 911.gov: Internet & mobile devices
    • Residents report information
    • Professionals disseminate instructions
    • Resident-to-Resident assistance
    • Professionals in control while working with empowered residents
    www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/911gov Shneiderman & Preece, Science (Feb. 16, 2007)
  • Reporting: Local incidents watchjeffersoncounty.net  nationofneighbors.net
  • Disaster Response: Wildfires
  • Recovery: Connected Giving www.katrinasangels.org
  • Community Safety: Abducted Children www.ncmec.org www.missingkids.com www.amberalert.gov
  • Health & Healthcare
  • Doctor-to-Doctor Networks
  • Energy, Education, Business Innovation Energystar.gov innocentive.com
  • Reporting: Earthquakes & Storms earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/dyfi weather.kimt.com
        • E-Commerce Social Media
  • President’s SAVE Award
    • 1) Efficient deposits
    • 3) Let Veterans take VA medications home
    • 4) Online appointments for SSA
    To be achieved by 2015
    • 2) Efficient house inspections
  • Open Data.gov + Recovery.gov
  • Open Data: DC, SF, NYC. . .
  • UN Millennium Development Goals
    • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    • Achieve universal primary education
    • Promote gender equality and empower women
    • Reduce child mortality
    • Improve maternal health
    • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
    • Ensure environmental sustainability
    • Develop a global partnership for development
    To be achieved by 2015
  • Vision: Social Participation
    • 1) Focus on National Priorities & Impact
      • Disaster response, community safety
      • Health, energy, education, e-government
      • Environmental awareness, biodiversity
    • 2) Develop Theories of Social Participation
      • How do networks evolve? Can we predict areas of growth, stability, decline, infections, disruptions?
      • Can we guide intervention to stop terrorists, slow epidemics, promote health?
    • 3) Provide Technology Infrastructure
      • Scalable, reliable, universal, manageable
      • Protect privacy, stop attacks, resolve conflicts
      • Random, preferential attachment,…
      • Monotonic, bursty,…
      • Power law for degree (hubs & indexes)
      • Small-world property
      • Forest fire, spreading activation,…
      • Matures, decays, fragments, …
        • Network Theories: Evolution models
    Watts & Strogatz, Nature 1998 ; Barabasi, Science 1999, 2009 ; Newman, Phys. Rev. Letters 2002 Kumar, Novak & Tomkins, KDD2006 Leskovec, Faloutsos & Kleinberg, TKDD2007
      • Relationships & roles
      • Motivations: fear, tragedy, guilt,…
      • Motivations: egoism, altruism, collectivism, principlism
      • Collective intelligence & action
      • Social information foraging
        • Network Theories: Social science
    Moreno, 1938; Granovetter, 1971; Burt, 1987 Wellman, 1991; Batson, Ahmad & Tseng, 2002; Malone, Laubaucher & Dellarocas, 2009; Pirolli, 2009
    • Reader
    • First-time Contributor (Legitimate Peripheral Participation)
    • Returning Contributor
    • Frequent Contributor
        • Stages of participation
    Preece, Nonnecke & Andrews, CHB2004 Forte & Bruckman, SIGGROUP2005; Hanson, 2008 Porter: Designing for the Social Web, 2008 Vassileva, 2002, 2005; Ling et al., JCMC 2005 ; Rashid et al., CHI2006 Preece, Nonnecke & Andrews, CHB2004 Forte & Bruckman, SIGGROUP2005; Hanson, 2008 Porter: Designing for the Social Web, 2008 Vassileva, 2002, 2005; Ling et al., JCMC 2005 ; Rashid et al., CHI2006
  • ` All Users From Reader to Leader: Motivating Technology-Mediated Social Participation Preece & Shneiderman, AIS Trans. Human-Computer Interaction1 (1), 2009 aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol1/iss1/5/ Reader Contributor Collaborator Leader
        • Motivating Readers
    Usability Sociability Interesting & relevant content presented in attractive, well-organized layouts Encouragement by friends, family, respected authorities, advertising Frequently updated content with highlighting to encourage return visits Repeated visibility in online, print, television, other media Support for newcomers: tutorials, animated demos, FAQs, help, mentors, contacts Understandable norms & policies Clear navigation paths  sense of mastery and control Sense of belonging: recognition of familiar people & activities Universal usability: novice/expert, small/large display, slow/fast network, multilingual, support for users with disabilities Charismatic leaders with visionary goals Interface design features to support reading, browsing, searching, sharing Safety & privacy
  • Serve.gov: Voluntary service Register Your Project & Recruit Volunteers Find a Volunteer Opportunity Read Inspiring Stories of Service & Share Your Own Story
  • Biodiversity: Encyclopedia of Life eol.org
  • Encyclopedia of Life
        • Motivating Contributors
    Usability Sociability Low threshold interfaces to encourage small contributions (no login) Support for legitimate peripheral participation High ceiling interfaces that allow large frequent contributions Chance to build reputation over time while performing satisfying tasks Visibility for users’ contributions & impact - aggregated over time Recognition for the highest quality & quantity of contributions Visibility of ratings & comments Recognition of a person’s specific expertise Tools to undo vandalism, limit malicious users, control pornography & libel Policies & norms for contributions
  •  
  • Wikipedia
        • Motivating Collaborators
    Usability Sociability Ways to locate relevant & competent individuals to form collaborations Atmosphere of empathy & trust that promotes belonging to the community & willingness to work within groups to produce something larger Tools to collaborate: communicate within groups, schedule projects, assign tasks, share work products, request assistance Altruism: a desire to support the community, desire to give back, willingness to reciprocate Visible recognition collaborators, e.g. authorship, citations, links, acknowledgements Ways to develop a reputation for themselves & their collaborators; develop & maintain status within group Ways to resolve differences (e.g. voting), mediate disputes & deal with unhelpful collaborators Respect for status within the community
  • IBM’s History Flow Abortion White = unregistered users
        • Motivating Leaders
    Usability Sociability Leaders are given higher visibility & their efforts are highlighted, sometimes with historical narratives, special tributes, or rewards Leadership is valued and given an honored position & expected to meet expectations Leaders are given special powers, e.g. to promote agendas, expend resources, or limit malicious users Respect is offered for helping others & dealing with problems Mentorship efforts are visibly celebrated, e.g. with comments from mentees Mentors are cultivated & encouraged
  • Leaders in YouTube
  • Leaders in Amazon
  • Leaders in Amazon
  • ` All Users From Reader to Leader: Motivating Technology-Mediated Social Participation Preece & Shneiderman, AIS Trans. Human-Computer Interaction1 (1), 2009 aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol1/iss1/5/ Reader Contributor Collaborator Leader
  • Take Away Messages & Questions Design matters Pay attention to details Small changes make a big difference Questions?
  • Vision: Social Participation
    • 1) Focus on National Priorities & Impact
      • Disaster response, community safety
      • Health, energy, education, e-government
      • Environmental awareness, biodiversity
    • 2) Develop Theories of Social Participation
      • How do networks evolve? Can we predict areas of growth, stability, decline, infections, disruptions?
      • Can we guide intervention to stop terrorists, slow epidemics, promote health?
    • 3) Provide Technology Infrastructure
      • Scalable, reliable, universal, manageable
      • Protect privacy, stop attacks, resolve conflicts
  • Technology Infrastructure
    • Mobile, Desktop, Web, Cloud
    • 100% uptime, 100% secure
    • Giga-collabs, Tera-contribs
    • Universal usability
    • Trust, empathy, responsibility, privacy
    • Leaders can manage usage
    • Designers can continuously improve
  • SocialAction: Senate Vote Patterns Perer & Shneiderman, CHI 2008 www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/socialaction
  • NodeXL: Network Overview for Discovery & Exploration in Excel www.codeplex.com/nodexl casci.umd.edu/NodeXL_Teaching
  • Our World is Changing Rapidly But we can all make a difference Thank you The end Questions
  • NodeXL: Network Overview for Discovery & Exploration in Excel https://wiki.cs.umd.edu/cmsc734_09/index.php?title=Homework_Number_3
  • Early Steps http://iparticipate.wikispaces.com Informal Gathering College Park, MD, April 2009 Article: Science March 2009 BEN SHNEIDERMAN
  • Aspiration: Influence National Priorities
  • Strategy: Create Community Roadmap
    • Identify research themes
    • Set priorities
    • Build shared reference set
    • Develop consensus with colleagues
    • Engage other disciplines
    • Reach out to journalists
    • Work with industry
    • Communicate to policy makers
    • Create courses & degree programs
  • Strategy: Take Personal Initiatives
    • Do great research!!!!  Inspirational
    • Universities
      • Add courses & degree programs
      • Run workshops for funding agencies
      • Help Federal & Local governments
    • Industry
      • Offer researchers access to data
      • Develop infrastructure and analysis tools
    • Government
      • National Initiative for Social Participation
      • Develop Federal & Local applications
  • International Efforts intlsocialparticipation.net Community Informatics Research Network
  • Strategy: Take Personal Initiatives
    • Let’s get to work!
  • Strategy: Write a Compelling Report
    • Ambitious Vision
    • 1) Focus on National Priorities & Impact
    • 2) Develop Theories of Social Participation
    • 3) Provide Technology Infrastructure
  • www.tmsp.umd.edu East Coast Workshop: Feb. 11-12, 2010
  • NSF-funded Workshops: Research Agenda
    • Dec 10-11 (PARC) & Feb 11-12 (NSF-HQ)
    www.tmsp.umd.edu
    • Theories
    • Research Methods & Ethics
      • Controlled Experiments
      • Interventions at Scale
      • Case Studies
    • Design: Usability & Sociability
    • Government Applications
    • Academic Reforms
  • Science 1.0 + Science 2.0
    • Reductionist  Integrated
    • Controlled  Interventions & Experiments Case Studies
    • Laboratory  Situated
    • Natural World  Made World
    • Reductionist  Integrated
    • Controlled  Interventions & Experiments Case Studies
    • Laboratory  Situated
    • Natural World  Made World
    • Hypothesis Testing
    • Predictive Theories
    • Replications
    • ( AAAS Science 319, March 7, 2008, 1349-1350)
    Science 1.0 + Science 2.0