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Monkeys and apes are humankind’s closest relatives. They look like us and yet are utterly different – the ultimate 'other'. This ambiguity of form and behavior relative to people made them good mirrors of much that was good and bad in their human owners. Monkeys appear as emblems of vanity and lust but they can also appear as symbols of status. Even when they are more or less portrayed in a good way there is usually an element of mischief and maliciousness in the image. Bones of monkeys and apes are also found in archaeological contexts, mostly, but not always, associated with an elite lifestyle. Throughout the Middle Ages, the monkey was widely represented in the margins of medieval art, be that in a capital in a Cathedral or in the margins of medieval manuscripts, and their image and symbolism changed too as they became more common in medieval Europe. This lecture seeks to explore the many ways monkeys were woven into the lives of medieval people through their representation in public and private works of art.