HPPR404 Unit 3


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Public Relations Research and Evaluation | Unit 3

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HPPR404 Unit 3

  1. 1. HPPR404 Research and Evaluation Sherrell Steele Goals, Objectives, Strategies and Tactics
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>To write effective goals, objectives and key messages </li></ul><ul><li>To choose the best tools/tactics </li></ul><ul><li>How to construct a budget </li></ul>
  3. 3. Begin with the goal(s) <ul><li>Goal (s) The “grand vision” of the issue, event or campaign </li></ul><ul><li>“Where are we going?” </li></ul><ul><li>Objective(s) Steps on the way “What do we do to get there? “ </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies “How do we get there?” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Goals (continued) <ul><li>Goal(s) are long-term “ideal statements”, sometimes unachievable </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives are the steps to achieve the goal(s). Ask the question “WHAT do we need to do to achieve the goal?” </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies answer “How do we achieve each objective?” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Objectives <ul><li>Objectives –set short-term steps toward the goals — steps that you can measure </li></ul><ul><li>Specific, clear </li></ul><ul><li>Are usually public- or audience-specific </li></ul><ul><li>Informational or motivational </li></ul><ul><li>Well-thought-out objectives have measurement built in </li></ul>
  6. 6. Writing objectives <ul><li>Should specify the desired outcome and in what sequence, by what dates, and in what magnitude </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. To increase the percentage of employees who use seatbelts while operating company vehicles from the current 95% to 100% within 30 days of our internal information campaign </li></ul>
  7. 7. Writing the first three words <ul><li>Begin with “to” followed by a verb describing the direction of the intended outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Only three possibilities: “to increase,” “to decrease,” or “to maintain.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Writing the next few words of an objective <ul><li>Specify the outcome to be achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Only three possible outcomes: (increase, decrease or maintain) knowledge, (increase, decrease or maintain) feelings or (increase, decrease or maintain) behaviours. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Continue writing the objective <ul><li>State the magnitude of the change or the level to be maintained </li></ul><ul><li>Must be stated in quantifiable terms </li></ul><ul><li>Must be realistic and consistent with the resources available. In other words, “do” able. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Finish the objective <ul><li>Set the target date for when the outcome is to be achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>This determines the schedule or timeline for strategies and tactics to follow. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Strategy and Tactics <ul><li>Terms are frequently confused </li></ul><ul><li>Think football: Strategy is the overall game plan </li></ul><ul><li>Tactics are the scrimmages, passes and field goals in the game. </li></ul>
  12. 12. PR Strategies and Tactics <ul><li>Strategy is the overall concept, approach or program to achieve a objective </li></ul><ul><li>Tactics are the actual events, media and methods to implement the strategy </li></ul>
  13. 13. When creating objectives ask yourself <ul><li>Do you wish to </li></ul><ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><li>Inform </li></ul><ul><li>Persuade </li></ul><ul><li>Involve </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify </li></ul><ul><li>Increase participation </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate </li></ul>
  14. 14. Message considerations <ul><li>Draft key messages to suit the situation, time, place, and audience </li></ul><ul><li>Carefully select media and distribution technique </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity is key </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition of a consistent message aids recognition and retention </li></ul>
  15. 15. Key messages are <ul><li>Succinct, clear </li></ul><ul><li>Modified for each audience </li></ul><ul><li>What do you want your audience to think, do or feel? </li></ul><ul><li>Why should your audience care? </li></ul><ul><li>What benefits are you offering? </li></ul><ul><li>Who-what-when-where-why-how </li></ul><ul><li>Need factual support – 2-3 points </li></ul>
  16. 16. Writing key messages <ul><li>Good messages are simple, adaptable, applicable and durable e.g. “A diamond is forever” DeBeers 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>Draft key messages to suit the situation, time, place, and audience </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-tested for credibility, understanding, desired affect </li></ul>
  17. 17. Backing up your messages <ul><li>Need factual support – 2-3 points </li></ul><ul><li>Few key messages, many supporting points </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Placing environment first makes good business sense. [We are committed to environmental responsibility.] </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Syncrude is the world’s largest producer of crude oil from oil sands. [We are experts at what we do.] </li></ul>
  18. 18. Framing the message <ul><li>Reduce the discrepancy between the </li></ul><ul><li>position of the organization and the </li></ul><ul><li>position of the audience: </li></ul><ul><li>Use media most closely identified with the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Use a communication source (expert or spokesperson) that has high credibility with your audience </li></ul>
  19. 19. Framing the message - continued <ul><li>Play down the differences between the positions of the organization and the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Seek identification in vocabulary and anecdote with your audience </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the organization’s position as the majority position </li></ul><ul><li>Modify the message </li></ul>
  20. 20. Frame your messages to be <ul><li>Newsworthy (even if unrelated to a media campaign) </li></ul><ul><li>Topical, local </li></ul><ul><li>Understandable (simple) </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately actionable </li></ul>
  21. 21. Criteria for selecting media <ul><li>“ Stickiness” (ability to draw attention from target audience) </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasiveness (most persuasive is f2f) </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility (New York Times v.s. National Inquirer) </li></ul><ul><li>Timing (e-mail is immediate, print production takes more time) </li></ul><ul><li>Effective reach (targeted v.s. mass communications) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Tactics/tools/vehicles <ul><li>“Match” media with audiences (message consumption patterns and preferences) </li></ul><ul><li>Use more than one vehicle but be consistent, integrated </li></ul><ul><li>Each form of media has strengths, weaknesses, relative costs </li></ul>
  23. 23. Budgets <ul><li>Include both fixed and variable costs </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed costs: salaries, office rent (or lease), phone, office supplies, equipment, technology etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Variable costs: printing, speakers’ fees, photography, travel, advertising, printing, postage etc. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Determining the budget <ul><li>There are four ways to determine PR </li></ul><ul><li>budgets </li></ul><ul><li>% of total operating budget </li></ul><ul><li>historical precedent </li></ul><ul><li>what other organizations spend </li></ul><ul><li>the accumulated total of quotes and estimates with a contingency built in (preferred method) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Summary evaluation <ul><li>Only three possible outcomes: (increase, decrease or maintain) knowledge, (increase, decrease or maintain) feelings or (increase, decrease or maintain) behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes are measured against benchmarks (ideally established through prior research) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Summary and conclusions <ul><li>Writing goals, objectives, strategies and tactics are essential steps in the PR process </li></ul>