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HPPR404 Unit 3
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Public Relations Research and Evaluation | Unit 3

Public Relations Research and Evaluation | Unit 3

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  • 1. HPPR404 Research and Evaluation Sherrell Steele Goals, Objectives, Strategies and Tactics
  • 2. Objectives
    • To write effective goals, objectives and key messages
    • To choose the best tools/tactics
    • How to construct a budget
  • 3. Begin with the goal(s)
    • Goal (s) The “grand vision” of the issue, event or campaign
    • “Where are we going?”
    • Objective(s) Steps on the way “What do we do to get there? “
    • Strategies “How do we get there?”
  • 4. Goals (continued)
    • Goal(s) are long-term “ideal statements”, sometimes unachievable
    • Objectives are the steps to achieve the goal(s). Ask the question “WHAT do we need to do to achieve the goal?”
    • Strategies answer “How do we achieve each objective?”
  • 5. Objectives
    • Objectives –set short-term steps toward the goals — steps that you can measure
    • Specific, clear
    • Are usually public- or audience-specific
    • Informational or motivational
    • Well-thought-out objectives have measurement built in
  • 6. Writing objectives
    • Should specify the desired outcome and in what sequence, by what dates, and in what magnitude
    • e.g. To increase the percentage of employees who use seatbelts while operating company vehicles from the current 95% to 100% within 30 days of our internal information campaign
  • 7. Writing the first three words
    • Begin with “to” followed by a verb describing the direction of the intended outcome
    • Only three possibilities: “to increase,” “to decrease,” or “to maintain.”
  • 8. Writing the next few words of an objective
    • Specify the outcome to be achieved
    • Only three possible outcomes: (increase, decrease or maintain) knowledge, (increase, decrease or maintain) feelings or (increase, decrease or maintain) behaviours.
  • 9. Continue writing the objective
    • State the magnitude of the change or the level to be maintained
    • Must be stated in quantifiable terms
    • Must be realistic and consistent with the resources available. In other words, “do” able.
  • 10. Finish the objective
    • Set the target date for when the outcome is to be achieved.
    • This determines the schedule or timeline for strategies and tactics to follow.
  • 11. Strategy and Tactics
    • Terms are frequently confused
    • Think football: Strategy is the overall game plan
    • Tactics are the scrimmages, passes and field goals in the game.
  • 12. PR Strategies and Tactics
    • Strategy is the overall concept, approach or program to achieve a objective
    • Tactics are the actual events, media and methods to implement the strategy
  • 13. When creating objectives ask yourself
    • Do you wish to
    • Change
    • Inform
    • Persuade
    • Involve
    • Clarify
    • Increase participation
    • Motivate
  • 14. Message considerations
    • Draft key messages to suit the situation, time, place, and audience
    • Carefully select media and distribution technique
    • Continuity is key
    • Repetition of a consistent message aids recognition and retention
  • 15. Key messages are
    • Succinct, clear
    • Modified for each audience
    • What do you want your audience to think, do or feel?
    • Why should your audience care?
    • What benefits are you offering?
    • Who-what-when-where-why-how
    • Need factual support – 2-3 points
  • 16. Writing key messages
    • Good messages are simple, adaptable, applicable and durable e.g. “A diamond is forever” DeBeers 1947
    • Draft key messages to suit the situation, time, place, and audience
    • Pre-tested for credibility, understanding, desired affect
  • 17. Backing up your messages
    • Need factual support – 2-3 points
    • Few key messages, many supporting points
    • e.g. Placing environment first makes good business sense. [We are committed to environmental responsibility.]
    • e.g. Syncrude is the world’s largest producer of crude oil from oil sands. [We are experts at what we do.]
  • 18. Framing the message
    • Reduce the discrepancy between the
    • position of the organization and the
    • position of the audience:
    • Use media most closely identified with the audience
    • Use a communication source (expert or spokesperson) that has high credibility with your audience
  • 19. Framing the message - continued
    • Play down the differences between the positions of the organization and the audience
    • Seek identification in vocabulary and anecdote with your audience
    • Establish the organization’s position as the majority position
    • Modify the message
  • 20. Frame your messages to be
    • Newsworthy (even if unrelated to a media campaign)
    • Topical, local
    • Understandable (simple)
    • Immediately actionable
  • 21. Criteria for selecting media
    • “ Stickiness” (ability to draw attention from target audience)
    • Persuasiveness (most persuasive is f2f)
    • Credibility (New York Times v.s. National Inquirer)
    • Timing (e-mail is immediate, print production takes more time)
    • Effective reach (targeted v.s. mass communications)
  • 22. Tactics/tools/vehicles
    • “Match” media with audiences (message consumption patterns and preferences)
    • Use more than one vehicle but be consistent, integrated
    • Each form of media has strengths, weaknesses, relative costs
  • 23. Budgets
    • Include both fixed and variable costs
    • Fixed costs: salaries, office rent (or lease), phone, office supplies, equipment, technology etc.
    • Variable costs: printing, speakers’ fees, photography, travel, advertising, printing, postage etc.
  • 24. Determining the budget
    • There are four ways to determine PR
    • budgets
    • % of total operating budget
    • historical precedent
    • what other organizations spend
    • the accumulated total of quotes and estimates with a contingency built in (preferred method)
  • 25. Summary evaluation
    • Only three possible outcomes: (increase, decrease or maintain) knowledge, (increase, decrease or maintain) feelings or (increase, decrease or maintain) behaviors.
    • Outcomes are measured against benchmarks (ideally established through prior research)
  • 26. Summary and conclusions
    • Writing goals, objectives, strategies and tactics are essential steps in the PR process