Goalkeeper Coaching

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Goalkeeper Coaching

  1. 1.                                          
  2. 2.   The G‐Code                    Keeper Skool Presents:         The G-Code ™ Unlocking  The Scientific Secrets To Goalkeeping Success © Keeper Skool, All Rights Reserved Phone +61 409 314 072 Email: jstevanja@gmail.com Disclaimer: All information contained within the pages of this document are based on the author’s views of training prescriptions as developed over many years of practice and testing. Keeper Skool, nor John Stevanja take any responsibility for any negligent misuse of the information presented. Use of any technique or training prescription outlined within these pages is taken at your own risk. Always seek medical advice before commencing any serious training programs.     2
  3. 3.   The G‐Code    Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................... 9 How to Read This e-Book ..................................................................................................................................................... 10 Chapter 1 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 11 1.1 Aerobic Exercise & the Junior Goalkeeper .................................................................................................................... 11 1.2 Measuring RPE: A Great Way of Understanding Goalkeeper Training Intensity ................................................................ 13 1.3 Inside the Junior Goalkeepers Muscles ........................................................................................................................ 14 1.4 Sweating It Out? ........................................................................................................................................................ 14 1.5 Mighty Bones for Strong Goalkeeping Performance  ...................................................................................................... 15 . 1.6 Exercise Fundamentals for Junior Goalkeeping Success ............................................................................................... 16 Chapter 2 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 18 2.1 The Body’s Power Fuels: Carbohydrates: The Mother Ship! ........................................................................................... 18 2.2 Load Your Carbohydrates for Great Goalkeeping Performance ...................................................................................... 20 2.3 Cool Sources of High Carbohydrate Foods! .................................................................................................................. 22 2.4 How to Apply the Glycaemic Index to Fuel Goalkeeping Performance ............................................................................. 23 2.5 Why Low-Carbohydrate Diets are the Dumps for Competitive Goalkeepers ..................................................................... 25 Fats & Metabolism ............................................................................................................................................................... 26 3.1 To the Fat of Goalkeeping ........................................................................................................................................... 26 3.2 Why Understanding Basal Metabolic Rate Is Important? ................................................................................................ 26 3.3 Understanding Cholesterol for Healthy Goalkeeping ...................................................................................................... 27 3.4 What Fat Should The Competitive Goalkeeper Choose? ................................................................................................ 28 Chapter 4 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 29 4.1 Powerful Protein to Maximize Goalkeeping Performance ............................................................................................... 29 4.2 Great Overall Food Ideas for the Competitive Goalkeeper! ............................................................................................. 30 4.3 Protein, Leucine & Carbohydrates for Awesome Goalkeeping Strength Gains & Recovery ................................................ 32         3
  4. 4.   The G‐Code    Chapter 5: Micronutrient Requirements for the Competitive Goalkeeper ................................................................................... 33 5.1 Get The Most Out Of Your Moo! The Power of Calcium, Especially for Girl Goalkeepers  ................................................. 33 . 5.2 Iron Up For Super Goalkeeping Performance................................................................................................................ 34 5.3 Enhance Your Goalkeeping Recovery with Antioxidants ................................................................................................ 35 5.4 Powerful Vitamin C Enhanced Fat Loss for Goalkeeping Performance ............................................................................ 36 Chapter 6 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 38 6.1 Hydration Is Key to Better Goalkeeping Performance .................................................................................................... 38 6.2 Cool Down With Some Great Guidelines for Goalkeeping Fluid Intake ............................................................................ 39 6.3 Other Ergogenic Aids For Super Strong Goalkeeping Performance ................................................................................. 40 Chapter 7 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 42 7.1 The Goalkeeping Power Pyramid  ................................................................................................................................ 42 . 7.2 Start Your Goalkeeping Aerobic Fitness Journey With Eazy F.I.T.T ................................................................................ 42 7.3 Power Zone Performance ........................................................................................................................................... 45 7.4 Vari-Zone Training ..................................................................................................................................................... 45 7.5 Long ‘n’ Fast Interval .................................................................................................................................................. 46 7.6 Big Hill Training .......................................................................................................................................................... 46 7.7 Pure Speed ............................................................................................................................................................... 47 7.8 Power Plus ................................................................................................................................................................ 48 7.9 Beat Max Training ...................................................................................................................................................... 49 7.10 The Double Hit: Strength Training To Maximize Your Goalkeeping Strength & Aerobic Power! ........................................ 49 7.11 Keep It Short, Sharp & Super Intense With Interval Training ......................................................................................... 51 Chapter 8 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 52 8.1 How the Goalkeepers Muscles Work ............................................................................................................................ 52 8.2 Super Muscle Energetic Facts ....................................................................................................................................... 1 8.3 Understanding Your Ultimate Energy Systems to Enhance Goalkeeping Performance  ..................................................... 53 . 8.4 Why Muscles Fatigue? And What Does It Mean For The Competitive Goalkeeper? .......................................................... 54     4
  5. 5.   The G‐Code    8.5 How Goalkeepers Adapt To Resistance Training? ......................................................................................................... 55 8.6 Hormone Responses to Resistance Training for the Competitive Goalkeeper .................................................................. 56 8.7 Natural Growth Hormone Release for Super Goalkeeping Gains .................................................................................... 57 8.8 Great Goalkeeping Muscle Gains with Testosterone ...................................................................................................... 57 8.9 Understanding DNA for Mesmerizing Goalkeeper Gains ................................................................................................ 58 8.10 Great Goalkeeping Feats Come From The Core! ......................................................................................................... 59 8.11 Go Eccentric, For Great Goalkeeping Muscle Gains .................................................................................................... 59 8.12 Why 1 RM Lifts = Big Gains in Goalkeeping Strength? ................................................................................................. 60 8.13 Get Specific for Maximum Goalkeeping Strength ......................................................................................................... 61 Chapter 9 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 62 9.1 Great Goalkeepers Plan Ahead: How to Create a Periodized Plan for Super Goalkeeping Performance! ............................ 62 9.2 What is Overcompensation and How It Can Help Boost the Competitive Goalkeepers Performance? ................................ 63 9.3 Smart Goalkeepers Who Want To Reach Their Best...Plan For Years! ............................................................................ 63 9.4 The Preparation Phase ............................................................................................................................................... 64 9.5 The Competition Phase .............................................................................................................................................. 66 9.6 Pre Competition Phase ............................................................................................................................................... 67 9.7 Main Competition Phase ............................................................................................................................................. 67 9.8 Transition Phase ........................................................................................................................................................ 68 9.9 The Micro Cycle ......................................................................................................................................................... 68 9.10 The Macro Cycle ...................................................................................................................................................... 69 9.11 Which Periodization Program Is The Best For Competitive Goalkeeping? ...................................................................... 69 Chapter 10 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 71 10.1 Super Strength & Power: Maximizing the Goalkeepers Performance with Steel! ............................................................. 71 10.2 Strength Training Guidelines for the Competitive Goalkeeper ....................................................................................... 72 10.3 Go Super Slow For Super Goalkeeping Strength ......................................................................................................... 73 10.4 Out of Time? Single Sets Are Powerful Strength Builders For On The Go Goalkeepers!  ................................................. 74 .     5
  6. 6.   The G‐Code    10.5 How to Optimize Muscular Endurance for the Competitive Goalkeeper .......................................................................... 75 10.6 True Muscular Endurance Power from Concurrent Training .......................................................................................... 76 10.7 Don’t Mix Strength & Endurance! ............................................................................................................................... 77 10.8 Getting Lean & Mean: Maximizing Muscle Growth for Great Goalkeeping Gains ............................................................ 78 10.9 Super Exercises to Increase Lateral Leg Strength & Movement .................................................................................... 80 Chapter 11 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 81 11.1 Plyometrics: True Goalkeeping Power Unleashed ....................................................................................................... 81 11.2 Plyometric Exercises You Should Use For Goalkeeping Success  ................................................................................. 84 . 11.3 Best Low Intensity Goalkeeping Plyometric Exercises .................................................................................................. 84 11.4 Best Medium Intensity Goalkeeping Plyometric Exercises: ........................................................................................... 85 11.5 Best High Intensity Training Guidelines ...................................................................................................................... 86 11.6 Super High Intensity Goalkeeper Training Guidelines .................................................................................................. 86 11.7 Great Goalkeeper Sessions You Can Utilize to Maximize Goalkeeping Power ............................................................... 87 11.8 Goalkeepers Need Agility Like a Cat .......................................................................................................................... 87 11.9 Using Speed Training To Blast Your Goalkeeping Performance into the Stratosphere!  ................................................... 88 . Chapter 12 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 90 12.1 Train To Be The Best Goalkeeper You Can Be…But Don’t Overtrain! ........................................................................... 90 12.2 Why Overtraining Can Seriously Hinder Goalkeeping Performance ............................................................................... 91 12.3 It’s Hard to Gain…Much Easier to Detrain  .................................................................................................................. 92 . 12.4 Fatigue & Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) ................................................................................................... 93 12.5 The Power of the EPOC! ........................................................................................................................................... 94 12.6 5 Best Recovery Methods for the Hard Working Competitive Goalkeeper ...................................................................... 94 Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................................................... 96 References ......................................................................................................................................................................... 99         6
  7. 7.   The G‐Code                      For Tata, a great provider, friend and mentor, I miss you.                                 7
  8. 8.   The G‐Code    Acknowledgements I should call this part of the e-book my obituary, because these things always sound like I’m not going to be around here for long! Seriously, this project would have never been created without people who instilled passion for the art of goalkeeping within me. These people contributed, and still contribute today, to my constant development, and I am forever grateful. This e-book is dedicated to all of my early goalkeeper mentors, who taught me how to think outside of the square and who showed me that goalkeeping was not just a passing enjoyment, but a powerful tool for change. The first people to introduce me to the art of goalkeeping were my dad and mum. I distinctly remember at the pint size age of 5 years, wrapping my little hand around dad’s long index finger as he led me to Western Suburbs Juniors at Concord in the inner-western suburbs of Sydney to play football. Dad was always there to barrack wildly for me, to push me to be better, and I’ll never forget you… we miss you deeply. Mum has been my shoulder forever, whenever I needed support and encouragement you have been there for me, you’re a great mum and friend. To my beautiful partner and best friend Liz, for providing me with our “Little Light” Lucia, I’m forever indebted. Liz has put up with me for the better part of 11 years. She was my constant companion and support as I tried to re-live my dream of playing professional football in England. She sat patiently (most nights) as I trudged home from work and sat down to type this book and the Keeper Skool blog, because she knew that I loved to give back to others. I thank you for the blessings you give me every day. To my big brothers for always pushing me to go out and get it, maybe it will happen again one day soon, I thank you for the sacrifices you made to see that I succeed. To my “other” big brothers Abraham and Tom, your constant friendship and putting up with my “craziness” has always been much appreciated, I’m forever grateful. Special mention to Tom, who is an all round class act, and who always found time, even in the cold London rain and a maddening schedule, to cook for me, provide shelter and take shots at me in the damp mud of Battersea Park. At 12 years of age I was introduced to the man who shaped the careers of some of the best young soccer players in Australia, his name is Veseljko “Chico” Vojnovic. Chico is someone whom I always considered a father figure, a professional sports person to aspire to, and a generous and conscientious man who taught me how to love the art and science of goalkeeping, I’m eternally grateful. I am also always grateful to Farijah Dautbegovic of Dinamo Zagreb in Croatia, who really showed me what it means to be a remarkable goalkeeper, and taught me that discipline in the art of goalkeeping is a great friend. I would also like to thank Slavko Njegus who gave me a chance at Marconi Stallions in the old Australian National Soccer League. Slavko is a great goalkeeping scholar and a legendary goalkeeper, who taught me that football, is not just about what you do on the field, it extends to the compassion and patience you provide off the field to anyone you meet. Lastly, but certainly not least, the G-Code is dedicated to all the faceless goalkeepers from around the globe, who write to me often to provide encouragement to keep on posting the best in goalkeeper science at Keeper Skool blog, this e-book could never have been endeavored without you.     8
  9. 9.   The G‐Code    Introduction   Goalkeepers comprise 1/11th of a football team on the field. 0.091% does not seem like much, only a minor percentage, but it is really a very significant number. If you think of goalkeeping in light of the 80/20 principle, then you can begin to realize why goalkeeping is so remarkable. The 80/20 principle states that 80% of the work is done by 20% of the participants involved. That same small 20% is important when it comes to the science of goalkeeping. Let me explain. In the field of competition, goalkeepers will have to command their defense, be able to kick the ball for distance, throw the ball for distance, understand angles, defend their goal from attack, and create play to help with attack, plus an infinite amount of other scenarios. Yes, goalkeepers do a whole lot of work, but only incrementally, and only for short periods during a 90 minute match. Those same small actions, although tiny, can actually create a landslide difference in how a competitive football game pans out. The art of goalkeeping is a fine balance of enigma and stigma, and I believe one of the most taxing positions on the field. Not only must a goalkeeper have superior mental capabilities, they must also train intensely. Goalkeeper training is different. The more I have analyzed the specificity of the role of a competitive goalkeeper; I have begun to understand that goalkeepers need scientific prescriptions that differ widely from any other position on the football field. If you are looking for a complete answer that will miraculously change your goalkeeping ability, this is definitely not the book for you. What I have presented in the G-Code are snippets of scientific fact, some you may have read before, others you may have never encountered. Remember the 80/20 rule? The small incremental training prescriptions that you take away from this book, will hopefully turn into a tidal shift in the way you not only play the position of a competitive goalkeeper, but how you live your life. What I decided to do with the G-code was take some of the best entries of our Keeper Skool blog and some of the most relevant and tested scientific principles in regards to the competitive athlete, and presented it as one holistic guide for the competitive goalkeeper. I hope you enjoy this dialogue as much as I have passionately enjoyed creating it for you. John Stevanja Keeper Skool     9
  10. 10.   The G‐Code    How to Read This e-Book   The best way to get an understanding of the scientific facts we present in the G-Code is to read it section by section. I tried to make the book a natural progression that showed the evolution of a goalkeeper from a junior athlete to more senior goalkeeping training principles. Training principles are constantly evolving, though what are presented in each section of this e-book involve solid scientific training principles that have been well documented over many years of testing. We cite many scientific sources, and the best advice I can give you regarding the contents of the G-Code is to test what is presented within its pages for yourself. Not all training principles are effective for you, and the only way to know that the guidelines presented within the G-Code are relevant to you is to test vigorously. Like the Wright brothers said “If at first you don’t succeed, then try, try again”. The G-Code is in no way a guarantee of success, it is what you apply to the training principles outlined that will determine your success as a competitive goalkeeper. Many people email me regularly with advice on goalkeeper specific exercises they can utilize to be a more effective goalkeeper. There are literally hundreds of different exercises in thousands of offline and online publications that you can utilize. You may find that there are no specific examples of exercises that are listed within the pages of the G-Code, I apologize for this. The intent of this work is to provide you with the fundamental prescriptions rather than the specific tools used. I have always believed that a goalkeeper should understand the fundamentals or the basic science behind different training principles before adopting a training technique. If you do not understand some of the terminology we have utilized within the G-Code, please don’t be worried, it has taken me literally 22 years of training and constant research to come up with a summary of what I have learnt or have been taught as a competitive goalkeeper and fitness instructor. With that said, I don’t expect you to understand every training principle or concept overnight. Like all things, becoming a better goalkeeper takes time and practice, hopefully some of the insights reviewed in the G-Code will help you get to whatever level you need to be at with a more structured and calculated progression. If at any point you have questions or concerns, it will be my utmost pleasure to help you; all you have to do is email me at ANY time. Best of Luck with Your Goalkeeping! John Stevanja (March, 2007)     10
  11. 11. The G‐Code      Chapter  1  Chapter 1 1.1 Aerobic Exercise & the Junior Goalkeeper   Sports science is not a new fad; it’s been around for millennia, ever since the ancient Greeks would swallow iron to get them thinking they were super strong. It does not have to be that drastic. Fundamental sports science is complex, and goalkeeping in itself is quite a complex position. How do we train a junior goalkeeper to maximize performance? It’s a hard question to answer without delving into the science and anatomy of a young goalkeeper. Apart from the unique demands of goalkeeping from a technical perspective, we must never forget that our children training to be junior goalkeepers will have very specific exercise needs. Aerobic exercise should form the basis for junior goalkeeper development and act as an entry point into the basics of goalkeeping. Following is a scientific analysis into the anatomy of a junior goalkeeper and points to the fundamentals of structured activity prescription. Now we throw around some technical jargon (we have derived much of the following critical information from scientific journals) but don’t be phased by it. Most of the following points are extremely straight forward and act as a guide to the genetic make-up of a junior athlete and how we can create a better training environment for the junior goalkeeper specifically. Running is fundamental to forming a base for the junior goalkeeper. The heart rate of a junior goalkeeper of 13-14 years for example slows to 78 bpm (beats per minute) as they develop. Younger children tend to have a very strong heart rate. Children tend to work at a higher heart rate at sub maximal levels compared to that of adults. Young children have a cardiac output that is approximately 1-3 liters per minute less than adults at any given sub maximal workload. This means that children tend to work harder during physical activity, which effects how we structure exercise for the junior goalkeeper.     11
  12. 12.   The G‐Code    How do we measure the heart rate of a junior goalkeeper? The formula is pretty simple and is shown in the following table: How To Measure The Goalkeepers Heart Rate Super Fast: In this example we’ll utilize a junior goalkeeper of 13 years with a resting heart rate of 78 bpm. We simply take: 220 - 13 (age) = 207 207 - 78 (resting heart rate) = 129 129 * 65% (low end of heart rate) OR 85% (high end) = 83.85 OR 109.65 Therefore, the heart rate training zone for a junior goalkeeper would be calculated as follows: 83.85 + 78 (resting heart rate) = 161.85 109.65 + 78 (resting heart rate) = 187.65 The target heart rate zone for this 13 year old goalkeeper would be between 161.85 to 187.65 Therefore, the above example shows the maximum heart rate of a junior goalkeeper working at 65% of their maximum heart rate, and correspondingly 85% of their maximum heart rate. The above formula is a simple tool for goalkeeper trainers and parents of young goalkeepers to measure the aerobic performance of their junior goalkeeper. Junior goalkeepers also extract larger volumes of oxygen than adult goalkeepers. This means that during humid conditions the ability for children to decrease their core body temperature is limited. The junior goalkeeper trainer must always be aware of limiting the duration of exercise in hot or humid conditions. Conversely in cold environment children tend to lose heat at a fast rate. Therefore, goalkeeper trainers (and mum’s and dad’s training their young goalkeepers) need to be aware of the need for a good warm-up session prior to commencing goalkeeper training. Junior goalkeepers and children in general have a relatively low blood pressure [100/70 MMHg for a 10 year old, for example]. One very important factor in measuring junior goalkeeping performance is VO2 Max, which is the measure of maximum oxygen consumption. Now, measuring the VO2 Max is no easy feat without some very heavy duty scientific equipment, or possibly kidnapping a sports scientist from the local university! So how can the goalkeeper get a very fundamental understanding of their Vo2Max? Here is a great way to measure your VO2 Max at home or on the training field:     12
  13. 13.   The G‐Code      The Cooper 12 Minute Test is an awesome way to gauge not only the goalkeeper’s aerobic   fitness, but also their VO2 Max. With the Cooper 12 minute test the goalkeeper will run 12 minutes all out on a 400 meter track or treadmill. Here is a great little formula you can use:   The distances run in meters – 505 / 45 This means that if the goalkeeper ran 2 km we would have the following VO2 Max: 2000 – 505 / 45 = 33.22 ml/kg/min Remember that the above value is only a predictive indicator, and another good way is for your GP to measure your HDL & LDL blood readings. The above results cannot be as decisive as measurements taken by a sports scientist under lab conditions. Also, The Cooper 12 minute test is probably best utilized for senior more aerobically developed goalkeepers with years of training experience, but it does give a good general gauge for the junior competitive goalkeeper as well. 1.2 Measuring RPE: A Great Way of Understanding Goalkeeper Training Intensity Another great measure of the intensity of aerobic exercise includes the rate of perceived exertion (RPE). It's a taxing thing being a goalkeeper. Has your goalkeeper trainer ever asked you about your Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE)? No. Well, using RPE could well help trainers understand what level of intensity a goalkeeper is training at, and also help curb fatigue and overtraining. Batman P. (Advanced Aerobic Conditioning, 2004), has stated that "Indirect measurements of VO2MAX often use the Borgs rating of perceived exertion scale (RPE) to monitor intensity. The use of the Borg rating of perceived exertion (6-20) during graded exercise testing with direct oxygen uptake instrumentation has indicated that up to a rating of 17 (very hard) the calculated indirect oxygen consumption closely reflects the actual oxygen consumption rate [of a given activity]. Consequently, the RPE is a reliable tool for estimating VO2Max". Following are some important factors in determining the maximum oxygen consumption of junior goalkeepers:     13
  14. 14.   The G‐Code    Larger child have a la dren arger VO2 Max Relative Vo Max depen on the o2 nds ag of the child ge d VO2 Max reaches its pe at 17eak of es 21 years o age in male & 12-15 in females Kids Vo2M can increa 10 x Max ase from rest to their highest workload o t Because of lean body mass, e y junior fem goalkeepers have male lower V Max than boys VO2 n VO2 Max can improve signific cantly with a c child’s exposure to aerobic e exercise Of O all the a above points the most s s significant is the final b that rela s box ates to aero obic exercise I talk much e. about creati an aerob base on Keeper Skoo In fact, h a ing bic ol. hindering aerobic activity at an early age will on y y nly detract from the develo d m opment of a junior goalk keeper in lat phases o their play ter of ying life. But this does n t not mean that w expose our junior goalkeeper to too much aerobic exe we o o ercise! As w will see in some of the we n following po f oints, a junio goalkeepe aerobic c or er’s capacity can be somewh limited. hat 1.3 Inside th Junior Goalkeepers Muscles he G Children are generally limited in the amount of aerobic and anaerobic p C e e d power their muscles can generate. So n all a out sprin really doesn’t make sense dur nts e ring a traini ing session for younge goalkeepe er ers. Anaerob bic enzyme con e ncentrations are less th han half that of adults which can limit a junio goalkeepe or er’s anaerob bic capacity (Ba c atman et al. 2001). Any activity involving the la y actic system will be diffi icult for children. Children have lower levels of phosphofruc p ctokinase (a important metabolic enzyme) w an c which helps break dow s wn glycogen (de g erived from carbohydrat tes) as a sou urce of fuel. 1.4 Sweatin It Out? ng When trainin a junior goalkeeper in excessive heat we mu be aware that the ca W ng g ust e apacity of a c child’s body to maintain homeostasis (i.e. balance) is limited. C Children are less tolerant to dry heat because th have mo t hey ore subcutaneou fat and a larger body surface are Children generally have ½ the p s us y ea. potential to dissipate he eat than adults which is rela t ated to the s sweat production of each sweat glan which inc nd creases by 40% from bo oys to t men and 70% from girls to wome g en. Sodium is a important mineral an forms part of a powe S an t nd erful metabo reaction in the hum olic n man body th hat enables the human muscles to work at th e e m heir maximu um. The ju unior goalke eeper has lower sodiu um concentratio than adu c ons ults. Therefo ore, a child’s body preserves more sodium whi has impl s ich lications when planning flui and electr id rolyte replen nishment in h condition hot ns.     14
  15. 15.   The G‐Code    Research has shown that a 6 year old child running at a speed of 10 km/h will expend 20% more energy than a 16 year old child exercising at the same speed (Batman P. et al.). Therefore, junior goalkeeper trainers need to be aware of the intensities that we train our young goalkeepers. Another critical factor when training children is the time it takes for a child’s body to acclimatize to heat. Research has shown that it takes a child’s body at least 14 days to acclimatize to hot and dry conditions; therefore junior goalkeepers should set their own pace during physical activity and be monitored extensively by a goalkeeper trainer. 1.5 Mighty Bones for Strong Goalkeeping Performance Looking after your bones is also critical for the developing young goalkeeper. Studies have shown that peak linear growth occurs at approximately 12-13 years of age for females and a few years after for boys. Rapid growth and mineralization of new bones go hand in hand. With the growing concern over osteoarthritis, there has never been a better time to introduce young, developing goalkeepers to the need for good calcium intake and introductory strength training. It is necessary to be cautious with overuse injuries and avoid high repetition activity exercises and prolonged jumping. This point resonates to the fact that goalkeeper training, especially for the junior goalkeeper, should be structured over a shorter time frame. Bone problems at an early age for children can cause permanent deformity in the bones. Another important point in relation to bone development is that bones tend to grow faster than muscles during growth spurts. Junior goalkeepers need to avoid forced flexibility (range of movement about the joints). Also, ballistic activity such as prolonged sprinting should be avoided as both of the aforementioned activities can increase the risk of muscle tears. When your junior goalkeeper complains of pains during the training season they may be suffering from growing pains. Think it’s an old wives tale? Growing pains are real! Growing pains eventuate from a discrepancy between bone length and muscle length. Junior goalkeeper trainers should take extra care when training their goalkeepers through this period of growth. Gentle massage is a very good way of helping to ease the growing pain for junior goalkeepers, and parents should get involved with helping massage your child after training sessions. Actually, massage should be a pivotal part of a junior goalkeepers training regime. If growing pain is prolonged or persistent, then a parent should consult a pediatric specialist (specializes in child development). Pediatric specialists can assess whether there has been any skeletal damage to the young goalkeeper. Following are some of the more prominent conditions that can eventuate from bone damage:     15
  16. 16.   The G‐Code    Osg good Schlatters & S Severs Dis sease: • This condition oc ccurs due to d damaged grow plates bellow the knee and heel wth respectively. Litt League Elbow: tle e • This condition is caused via e excessive thro owing. Sch heurmann Disease & Spond ns e dylolysis: : • This occurs via spinal problem caused by excessive jum s ms mping/ or hyp perextension of the back. The T above t table is a sm outline o some of th common problems th some jun goalkeepers may fa mall of he hat nior ace because of p poor training guidelines and exercis prescriptio These ar easily avo g se on. re oided by putt ting into pla ace fundamental training prescriptions. In other words, mak the junio goalkeep f p ke or pers training session fu g un, structured a simple. s and 1.6 Exercise Fundamentals for Jun Goalke e nior eeping Succ cess ior Fun, variety family par y, rticipation, p peer group support and enthusiast leadership are hallm d tic marks of juni goalkeeping success. Go g oalkeeper tr rainers need to make su that all of the afore d ure ementioned points are the norm for th heir goalkeeping session Following are some of the fun ns. e ndamental e exercise pres scriptions and theory for ju t unior and yo outh goalkeeper training:     16
  17. 17.   The G‐Code    Don't Be To Repetitive oo • Avo excessive repetition, bo resistance exercises ar the best, su as the oid ody e re uch pus sh-up, sit-up, chin-up etc… Try to go eas on the plyo sy ometric jumpin activities. ng Short & Sw Is B weet Best • Goa alkeeper exer rcise sessions should be sh (15-20 m s hort minutes) blocks of s stru uctured activit with 30 min ty, nutes of free p and ball w play work. Ga Can Happen Quickly! ains n n • Jun goalkeepe can be tra nior ers ained to the sa extent as adults. The f 10 years ame s first of a junior goalke eeper’s development can s show dramatic increases in c n per rformances wiithout any cor rresponding in ncrease in VO Max. Children recover O2 fast from exerc because of decreased oxygen defic and lactate ter cise d cit acc cumulation. The T above p points are a general scientific guide eline to max ximize junior and youth goalkeeper developmen r nt. We W are now facing an epidemic of o w e obesity in W Western socie Sedentary lifestyles have taken a toll not on ety. nly on o elderly p populations but our child b dren as well The follow l. wing section details the scientific br reak-up of the major fuel s sources of th body. We will also delve into the best way t utilize carbohydrates proteins and he e e to s, fats for the g f goalkeepers of all ages. s     17
  18. 18. The G‐Code      Chap pter  2  2 Chapter 2 2.1 2 The Bod Power Fuels: Carb dy’s bohydrates; the Mother Ship! r During exer rcise, the bo utilizes c ody carbohydrates and to a lesser exte fats, as the major s ent source of fuel. Proteins onl play a mi ly inor role in energy utiliz zation. The way that ea one of the previously mentioned ach substrates is utilized du s s uring exercis usually d se depends on the duration or the intensity of the activity. F n For example, on hour of high intensit aerobic e e ne h ty exercise will deplete 55% of liver g glycogen sto ores (Jupp S S., 2001). When a goalkee eper trains at two hours of highly st s trenuous act tivity they w deplete n will nearly all the eir muscle glyco ogen stores! ! 5 Critical Fac ctors Affecting the Rate of Glycogen Goalkeepers Use: n Training Sta atus • Tra ained muscles hold a greate amount of g s er glycogen whic can be use effectively ch ed dur a 90 minu game, or a long endu ring ute any urance event. One study sh howed that there is a signific increase in different fu stores over 5 months of heavy cant uel f resistance trainin In the test Glycogen in ng. t, ncreased by up to 32%, which shows the importance of carbohydrate as a source of energy during intense exercise. o e (Ba atman P., 2001) Die etary Inta ake: • Goa alkeepers who do not cons sume efficient amounts of c t carbohydrates will rapidly s dep plete their muscle and liver glycogen sto r ores, which ca lead to poo an or per rformance. In fact, not cons suming the rig balance of carbohydrate 2-3 days ght f es bef a game will hinder perf fore w formance con nsiderably.     18
  19. 19.   The G‐Code    Tim & Ty Your Carbohydrates Right: me ype r • Glu ucose and mu uscle insulin se ensitivity is he eightened the first two hour after e rs exe ercise. Therefo to increas and mainta muscle gly ore se ain ycogen stores the s, com mpetitive goalkeeper will ne to ingest moderate to h Glycaem Index (GI) eed high mic foods to enhance muscle glyc e cogen stores t thus maintaining maximum muscle m rformance. per How Deplleted Is Y Gly Your ycogen? • Scientists point to a phenome t enon where m muscle glycoge storage rat is limited en te by t rate at wh the glucose is transpor across th cell membr the hich rted he rane which is influ uenced by the extent of gly e ycogen deplet tion. Therefore, if a compet titive goa alkeeper does not enhance their carbohy s e ydrate intake it will effect th rate of he glyc cogen in the muscles and h m hinder perform mance. Mo Glyc ore cogen Sy ynthase Enzyme Please e e? • We don’t need to know the co e o omplexities of glycogen syn nthase suffice to say that in o order to achiev maximum muscle glyco ve ogen stores, a goalkeeper s should aim to con nsume carboh hydrates at 0.7 7-1.0 g/kg of b body weight e every 2 hours for the 24 hou period follow any glyc ur wing cogen depletin exercise. ng ble bohydrate n needs of com mpetitive ath hletes during exercise and g Following is a great tab that summarizes carb can c be used as a guide for the competitive goal d lkeeper:     19
  20. 20. The G‐Code      General Sports Activity <60 minutes a day or unlimited low intensity 5-7 g/kg/day Moderate Training 60-120 min of intense or lengthy medium training 7-10 g/kg/day Endurance Training 120 min intense training 9-10+ g/kg/day Extreme Exercise 5-6+ hours per day 12-13 g/kg/day Prior Moderate/ Exercise Prolonged 1-4 g/kg for 1-4 hrs pre exercise During Prolonged Exercise 30-60 g/hr Recovery when next session is <8-12 hours away 1-1.5 g/kg until 1g/kg/2 hrs Source: FIA Nutrition & Weight Management Handbook, Richmond W (et al.) 2001 2.2 Load Your Carbohydrates for Great Goalkeeping Performance The modified approach to carbohydrate loading is a preferred substitute to the traditional classic method of getting carbohydrates into your system. Previously athletes would totally deplete their muscle glycogen levels through strenuous activity. They would then follow this with a low carbohydrate diet which would increase muscle glycogen synthase back into the muscles. This process of carbohydrate depletion is considered unnecessary. So let’s look at the modified approach to carbohydrate loading for maximum goalkeeping performance. Modified Carbohydrate Loading: Great Performance Without Total Energy Depletion! Here are 5 key steps behind the modified carbohydrate loading process:     20
  21. 21.   The G‐Code        21
  22. 22. The G‐Code      2.3 Cool Sources of High Carbohydrate Foods! Following is a list of some high carbohydrate snacks that can help boost muscle glycogen stores after exercise: Super High Sources of Carbohydrate Power! 1. 1.25 cups of cooked pasta 2. 2.25 cups cooked oats 3. 1 cup cooked rice 4. 2.5 cups cooked lentils 5. 2 bananas 6. 3 apples/ oranges/ pears Carbohydrates are a must for the competitive goalkeeper; just as little as 50g can help refuel muscle glycogen stores after intense goalkeeping activity. Loading your carbohydrates correctly during the training week will allow you to maximize performance on a consistent basis. Carbohydrates are also great for stimulating the brain. So when you think about having a caffeine fix (which can help by the way) to wake you up in the morning, try carbohydrates instead. The above list is far from exhaustive, and the above quantities are equivalent to 50g of carbohydrate more than enough to power up your muscles for maximum goalkeeping performance.     22
  23. 23. The G‐Code      2.4 How to Apply the Glycaemic Index to Fuel Goalkeeping Performance Here is a breakdown of the Glycaemic Index (GI) which is a popular method of measuring the blood glucose response after consuming a 50g portion of carbohydrate: Utilizing the GI Index for Maximum Goalkeeping Performance 1. GI of >70 is considered high on the Glycaemic index. 2. GI of 55-70 is considered moderate on the Glycaemic index. 3. GI of <55 is low on the Glycaemic index. Following are great carbohydrate loading strategies for the competitive goalkeeper to utilize. These points will help you fuel muscle glycogen stores during a competitive match: Carbohydrate Strategies to Maximize Goalkeeping Success Pre-Event Meal: Go for low GI foods 2 hours before an event. Low GI foods are released slowly and will help fuel performance longer during a competitive match. Good sources of low GI foods include, Basmati rice and pasta for example During The Game: Most studies point to high GI foods during competitive play, especially for events lasting over 90 minutes. For goalkeepers, there should be an emphasis on high GI snacks during competition to help fuel performance and help enhance muscle glycogen stores. After The Game: High Glycaemic Index foods after an intense training session should be consumed to refuel muscle glycogen stores. Muscles are most sensitive to blood glucose the first hour after exercise. Just because you have loaded your carbohydrates throughout the training week, does not entail that you do not work to maintain energy levels before, during and after games. Goalkeepers need to keep muscle glycogen stores to a maximum, and the above guide is a very good prescription for the goalkeeper to utilize during game periods.     23
  24. 24. The G‐Code      An interesting study by Kirkendall, D.T. (2004) looks at some pivotal points for maximum performance as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Because so much of the running in soccer is at less than maximal sprinting speed, creatine supplementation likely provides no benefit to match performance. Overwhelming evidence proves that a diet rich in carbohydrates can fill muscles with glycogen, and glycogen is critical to optimal performance in soccer. Soccer players’ diets, especially in the days before hard training or competition, should include 8-10 grams of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight (3.5-4.5 g/lb). Cereals, fruits, vegetables, breads, and pasta are good sources of carbohydrates. Refueling of muscle with carbohydrates should begin as soon as possible following a match or a strenuous training session. Inadequate replacement of fluids lost in sweat can lead to poor soccer performance and heat illness. Players should aim to drink enough during training sessions and matches so that their body weights after play are within about 1 kg (2.2 lb) of their starting weights. For a light workout or an easy match, especially when the weather is cool, water can be an adequate fluid replacement, if enough is ingested. But when play is strenuous and the weather is hot, carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drinks do a better job of maintaining body fluids. Now the above list does give a pretty concise overview of all the essential elements of goalkeeping success. One of the key features of this study was the use of carbohydrate to enhance muscle glycogen in the working muscle to maximize soccer performance. Another great study by Roy, B.D. (et. al. 2001) titled Macronutrient Intake and Whole Body Protein Metabolism Following Resistance Exercise, pointed to the fact that both a carbohydrate supplement and a supplement of mixed composition of carbohydrates, protein and fat, lead to an increase in plasma insulin levels and glucose following resistance training exercise. These supplements helped increase total body protein synthesis. The protein supplement alone showed significant levels of leucine oxidation 4 hours after resistance training exercise. Therefore, high protein diets can help a goalkeeper increase strength, and power performance, possibly during a prolonged two-three hour training session. But on the other hand, during 90 minutes of competition a high carbohydrate diet will help fuel performance better because of the short bursts of activity associated with the goalkeepers position that stimulate glycogen consumption.     24
  25. 25. The G‐Code      2.5 Why Low-Carbohydrate Diets are the Dumps for Competitive Goalkeepers Low carbohydrate diets and athletic endeavors just don’t go hand in hand, it doesn’t make sense. Increased training intensities require increased glycogen replenishment for the competitive goalkeeper. It’s a simple rule as stated previously, that entails the right balance of carbohydrates, and increased consumption post, during and after competition that will help the competitive goalkeeper get the most out of their training sessions and games. Following was a very strong study that pointed to the need for competitive athletes to increase their consumption of carbohydrates: Carrithers JA (et. al. Journal of Applied Physiology 2000) in the study "Effects of Post exercise Carbohydrate-Protein Feedings on Muscle Glycogen Restoration" gave the following research findings for the performance of competitive athletes in regards to carbohydrates for performance: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Carbohydrate is the fuel required to restore muscle glycogen levels in an athlete post event. Protein or amino acid mixes included with carbohydrates do not enhance muscle glycogen stores post event, but help to increase the repair of muscle damage. Timing is important in replacement of glycogen stores. Immediately after training one gram/kg body wt of liquid or solid carbohydrate should be consumed. The white blood cells that initiate repair of the damaged muscle tissue also use glucose for their major source of fuel. Recovery after competition does not just involve muscle glycogen stores; it also addresses replacing fluid and electrolytes lost in sweat and repair of damage. Another important point in regards to low carbohydrate consumption for competitive goalkeepers is that it affects your other most important muscle…the brain! Time and time again, it has been proven that a low carbohydrate diet will affect your mental alertness; increase the effects of overtraining (which can lead to depression in serious cases) and increase the amount of energy you have to push your goalkeeping abilities to serious heights. Keep carbohydrates as a close personal friend in your goalkeeping arsenal at all times.     25
  26. 26. The G‐Code      Chapter  3  Fats & Metabolism   3.1 To the Fat of Goalkeeping Goalkeepers, as with any athlete need to stay clear from certain fats. Increased body fat for a goalkeeper will have detrimental effects on performance, that’s a fact. What goalkeepers need to understand is that not all fats are bad. In fact consuming a diet of healthy fats can actually help eradicate bad fat. Following, we will provide you with an analysis of what are healthy fats and what kinds of healthy fats you should consume to enhance your goalkeeping performance. 3.2 Why Understanding Basal Metabolic Rate Is Important? Basal (Resting) Metabolic Rate (BMR) is the measure of energy expenditure under complete rest with digestion, stress and other factors unaffected (Richmond W. FIA, 2001). Physical activity is the main proponent of facilitating weight control as it increases total energy expenditure, helps to maintain or increase BMR, protects muscle mass and facilitates changes in enzymes that control fat metabolism. Burning calories from goalkeeping activity will be high and prolonged, as calorie expenditure is usually cumulative depending on how long and how intense the exercise is. Rhythmic exercises such as sprinting utilize high levels of energy, as does strength training on a restricted diet. Many scientists are tossing and turning about the utilization of strength training and its effect on BMR. Goalkeeping activity should include strength training as it does help to burn calories at rest. Aerobic activities are also important for a goalkeeper to increase their metabolic rate. Therefore, both intense strength and cardiovascular type activities will help stave off fat for a prolonged period for competitive goalkeepers. That's my two cents, but scientific findings have shown that restricted calorie diets are detrimental for competitive athletes in regards to training and performance. Here are some guidelines that can be utilized by competitive goalkeepers:     26
  27. 27. The G‐Code      1. Weight loss should be gradual 2. Enough calories need to be utilized for energy and enhanced performance 3. L-carnitine is important for mitochondrial transports of fat from adipose cells 4. Chromium balance important for muscle growth and body fat control 5. High fiber and complex carbohydrate diets are preferable to maintain performance 6. Omega 3 fatty acids are important for insulin metabolism 7. Weight training is necessary for the maintenance of lean muscle mass 8. Regular training boosts basal metabolic rate (Source: Richmond, W. 2001) Therefore we can see that strength training is needed to maintain lean muscle mass and to help burn fat for the competitive goalkeeper to power performance all year round. Strength training will also help burn fat at rest. 3.3 Understanding Cholesterol for Healthy Goalkeeping There is much misunderstanding regarding the role cholesterol plays in the diet. Goalkeepers should be aware that there are two fundamental types of cholesterol one which is good, the other bad. Let’s look at a breakdown of both: Cholesterol: The Good and the Bad 1. LDL (Low Density Lipoproteins): This type of cholesterol is considered bad cholesterol. LDL has a tendency to stick to arterial walls (i.e. your arteries). LDL deposits cholesterol onto the arterial walls and creates deterioration and narrowing of the arteries. 2. HDL (High Density Lipoproteins): HDL is good cholesterol which acts as a scavenger that removes HDL from the arterial walls and transports it back to the liver where it is mixed with bile and excreted through the intestinal tract. Cholesterol can be passed down from generation to generation. So, do not think that increased levels of cholesterol are just about the food you consume. Cholesterol can be hereditary, and increased levels of stress can also cause cholesterol to rise. Having analyzed the above, it is not to say that you should go out and consume a diet rich in good cholesterol either, many people can be sensitive to any cholesterol such as those with symptoms of coronary heart disease, or a family disposition of heart diseases.     27
  28. 28. The G‐Code      3.4 What Fat Should The Competitive Goalkeeper Choose? The general advice provided by sports scientists and nutritionists is to steer clear of saturated fats and Trans fatty acids, which are a major cause of the health problems we see today in Western society. Fat found in beef and palm oil is today used in commercial food production and every goalkeeper who is aiming to maximize performance should steer well away from foods that contain such fats. The two best sources of healthy fats that will help reduce LDL cholesterol, reduce high blood pressure, blood clotting and the immune system in general are detailed below. We will also describe some of the best natural fat burners you can use at home in your every day cooking. : Choose the Right Fat to Maximize Goalkeeping Performance 1. Mono-unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA): Found in olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil, nuts and avocado. 2. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids “Essential Fatty Acids” (PUFA): Omega 6 and Omega 3 fatty acids are obtained from foods such as tuna, salmon, mackerel, linseed oil, canola oil, and soybean oil. Not all fats are bad for you. We typically see overweight or obese people on TV in Western society and think that all fats are bad. “Healthy fats” are a great addition to any goalkeepers training plan, so long as they make up a very small proportion of the recommended dietary intake. Diets that consist of Mediterranean and Asian cuisine are the best ways for goalkeepers to help stave off fat and increase performance. Stay away from burgers and French fries at all costs; you’re body will thank you for it with awesome goalkeeping performances. Spice Up Your Food For Awesome Fat Burning Results! Richmond W et al., 2001 points to some great hot food sources that will help metabolize fat: Garlic: Powerful antioxidant to help burn fats Onions: Boosts HDL cholesterol to lower total cholesterol Ginger: Reduces blood and liver cholesterol Chili: Lowers blood cholesterols and triglycerides. Supplements manufacturers tout the thermogenic (fat burning) effects of pills such as ephedrine (which are now banned) and other hydroxy citric acid supplements as the best way to burn fat “quickly”. In fact, there is no real way to burn fat “quickly” other than good doses of aerobic work at sub maximal intensities (usually 60-70& of your Maximal Heart Rate).     28
  29. 29. The G‐Code      Chapter  4  Chapter 4 4.1 Powerful Protein to Maximize Goalkeeping Performance Protein is the fundamental building block of the human body. Its role in exercise for the competitive goalkeeper and athlete can be debated. Studies have pointed to protein only contributing to around 5% of the maximum energy expenditure produced by an athlete in training, though this does not mean that protein is not an essential part of the goalkeepers training regime. Richmond W. et al. 2001, again points to some great guidelines you should consider when consuming protein to maximize your goalkeeping performance: Get the Right Dose of Protein to Enhance Muscularity & Recovery Average Individual: 0.8 g/ kg/ day General Sports: 1.0 g / kg / day Resistance Sports: 1.4-1.8 g /kg / day (cited by Lemon 1995) Endurance: 1.2-1.4 g / kg/ day (cited by Lemon 1995) Ultra Endurance: 1.2-1.6 g/ kg/ day The power of protein supplementation for any competitive athlete should never be underestimated. In fact, protein supplementation is one of the best ways On the Flip-side: Is Protein Supplementation Really Necessary? to enhance recovery of muscle during strenuous exercise. This does not mean that you cannot also obtain the necessary amount of protein from natural A foodpowerful article from nutraingredients.com competitive goalkeeperssupplements such as protein bars, and protein very sources; it does mean that highly (2006) analyzed why protein can benefit from protein shakes are being kickedThe above table speaks volumesdefinitelythe differences between the average individual supplementation. in the behind by mainstream media. It about resonates some key points that have been discussed at Keeperthe competitive athlete in terms of protein requirements. Because the core focus for competitive and Skool on numerous occasions: goalkeepers should revolve around increasing strength and power, the resistance sports protein guide 1.from the table should bethe good way of gauging the protein requirements ofathletes may need extra protein on However according to a Australian Institute of Sport, only specific groups of serious the competitive goalkeeper. occasion – such as endurance athletes who need between 1.2 and 2g of protein per kg of body weight per day, strengthtrained athletes who need between 1.2 and 1.7g, and adolescent athletes who need 2g per kg per day.     29
  30. 30. The G‐Code      We must not blur the lines between sedentary populations and athletes. Any competitive athlete who trains intensely day in, day out will require supplementation of protein, and only then, alongside a nutrition plan full of goodies. Goalkeepers for example, who train every day, 2 times per day would possibly need extra protein. Never forget that protein can be sourced from natural foods, but, increased metabolic demands can entail that an athlete needs to consume a little extra to keep their muscles functioning at peak levels. On the surface, these statements may be aimed at professional athletes, for whom small  differences could yield results in competition. But it said:” It’s just as easy for recreational  athletes to succumb to marketing hype. But not all the claims on protein bars can be  substantiated.”  Hype, got to love it. I get a little jaded every time I read my Muscle & Fitness magazine at home with the Mrs. before bed. Reading it becomes a roller coaster of pleasure and pain. For example, a great article on protein from natural sources such as eggs...usually followed by "GET HUGE WITH SUPER MUSCLE PROTIEN POWDER”. Got the picture? Natural athlete advocates like Tom Venuto for example seem to "hate" the hype associated with fitness magazines. He has every right to do so, I kind of do too. Some of these magazines have great articles, but they are a marketing hub for nutritional supplement companies. Yes, the nutritional supplement game is unscrupulous. No super genetic pill or dietary voodoo spell is going to make you a super athlete. Great ability comes from extremely hard work, and then some. Again, protein bars and powders are for serious athletes, therefore there are many supplements that are fantastic for those competing at a high level. Supplement companies need to stop blurring the edges and hyping up the supplements they provide consumers. Here are some words of wisdom for anyone reading The G-Code. Eat well to play well, if you train intensely then supplements will help some, not all, and only incrementally. 4.2 Great Overall Food Ideas for the Competitive Goalkeeper! Oh, I caught you guys yawning, huh? Ready to go into hibernation? Well, I'm here to tell you that we all made some promises this year, you know the things we call "resolutions" for the New Year? So why is everybody napping? Let's get resolute, with some fantastic foods for the competitive season ahead. Here is a list of some of the leanest and meanest foods to getting you cut to shreds and creating a goalkeeper colossus...are you ready? Best Meat Sources 1. 2. Cutting Up: Turkey is the low fat bird. 225 grams provides roughly 45 (g) of protein and 2 (g) of fat, compare that to lean beef and you get about 15 (g) of fat and an extra 117 calories. Get gobbling, gobbling. Big Mass Gains: Flank steak can help hard gainers add mass. Yes there is saturated fat (bad fat) in flank steak, but small doses can benefit testosterone production. It is also dense in creatine, iron and vitamin B12. Pack this sparingly (once a week) during strength training program and you will gain some good mass.     30
  31. 31. The G‐Code      Best Fish Sources 1. 2. Cutting Up: Pollock (I don't know what is equivalent here in Australia) is low in fat, high in protein and low in calories. Perfect food for getting ripped to shreds. Big Mass Gains: Salmon is super saturated in Omega-3 fatty acids which are anti inflammatory, help spare the loss of glutamine and increase the storage of glycogen. All of these factors boost protein synthesis...which means you grow big time. Best Vegetable Sources 1. Cutting Up: Broccoli and Cauliflower are low in calories and provide indoles, which lower estrogen 2. levels in the body. Low Estrogen reduces the need for your body to store body fat. This means you have the ability to get cut easily with your training regime. Adding Mass: Peas and Corn are complex carbohydrates that have a whole heap of phytonutrients and fiber. Add to this essential vitamins and minerals with a high calorie yield, you get a powerful source of mass gain. Best Fruit Sources 1. 2. Cutting Up: I love strawberries. With only 50 calories per 150 g, strawberries are a great food for getting cut. They are full of fiber; vitamin C and other nutrients which help fight against free radicals after a hard work out. Adding Mass: My parents had a fig tree in the backyard, and figs are a staple of the Mediterranean diet. Figs contain benzaldehyde, a cancer fighting compound along with ficin a digestive enzyme that aids protein digestion. 75 g of raisins mixed in your cereal or with slow cooking oats provides 60 g of carbohydrates which is the best fuel for hungry muscles and heavy performance. (Source: Aceto, C. Best Foods, Flex Dec 2005) Dinner is served, and with the above food choices you can really help benefit your training regime and take it into warp drive for the coming season.     31
  32. 32.   The G‐Code    4.3 Protein, Leucine & Carbohydrates for Awesome Goalkeeping Strength Gains & Recovery Meat and potatoes were the diet in fashion for most professional footballers back in the 70's. Scientific studies into advanced sports nutrition have meant that football players are generally faster and more powerful today than ever before. High Protein diets such as the Atkins variety, has its place in nutrition for sedentary people, but what about professional athletes? Many nutritionists point to carbohydrates as being the culprit in fat gain, this might ring true for those who do not lead an active lifestyle. Athletes who are competing at elite levels need carbohydrates as their main source of fuel. Protein does have a place in the athlete’s diet, with recent scientific research that pointed to elite athletes like the 2003 World Cup winning UK Rugby team, who utilized a high protein diet with reduced carbohydrates. Richmond, W. (Nutrition & Weight Management, FIA 2001) points to the fact that utilization of protein depends on the duration of exercise. At 120 minutes of high intensity exercise protease enzymes that break down protein as a source of fuel are initiated. During high intensity exercise, carbohydrates are the most important fuel source for competitive athletes. Other studies have pointed to the use of protein supplements and their effect on increasing the amount of the amino acid leucine in the body. Leucine helps with the growth and repair of muscle tissues, as well as several other functions. A study by Roy, B.D. (et. al. 2001) titled Macronutrient Intake and Whole Body Protein Metabolism Following Resistance Exercise, pointed to the fact that both a carbohydrate supplement and a supplement of mixed composition of carbohydrates, protein and fat, lead to an increase in plasma insulin levels and glucose following resistance training exercise. These supplements helped increase total body protein synthesis. The protein supplement alone showed significant levels of leucine oxidation 4 hours after resistance training exercise. Therefore, high protein diets can help a goalkeeper increase strength, and power performance, possibly during a prolonged two-three hour training session. But on the other hand, during 90 minutes of competition a high carbohydrate diet will help fuel performance better because of the short bursts of activity associated with the position that stimulate glycogen consumption. Goalkeepers should be able to utilize a mixture of both low GI carbohydrates (mostly) to fuel intense performance pregame, and a mixture of high GI carbohydrates and protein to synthesize muscle post game.     32
  33. 33. The G‐Code      Chapter  5  Chapter 5   5.1 Get The Most Out Of Your Moo! The Power of Calcium, Especially for Girl Goalkeepers Calcium is one of the main minerals in the body. It is responsible for many pivotal functions in the body especially in regards to muscle performance and in the development of bone. Depleted stores of calcium in the bone are a result of poor dietary intake of calcium. For female athletes, the problem of decreased calcium stores in the bones leads to the following problems: Calcium is Vital for the Competitive Girl Goalkeeper Amenorrhea: This symptom appears to occur with sports that involve frequent high volume, high intensity training sessions (such as goalkeeping). Female goalkeepers who train at high intensities may experience rapid weight loss and also may have poor nutritional intake. Because of the high stress involved in competitive goalkeeping (on the mind and body) some female goalkeepers may experience low estrogen levels and also changes in their menstrual cycles. Osteopenia: This symptom is caused by a lack of mineral and calcium content in the bone. The effect of Osteopenia can be compounded by heavy exercise and the initial symptoms can be stress fractures. Women goalkeepers need to be aware that the high intensity demands of goalkeeping along with poor dietary intake of calcium can lead to the symptoms described above. Extra care should be taken to assure that calcium intake is adequate. The Australian recommended dietary intake (please note, each country has significantly different RDI prescriptions, this is just an example) guidelines for calcium show that women should take in around 800 mg of calcium, while girls of around 12-15 years of age should be consuming around 1000 mg of calcium.     33
  34. 34.   The G‐Code    Weight bearing exercise is a great way of increasing bone mineral density in active people. Therefore, goalkeeping is a great way to maintain strong healthy bones and enhance performance for men and women alike. What must be considered with any weight bearing activity is that too much frequent high intensity exercise can cause fatigue and degenerative diseases (as those mentioned previously) of the bone. When there is an increase in workload for the competitive women goalkeeper, there should also be an emphasis on maximizing calcium intake. Embleton P. (1998) suggests that people following a high protein diet may need greater amounts of calcium intake. When a competitive goalkeeper does not take in calcium on high protein diets, then the body is forced to draw on calcium reserves to regulate the acid developed from high protein diets, which could lead to degenerative bone diseases, especially when the goalkeeper ages. 5.2 Iron Up For Super Goalkeeping Performance Iron is extremely important for the high impact athlete such as the competitive goalkeeper. Women goalkeepers must always be aware that high impact activity such as goalkeeping can increase the risk of iron deficiency. Following is a diagram cited by Jupp. S. et al. 2001 that shows the significant differences between general populations and high impact endurance athletes: Goalkeeping Girls Are Made Of Iron! Males and non menstruating females: 7 mg/day Menstruating females: 12 – 16 mg/day Growing Adolescents: 10 – 13 mg/day Endurance Athletes (Running & High Impact): Males & non menstruating females: 7-17 mg/day Menstruating females: 16-23 mg/day The best sources of iron come from meat products, but plant sources are also just as good. To increase your dietary intake of Iron, you can gain 10-20% of your dietary intake from meat (Burke & Deakin, 1994). Following are some of the highest sources of iron from the foods we eat to help any goalkeeper maximize their iron intake:     34
  35. 35.   The G‐Code    Super Iron Food Sources to Maximize Performance Liver/Pate (75 mg) = 8.3 mg of Iron Baked beans (120 g) = 1.96 mg of Iron Dried Apricots (50 g) = 2.06 mg of iron Whole meal Bread (2 slices) = 1.42 mg of Iron Green Leafy Vegetables (1/2 cup) = 1.41 mg of Iron Above we’ve noted that liver is probably the best way to increase your Iron levels. How many of you love to eat liver? Not me, that’s for sure. A great supplement that you can utilize is desiccated liver (Embleton, P. 1998). Created from beef liver (usually), desiccated liver is vacuum dried at very low temperatures, and contain very low fat levels, as opposed to consuming saturated fats from red meats. Desiccated liver contains high levels of B-complex vitamins, and up to 80% useable protein. This means you get tonnes of energy to fuel your goalkeeping performance, without packing on harmful calories. 5.3 Enhance Your Goalkeeping Recovery with Antioxidants Because of the intensities involved in goalkeeping the body tends to suffer from oxidative stress. What this means is that a goalkeeper training at high intensities will not be able to prevent the development of free radicals which can harm your natural metabolism. Supplementing with antioxidants enhance performance by decreasing tissue damage which helps increase recovery and maintain stronger inner health of the goalkeeper. Richmond W, 2001 points to the best food sources from which you can derive antioxidants to help eradicate free radicals. We will also point to the best sources of antioxidants and which foods they are derived from:     35
  36. 36.   The G‐Code    High Powered Anti-Oxidant Food Sources Beta Carotene: Orange and yellow fruits, tomatoes, green leafy vegetables. You can find the highest content of beta carotene in foods such as mango, spinach and sweet potato (highest value). Vitamin C: Fruits and vegetables are the highest sources of vitamin C. You can find the highest values of antioxidants in foods such as mango, orange juice and papaya (highest value). Vitamin E: You can find Vitamin E mostly in oils, nuts and seeds. The highest values of vitamin E can be found in food source such as sunflower seeds and wheat germ oil (highest value). 5.4 Powerful Vitamin C: Enhanced Fat Loss for Goalkeeping Performance Remember eating oranges at half time? Sitting on those hard wooden benches in your under 9 squad, while Jimmy, the little overweight kid that they stuck in goals ate all of them? It's nice to reminisce about those good times growing up playing soccer and sucking down oranges after a hard earned half-time effort. Whilst oranges might not be the first option for competitive goalkeepers in today's cut-throat electrolytic beverage market, vitamin C has a very important role in the athlete's diet. The following study by Bruno G (2006) cited in the Current Sports Medicine Reports (Vol. 5, No. 4, 2006), points to why vitamin C should be consumed by people in training: "Vitamin C is required for the synthesis of carnitine, the amino acid responsible for  transporting fatty acids into the cells to be oxidized (burned as fuel). Researchers found that  subjects with poor vitamin C status oxidized less fat than subjects with adequate vitamin C  status during a walking test.14 Similarly, subjects depleted of vitamin C who then underwent  two weeks of vitamin C supplementation (500 mg daily), were able to perform 10‐percent  more work during a 90‐minute walk.15"  Vitamin C can help you maximize your performance by aiding in fat-loss. Therefore, vitamin C can be looked upon, based on the above study as a natural thermogenic which can help you maximize performance by reducing your fat levels during exercise. No one likes an overweight Jimmy in goals, so throw some vitamin C in your post and pre-season nutrition regime to help you burn fat and increase performance. Feeling sore after an intense workout? Never underestimate the power of good food to provide rich antioxidants to help the body fight free radical activity. Foods rich in antioxidant's can help muscles fight the effects of catabolism and curb the effect of cell damage. This means that a competitive athlete can increase their performance by reducing the effect of sore and tired muscles after intense activities. Following are some powerful foods that contain high levels of antioxidants:     36
  37. 37.   The G‐Code    A recent study in the journal Food Chemistry (Vol.97, pp. 137-150) outlined some of the best sources of antioxidants: "Interest in antioxidants as functional ingredients continues to grow, with sales said to be $2.7  billion ($2.25 billion) in the US in 2003, according to the Nutrition Business Journal. The top  sellers included vitamins C and E, catechins from green tea and soy isoflavones." The US seems  to have enormous growth in the use of antioxidants. Some of the best sources suggested by  the study showed that "...both the golden rod and artichoke had high radical scavenging in  most of the tests used, although the apple extract yield was higher (30 per cent of the raw dry  material) and had high efficiency in two of the antioxidant tests."  Now I don't really know about golden rod, but artichokes are a key ingredient in some Mediterranean cuisine, especially Italian. Apples are a significant source of antioxidants, and the study also pointed to strawberries. Green Tea has always been a favorite of mine, and really helps in thermogenesis (burning) fat. So a good diet with a mixture of some of the above high antioxidant foods, can help you stay mean and lean, and ready for your best on-field performance. Another great source of antioxidants is cherries and cherry juice. A very recent study published by the University of Vermont tested the effects of the humble cherry on muscle soreness and rejuvenating muscles during intense exercise. The test subjects performed some muscle damaging exercise, with one group drinking a placebo and the other group drinking a cherry juice concoction with apple juice added. Following was the results of the study: "There was a significant difference in the degree of muscle strength loss between those  drinking the cherry juice blend and those taking the placebo juice. This fell by 22 percentage  points in those drinking the placebo juice, but only by four percentage points in those drinking  cherry juice. Muscle strength had slightly improved after 96 hours in those drinking cherry  juice. The degree of soreness differed little between the two groups, but the average pain  score was significantly less in those drinking cherry juice. Average pain scores came in at 3.2  for those drinking the placebo juice and 2.4 for those drinking cherry juice. Pain also peaked at  24 hours for those drinking cherry juice, but continued to increase for those on the placebo  juice for the subsequent 48 hours." (Source: Nachbur J. 2006)  Simple sugars in foods such as cherries allow for rapid muscle glycogen replenishment. This means that cherries are a vitamin rich source of antioxidants, and a great way of repairing damaged muscles after strenuous exercise.     37
  38. 38. The G‐Code      Chapter  6  Chapter 6 6.1 Hydration Is Key to Better Goalkeeping Performance To maximize your potential for great performance, goalkeepers should always look to hydrate themselves properly before during and after competition. Following are some fundamental guidelines to help you maximize your fluid intake for better goalkeeping performance. Pre Competition: Scientists point to hyper hydration as a way for competitive athletes to maximize their fluid intake and perform better in their sporting events. Following is another fantastic overview to help a goalkeeper maximize pre-game performance (Richmond W. et al 2001): 1. 2 Days prior to event: Start to consume extra water 2. 4 and 1 hours before the event : 250 ml water should be taken every 10-15 minutes 3. 30-20 minutes prior to start: Another couple of glasses should be taken and bladder comfort reached (varies between each player) 4. 15-20 minutes before an event: Take no more water. This time is needed for the stomach to empty. Too much water in the stomach may cause cramping and inhibit proper breathing During Competition: To accurately assess the amount of fluid necessary for hydration during an event, the estimated hourly weight loss from a training session or competitive event should be divided into 10-15 minute intervals. This is shown in the table below:     38
  39. 39. The G‐Code      Weight Loss (kg) Time Between Water Breaks (mins) Fluid Consumption Each Break (mls) Total Fluid Per Hour (mls) Total Fluid Over 90 mins (mls) 3.6 No practice 3.0 10 251 1506 2259 2.5 15 325 1300 1950 2.1 15 281 1124 1686 1.6 20 311 933 1400 1.1 20 222 666 999 .05 45 177 235 470 0.2 60 177 177 265 Recommended fluid intake for 90 minute athletic event Adapted from McArdle Katch & Katch Sports & Exercise Nutrition 1999 (Richmond W. et. Al 2001) Post Exercise: Because glycogen stores have been depleted and electrolyte stores are in overload, the goalkeeper should aim at moving around as much as possible so as not to intensify the metabolic wastes that are loaded in the muscles. Goalkeepers should aim to re-hydrate immediately by sipping water to reactivate the thirst response. Another good recommendation is that a competitive goalkeeper should aim at drinking a few cups of water before eating and then start refueling their muscle glycogen stores by taking in some quality sources of high GI carbohydrates. The re-hydration process should continue for 12 hours after a game. 6.2 Cool Down With Some Great Guidelines for Goalkeeping Fluid Intake 1. Try to replace 80% of fluid loss from sweat. 2. Avoid caffeine and alcohol. 3. Fluids should contain electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. 4. Fluids should be consumed that contain between 4-8% carbohydrate content.       39
  40. 40.   The G‐Code    6.3 Other Ergogenic Aids For Super Strong Goalkeeping Performance Creatine: Small gains and patience are the keys to great goalkeeping success. Creatine is a naturally occurring substance that is found in the liver, kidneys and pancreas and is transported to active muscle through the bloodstream. Decades of research has found creatine to be the most widely used and powerful sporting supplement on the market. One fact points to three out of every four '96 Summer Olympic medalist’s utilized creatine with their training regime. What implications does creatine have for competitive goalkeeping? When creatine enters the blood stream it enters the muscle as Phosphocreatine, the muscle utilizes this to create ATP, the working muscles ultimate energy source. The beauty of utilizing creatine is that it is a naturally occurring substance in the body, and is found in many foods such as tuna and beef. Creatine monohydrate is the most popular source (I have used it many times to power my goalkeeping performance levels). Utilizing creatine with your goalkeeper training allows you to ultimately increase your lean muscle mass, and help avoid muscle catabolism. It also helps increase a goalkeeper's performance in short bursts of activity for example, sprinting out to attack the ball. Creatine hydrates the muscle with water, thus, creatine monohydrate. This ultimately helps fuel performance. Where creatine works best (and this is why I believe it is the best supplement for competitive goalkeepers) is in short intense periods of activities. This means diving for the ball, sprinting out to attack the ball, sprinting and jumping to catch the ball, and in numerous other situations. I started using creatine when I was 18, and I had continued using it up until now, because it has always been reliable, and I have felt stronger and more powerful with my dives, kicking and all other aspects of my game. I always follow instructions from the manufacturer (every manufacturer is different, of course), which basically involves a loading phase of 20 to 30 grams a day for the first week and then 5-15 grams thereafter for about 6 weeks, then a break for a week, with a reloading phase commencing again after that. Studies by the University of Connecticut (Source: Bodybuilding.com) showed that creatine supplementation will help increase performance in 5-10% increments. Therefore, the effects of creatine supplementation will help goalkeepers perhaps increase their sprint times or increase your strength in small doses. But over a training year these small incremental increases, can really add up to greater goalkeeping gains and performance. Give creatine a try for a super goalkeeping competitive edge. Coenzyme Q10 (CO Q10): I was reading through some of my favorite books in regards to nutrition and stumbled across Coenzyme Q10. Just the name of it seemed otherworldly. What fascinated me was that Coenzyme Q10 is a vitamin, and it has the ability to power up mitochondria (power stores found in your muscles). Richmond, W. (Nutrition and Weight Management, FIA, 2001) attests to the power of Coenzyme Q10 "...This is essential for virtually all energy production. CoQ10 is involved in the maintenance of immunity, blood pressure, normal heart function and is a potent antioxidant. Patients supplemented with CoQ10 have shown increased exercise tolerance. Runners given CoQ10 were found to run 12% further and 8% longer than those receiving placebos. The recommended dose for athletes is 10-60mg/day". Now that is one powerful vitamin.     40
  41. 41. The G‐Code      Other sources attest to the use of Coenzyme Q10 as a powerhouse to fuel performance in the competitive athlete, and even the sedentary individual, some of the findings included: 1. 2. 3. 4. Studies in mice showed that "...old mice given CoQ supplements remained vigorous and healthy as compared to the non supplemented control group which died of factors related to old age. The researchers also found that CoQ10-fed mice lived longer than would be expected - in some cases as much as 11 months longer". Coenzyme CoQ10 helps to boost the immune system, as research form the early 70's showed that "...CoQ increased circulating levels of phagocytes - one of the body's primary defense scavengers". Coenzyme Q10 is fantastic for the heart, as the highest concentrations of CoQ10 are found in the heart tissue. Studies in Japan have shown that CoQ supplements can reduce and reverse the aging of the heart. "In fact, CoQ is available in Japan as a prescription medicine for heart disease". Coenzyme Q10 can help reduce free radical damage studies from Sweden has shown "...CoQ acts like vitamin E in its ability to reduce the harmful effects of free radicals produced by fat oxidation". (Source: Embleton, P. Anabolic Primer, 1998) Now all of the above research looks pretty convincing, and I believe that Coenzyme Q10 can really help competitive goalkeepers and athletes enhance their performance, and play to the best of their abilities all year round. Give Coenzyme Q10 a try if you are competing and training heavily throughout the season.     41
  42. 42. The G‐Code      Chapter  7  Chapter 7 7.1 The Goalkeeping Power Pyramid ™ Goalkeepers are a unique breed of athlete and require different training protocols that extend well beyond basic goalkeeping technique. Competitive goalkeepers must come to a certain threshold within their development where the focus is not solely aerobic training, and there is a fundamental shift toward specificity which entails an analysis of the nature of the role a goalkeeper plays on the field. I believe that once goalkeepers have maximized their aerobic performance, should begin to look at enhancing their anaerobic training. Following we will detail a step by step periodized training regime to maximize your aerobic performance. We will also begin to look at strength training protocols for the competitive goalkeeper, and how the goalkeeper can maximize their performance via a progressive, periodized approach to their goalkeeper training that encompasses both aerobic and anaerobic style training. 7.2 Start Your Goalkeeping Aerobic Fitness Journey With Eazy F.I.T.T.™ Nothing beats creating a solid base. Just like a building, no base and it will fall apart. The same principle rings true for our bodies. The core to good cardiovascular fitness for the competitive goalkeeper has to start somewhere. This is where AFPP comes into play! The first component of AFPP is the EAZY F.I.T.T. principle. Now it is assumed that each and every goalkeeper that reads The G-Code will have been training at some intensity therefore they have begun to build that base we were talking about previously. The EAZY F.I.T.T. principle builds the core you need to generate the goalkeeper power that you will learn about over the coming weeks. It is the basic principle that suggests that every goalkeeper trains with some level of "Frequency" (days per week), over some type of "Intensity" (60-85% of Maximal Heart Rate), over a set period of "Time" (15-45 minutes), using some "Type" of cardiovascular exercise (utilize large muscular rhythmic movements).     42
  43. 43. The G‐Code      The minimum heart rate that you should be working at should be at 60% of your Maximal Heart Rate (MHR), this equates to 11-13 on your RPE* scale (Rate of Perceived Exertion that hangs off every gym wall). It would be good to utilize a heart rate monitor; a good one will not set you back very much and is a fantastic lifelong training investment. Many heart rate monitors can give you a good indicator of your heart rate, while measuring the duration of your activities, and even your heart rate zones, so you know exactly what intensities you are working at. I digress, back to heart rate. 60% of your (MHR) will be the minimum intensity and at this point the EAZY F.I.T.T. principle will not really be creating maximal cardiac power, which lies at 80% (MHR) and above. That's right, we want to be working but at intensity that gives us a solid base and does not push you into the anaerobic phase of training too soon. Now the beauty of EAZY F.I.T.T. is that you can utilize just about any machine at your gym to strengthen the base for the weeks ahead. Here is a sample: 1. Treadmill 2. Stationary Bike 3. Rower 4. Elliptical (Cross) Trainer 5. Skipping Rope (works every major muscle group!) Your options are wide and varied, and that's cool because you can mix it up every week, for added gains in cardio power. Overload is the name of the game, each and every week we train a specific variable and we increase it by 10%, with the fourth week a drop of 10% for recovery. Overload is important to increase your training adaptations and cardiovascular responses. This method is called the step overload. This cycle of overload is created around 4 weeks. Therefore, each cycle is 4 weeks, and then week 5 will be at the same intensity as week 6. Now for a sample program that compares your activities in week 1 compared to that of week 2, so you can see the differences in intensity:     43
  44. 44. The G‐Code      Week 1 Monday 5 minute light warm up at RPE of 4-5 on treadmill 15 minutes run on treadmill at 10-11 RPE 5 minute cool down at 4-5 RPE on treadmill 5 minute stretch Week 2 Monday 5 minute light warm up at RPE of 5-6 on treadmill 18 minute run on treadmill at 11-12 RPE 5 minute cool down at 5-6 RPE on treadmill 5 minute stretch There you go, we increase each week by at least 10%, and this creates overload for solid cardio gains for the competitive goalkeeper. Note: * = RPE of 10 would be equivalent to around 100 beats per minute. Also, remember to check with your physician before you start any exercise program, especially senior goalkeepers.     44
  45. 45.   The G‐Code    7.3 Power Zone Performance™ In the previous weeks we learnt the value of aerobic conditioning at a basic level. Are you ready to enter the zone? Zone training protocols are where competitive goalkeepers start getting specific about the way they condition their muscle fibers to respond to higher intensity goalkeeping activity. With the Power Zone we start training three specific aerobic responses (three zones) over the period of a week. A breakdown of each zone is described below: The Keeper Skool Power Zone Power Zone 1 Power Zone 2 Power Zone 3 Workout @ 60-70% of maximum heart rate Workout @ 70-80% of maximum heart Workout @ 80-90% of maximum heart rate Duration: 40-60 Minutes 30-40 Minutes 20-30 Minutes Type: Long Workout Easy Workout Hard Workout The above zones should be treated as days. That is, each zone represents a day in the goalkeepers training week. Usually, if there is a fourth training day planned we should try to make this an easy workout, like Power Zone 2. 7.4 Vari-Zone Training™ With the Power Zone method of training we begin to manipulate the goalkeepers training intensities over varying heart rate ranges. Vari-zone training starts providing the small leaps and bounds you have achieved over your previous weeks of training through the Power Pyramid. Following will be an analysis of each training method and how to apply it within your goalkeeper training regime. “The Reach” Training: Ready to stretch your aerobic capacity with small leaps and bounds that will really maximize your goalkeeping performance? Far-reach training will help you recruit your aerobic and anaerobic energy pathways super fast, and in a continuous training format. What the goalkeeper will attempt here are continuous speed variations that also include hard and easy components. Goalkeepers can run over different types of terrain and distances.     45
  46. 46.   The G‐Code    Intensity: 11-13 RPE at the easy section; 15-17 RPE in the intense section. Duration: 30-60 minutes can be 1 session in the week. 7.5 Long ‘n’ Fast Interval™ Each training session has to be different so that the goalkeeper can maximize their competitive performance. With long interval training we increase the goalkeepers’ aerobic intensity during training, but we also allow them time to recover. The reason why we start training at higher intensities is to recruit fast twitch muscle fibers (Type II a), which allows us to put a heavy load on our cardiovascular system and enhances the power output of our muscles. Intensity: 15- 17 RPE Duration: 3-8 minutes, with 3 to 5 minute recovery interval. This type of training can be conducted 1 or 2 times per week. 7.6 Big Hill Training™ Now the goalkeeper is looking at increasing the aerobic strength of the muscles, with a view to pump their cardiovascular system to their maximum. With Big Hill Training goalkeepers will really start to overload their fast twitch muscle fibers, and tax their cardiovascular system. Another plus of Big Hill Training is that the goalkeeper can train both indoors and outdoors. In fact, nothing is more exhilarating than conquering a set of big hills and feeling that you have accomplished a great feat! Big hills, oh how I despised big hills during pre season soccer training. Lake Gilwana (every NSW soccer player has run up it at one time) in Sydney's Western Suburbs seemed (and still is today) like Kilimanjaro, no, better yet, Everest. OK I'm exaggerating. After many attempts up that forsaken hill, I assumed that it would always defeat me. I was prone to empty the contents of whatever I ate the day before repeatedly, and it did happen... repeatedly. There was a lesson learnt though. Hill training provided a fantastic way to increase not only aerobic strength of the muscles that were utilized in the session; it also placed a great amount of overload on the cardiovascular system. So what is in it for us goalkeepers? Power. In big doses. Including hill training in a periodized plan (and after establishing a solid base of aerobic fitness) will enable a goalkeeper to increase their Type IIa (Fast Oxidative) muscle fibers. The fantastic thing about it is that you also receive a double dose of increasing the capacity of the anaerobic energy system concurrently with the aerobic energy system. At this level of training a goalkeeper is pushing the limit at 81-90% of their heart rate reserve. The metabolic and cardiac responses at this level of training for the goalkeeper include (Batman, 2001):     46
  47. 47. The G‐Code      1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase in in in in in in Glycogen (the body's main fuel) recruitment of FT a (Fast Twitch) muscle fibers anaerobic glycolysis stroke volume cardiac output hemoglobin Do you want me to continue? Power, strength, aerobic and anaerobic capacity increase = BIG goal keeping performance improvements. This is only one of many types of performance enhancing training tips for us goalkeepers. It stands out because I feel the need for us keepers to increase power and strength specifically. So, conquer the mountain (or hill) and you will see big goal keeping gains. Now the goalkeeper is looking at increasing the aerobic strength of the muscles, with a view to pump their cardiovascular system to their maximum. With Big Hill Training goalkeepers will really start to overload their fast twitch muscle fibers, and tax their cardiovascular system. Another plus of Big Hill Training is that the goalkeeper can train both indoors and outdoors. In fact, nothing is more exhilarating than conquering a set of big hills and feeling that you have accomplished a great feat! Intensity: 15-17 RPE Duration: The Big Hill Training segment should be between 1 to 6 minutes, with the recovery level at a lower gradient and intensity. Goalkeepers should aim for 1-2 sessions per week. 7.7 Pure Speed™ Anaerobic training can allow you to reach top gun speeds and maximize fast twitch muscle fiber utilization. What can it do for technical ability? Recent research shows that speed training can help increase a soccer player’s agility and dribbling skills. Muniroglu, D. 2005 "The Effects of Speed Function on Some Technical Elements in Soccer" showed some significant findings which included: 1. 2. 3. 4. Average sprint times for soccer players for 0-15 m, 15-30 m and 0-30 m was 2.25 seconds , 1.85 seconds and 4.14 seconds respectively. Soccer players with greater sprinting ability had more meaningful agility values. Maximum speed and agility are related to specificity i.e. Differences in muscle strength qualities etc... No real correlation was found between sprinting speed and slalom dribbling values.     47

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