Utsav Mahendra : Generation and screening of project ideas

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  • 1. Generation And Screening Of Project Ideas
  • 2. Topics To Be Discussed• Generation Of ideas• Monitoring The Environment• Corporate Appraisal• Profit Potential Of Industries : Porter Model• Scouting of Project Ideas• Preliminary Screening• Project Rating Index• Sources Of Positive Net Present Value• On Being An Entrepreneur
  • 3. Generation Of Ideas• Most of the project ideas involve combining existing fields of technology or offering variants of present product or services.
  • 4. Stimulating The Flow of ideas• SWOT Analysis• Clear Articulation Of Objectives Cost reduction Productivity improvement Increase in capacity utilization Improvement in contribution margin Expansion into promising fieldA clear articulation and prioritization of objectives helps in channelizing the efforts of employees and production them to think more imaginatively
  • 5. Stimulating The Flow Of Idea• Fostering The Conducive Climate
  • 6. Monitoring The Environment• Firm must systematically monitor the environment and access its competitive abilities. For the purpose of monitoring, the business environment may be divided into six categories:-Economic sectorGovernmental sector Technological sectorSocio-demographic sectorCompetition sectorSupplier sector
  • 7. Economic Sector• State Of The Economy• Overall Rate Of growth• Growth rate of primary , secondary and tertiary sector• Cyclical fluctuation• Linkage with the world economy• Trade surplus / deficit• Balance payment situation
  • 8. Governmental Sector• Industry Policy• Government Plans and Projects• Tax Framework• Subsidies, incentives and concessions• Import and export policies• Financing norms• Lending conditions of financial institutions and commercial banks
  • 9. Technological Sector• Emergence of new technologies• Access to technical know how, foreign as well as indigenous• Receptiveness on the part of industries
  • 10. Socio-Demographic Sector• Population trends• Age shift in population• Income distribution• Education profile• Employment Of Women• Attitudes toward consumption and investment
  • 11. Competition Sector• Number of firms in the industry and the market share of the top few ( four or few)• Degree of homogeneity and differentiation among products• Entry barrier• Comparison with substitutes in term of quality, price, appeal and functional performance• Marketing policies and practices
  • 12. Supplier Sectors• Availability and cost of raw materials and sub assemblies• Availability and cost of energy• Availability and cost of money
  • 13. Corporate Appraisal• A realistic appraisal of corporate strength and weakness is essential for identifying investment opportunities which can be profitably exploited. The broad and important aspects are:-• Marketing and Distribution• Production and Operations• Research and Development• Corporate Resource And Personnel• Finance and Accounting
  • 14. Marketing and Distribution• Market Image• Product line• Market Share• Distribution network• Customer Loyalty• Marketing and distribution
  • 15. Production And Operations• Condition and Capacity of plant and machinery• Availability of raw materials, sub-assemblies and powers• Degree of vertical integration• Location advantage• Cost structure
  • 16. Research and Development• Research capabilities of the firm• Track record of new product development• Laboratories and testing facilities• Coordination between research and operations
  • 17. Corporate Resources and Personnel• Corporate Image• Clout with governmental and regulatory agencies• Dynamism of top management• Competence and commitment of employees• State of industrial relations
  • 18. Finance And Accounting• Financial leverage and borrowing capacity• Cost of Capital• Tax Situation• Relations with shareholders and creditors• Accounting and control system• Cash flow and liquidity
  • 19. Profit Potential Of Industries: Porter ModelProfit potential of an industry depends on the combined strength of the following five basic competitive forces:-Threats of new entrantsRivalry among existing firmsPressure from substitute productBargaining power of buyerBargaining power of seller
  • 20. Forces Driving Industry Competition Potential Entrants Threats Of New Entrants Bargaining Power Of THE INDUSTRY SuppliersSuppliers Rivalry Among Buyers Existing Firms Bargaining Power Of Threats Of Buyers Substitute Products Substitutes
  • 21. Threats Of New Entrants• New entrants add capacity, inflate costs, push prices down, and reduce profitability. If an industry faces the threat of new entrant, its profit potential would be limited. The threats from new entrants is low if the entry barrier confer an advantage existing firm and deter new entrants.
  • 22. Threats Of New Entrants• The new entrants have to invests substantial resources to enter the industry• Economies of scale are enjoyed by the industry• Existing firms control the distribution channels, benefit from product differentiation in the form of brand image and customer loyalty• Switching costs- these are essentially one time costs of switching from the products of one supplier to another – are high• The government policy limits or even prevents new entrants
  • 23. Rivalry Between Existing Firms• Firms in an industry compete on the basis of price, quality, promotion, service, warranties and so on. If the rivalry between the firms in an industry is strong, competitive moves and countermoves dampen the average profitability of the industry. The intensity of rivalry in an industry tends to be high when:-
  • 24. Rivalry Between Existing Firms• The number of competitors in the industry is large• At least a few firms are relatively balanced and capable of engaging in a sustained competitive battle• The industry growth is sluggish, prodding firms