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We Can Do More is a campaign to reduce teen pregnancy in Texas, raise awareness of teen pregnancy in Texas, and motivate stakeholders to action.

We Can Do More is a campaign to reduce teen pregnancy in Texas, raise awareness of teen pregnancy in Texas, and motivate stakeholders to action.

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  • Nationally, about 48% of high school students have had sex in their lifetime. In Texas more high school students are sexually experienced than students nationally and as you can see some cities such as Dallas have a much higher proportion of high school students who are sexually active

We Can Do More We Can Do More Presentation Transcript

  • We Can Do More Meeting the Challenges of Adolescent Sexual Health in Texas
  • Every 10 minutes a teenager in Texas gets pregnant Source: Texas Department of State Health Services. (2005). Teen Pregnancy Prevention. Retrieved April 28, 2008 from http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/famplan/tpp.shtm
    • Why we need to do more
      • Outcomes
      • Prevention
      • Urgency
    • How we can do more
      • Sexual behavior
      • Why We Need to
      • Do More
  • Sexual Behavior Percent of High School Students Reporting to Have Ever Had Sex (2007) Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). YRBSS: Youth Online Comprehensive Results. Retrieved June 4,2008 from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/ Students in Texas, Houston, and Dallas are more likely to be sexually experienced compared to the national average. 47.9% NATIONAL 52.9% TEXAS 50.2% Houston 57.1% Dallas
  • Sexual Behavior Source:  Shanklin, S.L., Brener, N., McManus, T., Kinchen, S., Kann, L. (2007). 2005 Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Atlanta, G.A.: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. About 1 in 10 sixth grade students have had sex Students begin having sex at early ages
  • Sexual Behavior In Texas…
    • 7 in 10 twelfth grade students report engaging in sex
    Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). YRBSS: Youth Online Comprehensive Results. Retrieved August 13,2008 from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/
  • Sexual Behavior Students engage in different types of sex Source: Markham, C.M., Peskin, M.F., Addy, R.C., Baumler, E.R., Tortolero, S. Patterns of vaginal, oral, and anal sexual intercourse in an urban seventh grade population. Accepted to the Journal of School Health. Sexual behaviors among 7 th grade students in 2004 8.0% Oral 14.4% Any 12.2% Vaginal 6.5% Anal
  • Sexual Behavior 7 th grade sexual behavior has increased over a two year period 8.0% Oral 14.4% Any 12.2% Vaginal 6.5% Anal 8.7% Oral 15.9% Any 13.0% Vaginal 6.8% Anal 2004 2006
  • Sexual Behavior Trends in Sexual Behavior Among 7 th , 8 th , and 9 th Grade Students
  • Sexual Behavior Trends in Sexual Experience Among Students
  • Sexual Behavior Therefore… in Texas with over 2 million students in 6-12 grade, the estimated total number of students having sex in any given year Source: Shanklin, S.L., Brener, N., McManus, T., Kinchen, S., Kann, L. (2007). 2005 Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Atlanta, G.A.: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. YRBS Results YRBSS: Youth Online Comprehensive Results. Retrieved June 4,2008 from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/ Source for TX student numbers: Enrollment in TX Public Schools, 2007-2008. Available at: http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/research/pdfs/enrollment_2007-08.pdf 826,644 Grade Percent Having Sex Number of Students Having Sex 6 th 11.2% 37,460 7 th 14.7% 48,732 8 th 18.1% 61,239 9 th 38.0% 150,582 10 th 51.0% 166,430 11 th 60.9% 176,586 12 th 70.6% 185,610 Total 826,644
  • Sexual Behavior Therefore… in a large urban school district with 200,000 students the estimated total number of students having sex in any given year Source: Shanklin, S.L., Brener, N., McManus, T., Kinchen, S., Kann, L. (2007). 2005 Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Atlanta, G.A.: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. YRBS Results YRBSS: Youth Online Comprehensive Results. Retrieved June 4,2008 from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/ Source for HISD student numbers: HISD Student Profile 2006-2007, available at http://www.houstonisd.org/ResearchAccountability/Home/Perform_Acount/DataAnalysis/District%20School%20Profiles/2007/StudentProfile_2007.pdf 28,995 Grade Percent Having Sex Number of Students Having Sex 6 th 11.2% 1,553 7 th 14.7% 2,115 8 th 18.1% 2,439 9 th 40.9% 5,556 10 th 48.2% 5,836 11 th 55.8% 5,708 12 th 61.7% 5,788 Total 28,995
    • Why we need to do more
      • Sexual behavior
      • Outcomes
      • Prevention
      • Urgency
    • How we can do more
      • Why We Need to
      • Do More
  • Outcomes-Sexually Transmitted Infections Source:  Weinstock, H, Berman, S, Cates, W, Jr. Sexually Transmitted Diseases among American Youth: Incidence and Prevalence Estimates, 2000. Perspect Sex Reprod Health, 2004:36(1):6-10. Detected STIs Undetected STIs In the U.S. nearly HALF of all new STI cases occur among those aged 15-24 years.
  • Outcomes-Sexually Transmitted Infections In the U.S. at least 1 in 4 teenage girls has a sexually transmitted infection
  •  
  •  
  • Source: National Office of AIDs Policy. Youth and HIV/AIDS 2000: A New American Agenda. Retrieved May 1, 2008 from http://www.thebody.com/content/art36.html . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. AIDS Cases by Geographic Area of Residence and Metropolitain Statistical Area of Residence, 2004, . HIV/AIDS Supplement Report (2006); 12(Number 2). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/. Outcomes -Sexually Transmitted Infections HIV Half of all new infections in the U.S. are among youth under age 25
  • Outcomes-Sexually Transmitted Infections Source:  Texas Department of State Health Services. (2008). Texas HIV/AIDS Quarterly Report. Accessed March 4, from http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/HIVSTD/stats/pdf/HARSQ22008.pdf. In TX, over half of all HIV cases among youth occur among African Americans. Over one fourth of all HIV cases among youth occur among Hispanics in TX.
  •  
  • Outcomes-Sexually Transmitted Infections Gonorrhea rates per 100,000 adolescents ages 15 –19 years, 2006
  • Chlamydia — Prevalence among 16- to 24-year-old women entering the National Job Training Program by state of residence: United States and outlying areas, 2007 *Fewer than 100 women residing in these states/areas and entering the National Job Training Program were screened for chlamydia in 2007. SOURCE: National Job Training Program; Department of Labor (in collaboration with the Center for Disease Detection, San Antonio, Texas)
  • Outcomes-Sexually Transmitted Infections
    • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
    • Ectopic pregnancy
    • Chronic pelvic pain
    • Infertility
    • Cancer
    • Genital sores
    • Anxiety, depression, and stress
    Source:  CDC. (2007). National Center for HIV/AIDS , Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention: Texas State Profile, 2007. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/stateprofiles/Texas/Texas_Profiles.htm ; Brown, L. K., Lourie, K. J., & Pao, M. (2000). Children and adolescents living with HIV and AIDS: A review. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 41 (1), 81-96 Consequences of STIs
    • Increased susceptibility to other STI infections
    • If pregnant, risk of transmitting STI to newborn
    • Increased medical cost (e.g. clinic visits, drug treatments)
  • Outcomes-Sexually Transmitted Infections Total direct medical cost for new STI infections among 15-24 year olds. $6.5 Billion Source: Chesson, H., Blandford, J.M., Gift, T.L., Tao, G., Irwin, K.L. (2004). The estimated direct medical cost of sexually transmitted diseases among american youth. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 36(1): 11-19. STI Total Direct Medical Cost HIV $3.0 billion HPV $2.9 billion Genital Herpes $292.7 million Hepatitis B $5.8 million Chlamydia $248.4 million Gonorrhea $77.0 million Trichomoniasis $34.2 million Syphilis $3.6 million Total $6.5 billion
  • Outcomes - Teen Birth For the first time in 15 years the nation’s teen birth rate has increased
  • Outcomes – Teen Birth Source: United Nations Statistics Division. (2004). Demographic Yearbook 2004. New York: United Nations; Advocates for Youth Birth Rates in Developed Countries, Teens 15-19 years (per 1,000 teen girls)
  • Outcomes – Teen Birth Birth Rates across states, teens 15-19 years (per 1,000 teen girls)
  • Outcomes -Teen Birth Texas has the third highest teen birth rate in the U.S. (Rate per 1,000) Hispanic population in TX: 36.0% Hispanic population in CA: 36.2% Source:  National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. (2009). 50 State Comparison: Teen Birth Rate. Retrieved January 7, 2009 from http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/state-data/state-comparisions.asp 40 Source: U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). Table 3. Annual estimates of the population by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: April 200-Jully 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2009, from http://www.census.gov/popest/states/asrh/SC-EST2007-03.html. 63 64 62 60 62 54 68
  • In Texas, 28% of females are estimated to become teen mothers
  • In Texas, in 2006, 62% of teen births occurred among Latina girls. Source:  National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. (2006). 50 State Comparison. Available at: http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/state-data/state-comparisions.asp?id=4&sID=43 Outcomes – Teen Pregnancy
  • Sexual Behavior Same-sex relationships are often ignored Percent of 15-17 year olds who have had same-sex sexual contact Source: Mosher W, Chandra A, Jones J. Sexual Behavior and Selected Health Measures: Men and Women 15–44 Years of Age, United States, 2002 . Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics; no 362. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2005. Males Females 15-17 years 8.4% 15-17 years 3.9% 15-44 Years 11.2% 15-44 Years 6.0%
  • Sexual Behavior
    • GLBT students are more likely to:
    • Have ever had sex
    • Begin having sex at an earlier age
    • Have more sexual partners
    • Use drugs and alcohol
    • Be sexually abused
    • Miss school due to personal safety concern
    • Be victims of harassment, injury, and vandalism
    Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender students are at higher risk than their straight peers Source: Blake SM, Ledsky R, Lehman T, Goodenow C, Sawyer R, Hack T. Preventing Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Adolescents: The Benefits of Gay-Sensitive HIV Instruction in Schools. AJPH. 2001; 91:940-946.
  • Outcomes – Teen Pregnancy Percent of lesbian, gay, and bisexual teens, grade 7-12, involved in a pregnancy
  • Outcomes – Teen Pregnancy If the TX teen birth rate equaled those in other countries and states, then the number of TX teen births would reduce by:
  • A local study found 42% of teen mothers had a repeat pregnancy Source:  Raneria, L.G., and Weiman, C.M. (2007). Social ecological predictors of repeat adolescent pregnancy. Perspectives on Sexual Reproductive Health, 39(1): 39-47. Outcomes – Repeat Pregnancy
  • Outcomes – Teen Births
      • More likely to live in poverty
      • Less likely to complete high school
      • Less likely to attend college
      • More likely to be and remain single parents
    Source:  Kirby, D. (2007). Emerging Answers 2007: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Disease. Washington, D.C.: National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy Consequences for the Teen Parent
  • Outcomes – Teen Births
    • More likely to:
      • Drop out of school
      • Have poor involvement with their children
      • Have decreased economic stability, income, and occupational attainment
      • Engage in substance abuse and illegal activity
      • Conceive children with multiple women
    Consequences for the Teen Father Source: Bronte- Tinkew, J., Burkhauser, M., Metz, A. (2008). Elements of Promising Practice in Teen Fatherhood Programs: Evidence-Based and Evidence-Informed Research Findings on What Works . National Responsible Fatherhood Clearinghouse, Gaithersburg, MD. National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. Why It Matters: Teen Pregnancy and Responsible Fatherhood. Available at: http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/why-it-matters/pdf/fatherhood.pdf
      • More likely to:
      • Score lower in math and reading into adolescence
      • Drop out of high school
      • Experience abuse/neglect
      • Enter the foster care system
      • End up in prison (males)
    Outcomes – Teen Births Consequences for the Child
      • More likely to:
      • Use public insurance
      • Be taken into emergency rooms for care as infants
      • Be unemployed, underemployed as a young adult
      • Become a teen parent
    Outcomes – Teen Births Consequences for the Child
  • Outcomes – Teen Births Nationally, 68% of teen mothers do not graduate high school
  • Outcomes – Teen Births
      • Costly – Teen childbearing cost taxpayers $9.1 billion annually
    Source:  Kirby, D. (2007). Emerging Answers 2007: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Disease. Washington, D.C.: National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy Consequences for Society
  • Outcomes – Teen Births Cost of Teen Childbearing in Texas
  • Outcomes – Teen Pregnancy If the TX teen birth rate equaled those in other countries and states, then the average public savings in TX would be:
    • Why we need to do more
      • Sexual behavior
      • Outcomes
      • Urgency
    • How we can do more
      • Prevention
      • Why We Need to
      • Do More
  • Prevention What is Prevention and What is Practical?
  • Prevention What is Practical? The age of marriage has increased.
  • Prevention
    • The average age
    • of marriage in the United States is 27 years old
    What is practical?
  • Prevention Almost all Americans have sex before marrying Percent who have premarital sex by age: Source: Finer, L.B. (2007). Trends in premarital sex in the United. States, 1954-2003. Public Health Reports, 122( Jan-Feb): 73-78. 35 years 94% 25 years 89% 30 Years 93%
  • Prevention Premarital sex has been nearly universal for decades
    • One in three teens do not get formal education about birth control
    • 46% of males and 38% of females received no instruction about birth control methods prior to first sex
    Prevention Many teenagers do not receive sexual health education before first sex Source: Abma, J.C., Martinez, G.M., Mosher, W.D., Dawson, B.S. (2004). Teenagers in the United States: Sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing 2002. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 23, No. 24..  
  • Prevention In just seven years, the proportion of teens receiving information on birth control has decreased
  • Prevention Black and Hispanic teens are less likely to receive information about birth control:
  • Prevention
    • One in four sex education teachers are prohibited from teaching about contraception
    • Four in 10 either do not teach about contraceptive methods (including condoms) or teach that they are ineffective
    Source: Darroch, J.D., Landy, D.J., and Singh, S. (2000). Changing emphasis in sexuality education in the U.S. public secondary schools, 1998-1999. Family Planning Perspectives, 32(5): 204-211 &265. Many sexual health education teachers do not teach about contraception
  • Prevention
    • 93% of parents reported their child has benefited from sex education
    • 94% of parents say that sex education should cover contraception
    • 79% of parents want their children to learn about sexual orientation in sex education
    Americans overwhelmingly favor broader sex education Source: Kaiser, National Public Radio and John F. Kennedy School of Government, Sex Education in America , Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser, 2004. Source: Hoff T, Greene L. Sex Education in America: A Series of National Surveys of Students, Parents, Teachers, and Principals. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2000.
  • Prevention Support for comprehensive sex education including teaching contraception Source: Kaiser, National Public Radio and JohnSource: Boonstra H, Legislators craft alternative vision of sex education to counter abstinence-only drive, The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy , 2002, 5(2):1 – 3..
  • How is Texas doing in teaching sex education?
  • Prevention Most Texas schools implement programs that are NOT evidenced-based
  •  
  • State-approved Curricula
  •  
  • Texas Legislation
  • Prevention
    • In the absence of family planning services, teen pregnancy would increase by 46%
    • For every $1 invested into publicly provided family planning services $4.02 is saved in state and federal Medicaid expenditures
    Access to publicly funded family planning services can dramatically impact unintended pregnancy rates and federal expenditures Source: Gold, R.B. (2009). Family planning and health care reform: The benefits and challenges of prioritizing prevention. Guttmacher Policy Review, 12(1): 19-24.
  • A sexually active teen who does not use contraceptives has a 90% chance of becoming pregnant within a year Urgency Sour Sources: Harlap S, Kost K and Forrest JD, Preventing Pregnancy, Protecting Health: A New Look at Birth Control Choices in the United States , AGI, New York, 1991; and Abma JC et al., Teenagers in the United States: sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing, 2002, Vital and Health Statistics, 2004, 23(24). ce: Texas Department of State Health Services. (2005). Teen Pregnancy Prevention. Retrieved April 28, 2008 from http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/famplan/tpp.shtm
  • If we don’t take care of teen pregnancy, it threatens to break the public health system in Texas Urgency Sour Sources: Harlap S, Kost K and Forrest JD, Preventing Pregnancy, Protecting Health: A New Look at Birth Control Choices in the United States , AGI, New York, 1991; and Abma JC et al., Teenagers in the United States: sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing, 2002, Vital and Health Statistics, 2004, 23(24). ce: Texas Department of State Health Services. (2005). Teen Pregnancy Prevention. Retrieved April 28, 2008 from http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/famplan/tpp.shtm
    • Why we need to do more
      • Sexual behavior
      • Outcomes
      • Prevention
      • Urgency
    How we can do more
      • How We Can Do
      • Do More
    Taking Action
  • Start the Conversation…
    • With your teens:
    • Have open, honest, and
    • consistent discussions about sexuality
    • View young people as assets, not as problems
  • Start the Conversation…
    • With your school officials:
    • Encourage use of evidence-based sexual health education programs
    • Ask schools to support teachers with proper materials
    • Request after-school programs
  • Start the Conversation…
    • With your legislators:
    • Educate them about the critical state of teen pregnancy
    • Share your perspective
  • Start the Conversation…
    • With your local businesses:
    • Ask for their support…
  • How We Can Do More
    • Adolescents have the RIGHT to balanced, accurate, and realistic sex education, confidential and affordable health services, and a secure stake in the future.
    • Youth deserve RESPECT .
    • Society has the RESPONSIBILTY to provide young people with the tools they need to safeguard their sexual health.
    Source: Advocates for Youth. (2008) Adolescent Sexual Health in Europe and the U.S. – Why the Difference?, Washington, D.C.: Advocates for Youth.
    • What are you willing to do?
    We Can Do More