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D E V E L O P M E N T A L  P S Y C H O L O G Y  A N D  L E A R N I N G   I  B I M
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D E V E L O P M E N T A L P S Y C H O L O G Y A N D L E A R N I N G I B I M

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    • 1. SCHOOL : NOMBRES : DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LEARNING FIRST BIMESTER FECHA : ABRIL – AGOSTO 2009 Lic. Eliana Pinza Languages
    • 2. <ul><li>FIRST BIMESTER </li></ul>
    • 3. DEVELOPMENT: Certain changes that occur in human beings between conception and death. (A temporary change caused by a brief illness, is not considered a part of development)
    • 4. <ul><li>Human development can be divided into a number of different aspects </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical development (changes in the body) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal development (changes in an individual’s personality) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social development ( changes in the way an individual relates to others) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive development (changes in thinking) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 5. <ul><li>GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People develop at different rates (some students may be larger, better coordinated, or more mature in their thinking and social relationships. Others will be much slower to mature in these areas). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development is relatively orderly (people develop abilities in a logical order, in infancy children sit before walk) </li></ul></ul>
    • 6. <ul><ul><li>3. Development takes place gradually (a student who can not manipulate a pencil may well develop this ability, but the change is likely to take time) </li></ul></ul>
    • 7. <ul><li>THE BRAIN AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Different areas of the brain are involved in particular functions </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebellum: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates and orchestrates balance and smooth, skilled movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plays a role in higher cognitive functions such as learning </li></ul></ul>
    • 8. <ul><li>Hippocampus: critical in recalling new information and recent experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala: directs emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus: involved in the ability to learn new information particularly if it is verbal </li></ul>
    • 9. <ul><li>Reticular formation: blocks some messages and sends others on to higher brain centers for processing </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus callosum: moves information from one side of the brain to the other </li></ul>
    • 10. <ul><li>The cerebral cortex is the largest area of the brain which allows the greatest human accomplishments (complex problem solving and language) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the last part to develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains the greatest number of neurons (tiny structures that store and transmit information) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops more slowly than other parts of the brain </li></ul></ul>
    • 11. <ul><ul><ul><li>The part that controls physical motor movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The areas that control complex senses such us vision and hearing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The frontal lobe that controls higher-order thinking processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The temporal lobes that play major roles in emotions and language </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 12. <ul><li>Different areas of the cortex seem to have different functions to accomplish more complex functions such as speaking or reading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateralization aspect of brain functioning that has implication for cognitive development ( specialization of the two hemispheres of the brain). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each half of the brain controls the opposite side of the body (damage to the right side of the brain will affect movement of the left side of the body and vice versa) </li></ul>
    • 13. <ul><ul><li>The left hemisphere (major factor in language processing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The right hemisphere (handles much of the spatial-visual information and emotions) </li></ul></ul>Source: Encarta
    • 14. <ul><li>PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Certain ways of thinking that are quite simple for an adult are not so simple for a child </li></ul><ul><li>Our thinking processes change radically, though slowly, from birth to maturity because we constantly strive to make sense of the world </li></ul>
    • 15. <ul><li>FOUR FACTORS (interact to influence changes in thinking) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological maturation (maturation helps us to make sense of the world) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity (act on the environment and learn from it –explore, test, observe, and organize information) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social experiences (learning from others) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equilibration (act of searching for a balance and if there is not balance it results in disequilibrium which motivates to keep searching for a solution through assimilation and accommodation) </li></ul></ul>
    • 16. <ul><li>PROCESS OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Two processes used by the individual to adapt: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASSIMILATION using the environment so that it can be placed in preexisting cognitive structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACCOMODATION changing cognitive structures in order to accept something from the environment </li></ul></ul>
    • 17. <ul><li>FOUR STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>SENSORIMOTOR </li></ul><ul><li>PREOPERATIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>CONCRETE OPERATIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>FORMAL OPERATIONAL </li></ul>
    • 18. <ul><li>THE SENSORIMOTOR STAGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0 – 2 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The child thinking involves seeing, hearing, moving, touching, tasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During this stage infants develop objects permanence, the understanding that objects exist in the environment whether they perceive them or not (begin to recognize that objects do not cease to exist when they are hidden) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins to make use of imitation, memory, and thought </li></ul></ul>
    • 19. <ul><li>THE PREOPERATIONAL STAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-7 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semiotic function (The ability to use symbols to represent action or objects mentally) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversible thinking (Thinking backwards, from the end to the beginning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation (Some characteristics of an object remain the same despite changes in appearance) </li></ul></ul>
    • 20. <ul><ul><li>Decentering (To focus on more than one aspect at a time) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egocentric (To assume that others experience the world the way you do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective monologue (Form of speech in which children in a group talk but do not really interact or communicate) </li></ul></ul>
    • 21. <ul><li>THE CONCRETE-OPERATIONAL STAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7-11 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity (a person or object remains the same over time) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation (changes in one direction can be offset by changes in another) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification (grouping objects into categories) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversibility (ability to think through a series of steps and return to the starting point) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seriation (arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect such as weight or volume) </li></ul></ul>
    • 22. <ul><li>FORMAL OPERATIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11-adult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to solve abstract problems in logical fashion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes more scientific in thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops concerns about social issues, identity </li></ul></ul>
    • 23. <ul><ul><ul><li>VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every function in a child’s cultural development appears twice: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between people (social process that takes place in shared activities between the child and another person in which they interact to solve a problem) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inside the child (the social process is internalized by the child and becomes part of the child’s cognitive development) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 24. Cultural tools (material tools) The Internet computers Psychological tools Mathematical systems, sign language <ul><li>Psychological tools can help students advance their own development </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural tools allow people to communicate, think, solve problems and creating knowledge </li></ul>Play very important role in cognitive development
    • 25. <ul><li>At any given point in development, there are certain problems that a child is on the verge of being able to solve. </li></ul><ul><li>Some problems are beyond the child’s capabilities even if the every step is explained clearly . </li></ul><ul><li>The zone of proximal development ( what learner could understand with guidance) is the area where instruction can succeed, because real learning is possible </li></ul>
    • 26. <ul><li> THE DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>All children in every culture master the system of their native language. </li></ul><ul><li>At the least, sounds , meanings , words , and sequences of words , volume , voice tone , inflection , and turn taking rules must all be coordinated before a child can communicate effectively in conversations. </li></ul>
    • 27. <ul><li>Children develop language as they build on other cognitive abilities by actively trying to make sense of what they hear, looking for partners, and making up rules </li></ul>
    • 28. <ul><ul><li>PERSONAL, SOCIAL , AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The preschool years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The elementary school years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescence </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 29. <ul><ul><li>The preschool children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are very active </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are able to run, jump, climb, and hop. These movements develop naturally if children have normal physical abilities and the opportunity to play (their muscles grow stronger, their balance improves, and their center of gravity mover lower). </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 30. <ul><ul><li>During the elementary-school years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They become taller, leaner, and stronger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are able to master sports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Puberty marks the beginning of sexual maturity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Series of changes involves almost every part of the body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The physical changes have significant effects on the individual’s identity. (Bulimia and Anorexia nervosa which are more common in females) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 31. <ul><li>STAGES OF INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erikson offered a basic framework for understanding the needs of young people in relation to the society in which they grow, learn, and later make their contributions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His psychosocial theory emphasizes the emergence of the self, the search for identity, the individual’s relationship with others, and the role of culture throughout life. </li></ul></ul>
    • 32. <ul><li>Stages of psychosocial development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic trust versus basic mistrust (birth to 12-18 months) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The infant must for a first loving, trusting relationship with the caregiver or develop a sense of mistrust. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy versus shame/doubt (18 months to 3 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The child’s energies are directed toward the development of physical skills, including walking. The child learns control but may develop shame if not handle well </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 33. <ul><ul><li>Initiative versus guilt (3 to 6 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The child continues to take more initiative but may be too forceful, which can lead to guilt feelings. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry versus inferiority (6 to 12 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The child must deal with demands to learn new skills or risk a sense of inferiority, failure, and incompetence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity versus role confusion (adolescence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The teenager must achieve identity in occupation. Gender roles, politics, and religion </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 34. <ul><ul><li>Intimacy versus isolation (young adulthood) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The young adult must develop intimate relationships or suffer feelings of isolation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generativity versus stagnation (Middle adulthood) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each adult must find some way to satisfy and support the next generation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego integrity versus despair (Late adulthood) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The culmination is a sense of acceptance of oneself and a sense of fulfillment </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 35. <ul><li>According to Freud’s Theory different driving forces develop during three stages which play an important role in how we interact with the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Id (it wants whatever feels good at the time with no consideration for the reality of the situation) When a child is hungry, the id wants food, and therefore the child cries. We are born with our Id. </li></ul>THE STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY
    • 36. <ul><li>Ego (within the next three years as the child interacts more and more with the world, the second part of the personality begins to develop) It understands that other people have needs and desires and that sometimes being impulsive or selfish can hurt us . </li></ul><ul><li>Superego (by the age of five) It is the moral part of us and develops due to the moral and ethical restrains placed on us by our caregivers. </li></ul>
    • 37. Emotional and Moral Development <ul><li>It is important to interpret what others are thinking and feeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Competence: Understanding intentions and taking the perspective of thers are elements in the development of emotional competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and emotional competences are critical for both academic and personal development. </li></ul></ul>
    • 38. <ul><li>Children need a theory of mind to make sense of other people’s behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of mind: an understanding that other people are people too, with their own minds, thoughts, feelings, beliefs, desires, and perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>By 2 or 3 years old, children are beginning to develop a theory of mind. </li></ul>
    • 39. <ul><li>Along with a more advanced theory of mind and an understanding of intention (understand that other people have intention of their own) children also are developing a sense of right or wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>MORAL REASONING = thinking about right and wrong and their active construction of moral judgments </li></ul>
    • 40. <ul><li>Kohlberg proposed a sequence of stages of moral reasoning or judgments about right or wrong </li></ul>3 levels Postconventional Conventional Preconventional Judgment is based solely on a person’s own needs and perceptions Expectations of society and law are taken into account Judgments are based on abstract, more personal principles of justice that are not necessarily defined by society’s law
    • 41. <ul><li>INTELLIGENCE </li></ul><ul><li>The ability or abilities to acquire and use knowledge for solving problems and adapting to the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All children are exceptional because every child is a distinctive collection of talents, abilities, and limitations. But some are called exceptional students since their physical, intellectual, or behavioral skills and abilities differ substantially from the norm </li></ul></ul>LEARNER DIFFERENCES AND LEARNING NEEDS
    • 42. <ul><li>MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES </li></ul><ul><li>According to Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences there are at least eight intelligences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic (verbal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musical, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial, </li></ul></ul>
    • 43. <ul><ul><li>Logical-mathematical, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bodily-kinesthetic, (movement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal (understanding others) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal (understanding self) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalist (observing and understanding natural and human-made patterns and systems) </li></ul></ul>
    • 44. <ul><li>EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to process and use emotional information accurately and efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>It involves four abilities </li></ul>Perceiving Integrating Understanding Managing emotions
    • 45. <ul><ul><li>You must manage your emotions, particularly negative emotions such as anger or depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing emotions includes the ability to focus energy, persist, control impulses, and delay immediate gratification </li></ul></ul>
    • 46. <ul><li>LEARNING STYLES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The way a person approaches learning and studying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The styles are determined by your preferences for particular learning environments. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Example: where, when, with whom, or with what lighting, food, or music you like to study </li></ul></ul>
    • 47. <ul><li>CULTURE AND DIVERSITY </li></ul><ul><li>MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>Field of study designed to increase educational equality for all students </li></ul>
    • 48. <ul><ul><li>Economic and Social class differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Relative standing in the society based on income, power, background, and prestige </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The characteristics of different social classes: Income, occupation, education, home ownership, health coverage, neighborhoods, afford children’s college </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Class </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Class </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working Class </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Class </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 49. <ul><li>Ethnic and Racial differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity: “groups that are characterized in terms of a common nationality, culture, or language” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race: “ a category composed of men and women who share biologically transmitted traits that are defined as socially significant, such as skin color or skin texture”. It is a label people apply to themselves and to others based on appearances. </li></ul></ul>
    • 50. <ul><li>Differences in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Gender refers to traits and behaviors that a particular culture judges to be appropriate for men and for women. </li></ul><ul><li>Sex refers to biological differences. </li></ul>
    • 51. SEXUAL IDENTITY Gender Identity Gender-role Behaviors Sexual Orientation
    • 52. <ul><li>Sexual Identity : It is a complicated construction of beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender Identity : is a person's self-identification as male or female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender-Role behaviors : are those behaviors and characteristics that the culture associates with each gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual Orientation : involves the person's choice of a sexual partner </li></ul></ul>
    • 53. <ul><li>Gender-Role Identity: is the image each individual has of himself or herself as masculine or feminine in characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children are aware of gender differences (mommies are girls and daddies are boys) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children spend three times as much play time with same-sex playmates as with opposite-sex playmates </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 54. <ul><li>Through their interactions with family, peers, teachers, and the environment in general, children begin to form gender schemas (organized networks of knowledge about what it means to be male or female) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Gender schemas help children make sense of the world and guide the behavior </li></ul>
    • 55. <ul><li>LANGUAGE DIFFERENCES IN THE CLASSROOM </li></ul><ul><li>Dialect: a variety of a language spoken by </li></ul><ul><li>a particular group </li></ul><ul><li>“ A regional variation of language characterized by distinct grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation” </li></ul><ul><li> (Eugene Garcia 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Dialects differ in their rules, but it is important to remember that these differences are not errors </li></ul>
    • 56. <ul><li>Bilingualism: Speaking two languages fluently </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is more to being bilingual than just speaking two languages. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is important to move between two cultures while still maintaining a sense of your own identity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being bilingual and bicultural means mastering the knowledge necessary to communicate in two cultures </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 57.  
    • 58. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>
    • 59.  

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