Endangered ,Rare & Extinct Species

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A PPT on Endangered ,Rare & Extinct Species--- …

A PPT on Endangered ,Rare & Extinct Species---

Presented by- UTKARSH (U.K.D)

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  • 1. Endangered Rare & Extinct Species Submitted To………………….
  • 2. An endangered species is a species of organisms facing a very high risk of extinction. The phrase is used vaguely in common parlance for any species fitting this description, but its use by conservation biologists typically refers to those designated Endangered in the IUCN Red List, where it is the second most severe conservation status for wild populations, following Critically Endangered. species: for example, forbidding hunting, restricting land development or creating preserves.
  • 3. There are currently 3079 animals and 2655 plants classified as Endangered worldwide, compared with 1998 levels of 1102 and 1197, respectively. The amount, population trend, and conservation status of each species can be found in the Lists of organisms by population. Many nations have laws offering protection to conservation reliant
  • 4. Conservation status The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that endangered species becoming extinct. Many factors are taken into account when assessing the conservation status of a species, including statistics such as the number remaining, the overall increase or decrease in the population over time, breeding success rates, known threats, and so on.
  • 5. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the best-known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. It has been estimated that over 40% of all living species on Earth are at risk of going extinct. Internationally, 199 countries have signed an accord agreeing to create Biodiversity Action Plans to protect endangered and other threatened species. In the United States this plan is usually called a species Recovery Plan.
  • 6. A rare species is a group of organisms that are very uncommon or scarce. This designation may be applied to either a plant or animal taxon, and may be distinct from the term endangered or threatened species. Designation of a rare species may be made by an official body, such as a national government, state, or province. However, the term more commonly appears without reference to specific criteria. The IUCN does not normally make such designations, but may use the term in scientific discussion.
  • 7. Rarity rests on a specific species being represented by a small number of organisms worldwide, usually fewer than 10,000. However, a species having a very narrow endemic range or fragmented habitat also influences the concept. Rare species are not uncommon, since nearly 75% of known species are rare. A species may be endangered or vulnerable, but not considered rare if—for example—it has a large, dispersed population, but its numbers are declining rapidly or predicted to do so. Rare species are generally considered threatened because a small population size is more likely to not recover from stochastic events (things that could happen).
  • 8. In biology and ecology, extinction is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa, where a species presumed extinct abruptly "re-appears" (typically in the fossil record) after a period of apparent absence.
  • 9. Through evolution, new species arise through the process of speciation—where new varieties of organisms arise and thrive when they are able to find and exploit an ecological niche—and species become extinct when they are no longer able to survive in changing conditions or against superior competition. The relationship between animals and their ecological niches has been firmly established. A typical species becomes extinct within 10 million years of its first appearance, although some species, called living fossils, survive with virtually no morphological change for hundreds of millions of years. Most extinctions have occurred naturally, prior to Homo sapiens walking on Earth: it is estimated that 99.9% of all species that have ever existed are now extinct.
  • 10. A species becomes extinct when the last existing member dies. Extinction therefore becomes a certainty when there are no surviving individuals that are able to reproduce and create a new generation. A species may become functionally extinct when only a handful of individuals survive, which cannot reproduce due to poor health, age, sparse distribution over a large range, a lack of individuals In ecology, extinction is often used informally to refer to local extinction, in which a species ceases to exist in the chosen area of study, but still exists elsewhere. This phenomenon is also known as extirpation. Local extinctions may be followed by a replacement of the species taken from other locations; wolf reintroduction is an example of this. Species which are not extinct are termed extant.
  • 11. Causes As long as species have been evolving, species have been going extinct. It is estimated that over 99.9% of all species that ever lived are extinct. The average life-span of most species is 10 million years, although this varies widely between taxa. There are a variety of causes that can contribute directly or indirectly to the extinction of a species or group of species. Extinction may take place a long time after the events that set it in motion, a phenomenon known as extinction debt.
  • 12. Genetics and demographic phenomena Population genetics and demographic phenomena affect the evolution, and therefore the risk of extinction, of species. Limited geographic range is the most important determinant of genus extinction at background rates but becomes increasingly irrelevant as mass extinction arises.
  • 13. Genetic pollution Purebred wild species evolved to a specific ecology can be threatened with extinction through the process of genetic Endemic populations can face such extinctions when new populations are imported or selectively bred by people, or when habitat modification brings previously isolated species into contact. Extinction is likeliest for rare species coming into contact with more abundant ones; interbreeding can swamp the rarer gene pool and create hybrids, depleting the purebred gene pool. Such extinctions are not always apparent from morphological (non-genetic) observations. Some degree of gene flow is a normal evolutionarily process, nevertheless, hybridization threatens
  • 14. Habitat degradation Habitat degradation is currently the main anthropogenic cause of species extinctions. The main cause of habitat degradation worldwide is agriculture, with urban sprawl, logging, mining and some fishing practices close behind. The degradation of a species' habitat may alter the fitness landscape to such an extent that the species is no longer able to survive and becomes extinct. This may occur by direct effects, such as the environment becoming toxic, or indirectly, by limiting a species' ability to compete effectively for diminished resources or against new competitor species.
  • 15. Predation, competition, and disease In the natural course of events, species become extinct for a number of reasons, including but not limited to, extinction of a necessary host, prey or pollinator, inter-species competition, inability to deal with evolving diseases and changing environmental conditions (particularly sudden changes) which can act to introduce novel predators, or to remove prey
  • 16. Coextinction Coextinction refers to the loss of a species due to the extinction of another; for example, the extinction of parasitic insects following the loss of their hosts. Coextinction can also occur when a species loses its pollinator, or to predators in a food chain who lose their prey. "Species coextinction is a manifestation of the interconnectedness of organisms in complex ecosystems .
  • 17. Climate Change Extinction as a result of climate change has been confirmed by fossil studies. Particularly, the extinction of amphibians during the Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse, 350 million years ago. A 2003 review across 14 biodiversity research centers predicted that, because of climate change, 15–37% of land species would be "committed to extinction" by 2050. The ecologically rich areas that would potentially suffer the heaviest losses include the Cape Floristic Region, and the Caribbean Basin. These areas might see a doubling of present carbon dioxide levels and rising temperatures that could eliminate 56,000 plant and 3,700 animal species.
  • 18. IUCN Red forListof Nature IUCN stands for International Union conservation IUCN Red List refers to a specific category of threatened species, and may include critically endangered species. The IUCN Red List uses the term endangered species as a specific category of imperilment, rather than as a general term. Under the IUCN Categories and Criteria, endangered species is between critically endangered and vulnerable. Also critically endangered species may also be counted as endangered species and fill all the criteria. The more general term used by the IUCN for species at risk of extinction is threatened species, which also includes the lessat-risk category of vulnerable species together with endangered and critically endangered.
  • 19. According to IUCN, term Endangered is defined as Endangered: faces a very high risk of extinction in the near future. Some animals (according to IUCN) that fall in this category are -: African penguin, African wild dog, Asian elephant, Asiatic lion, blue whale, bonobo, Bornean orangutan ,common chimpanzee, dhole , eastern lowland gorilla, Ethiopian wolf, hispid hare, giant otter, giant panda, goliath frog, green sea turtle, Grevy's zebra, hyacinth macaw, Japanese crane, Lear's macaw, Malayan tapir, markhor, Persian leopard, proboscis monkey, pygmy hippopotamus, red-breasted goose, Rothschild's giraffe, snow leopard, Steller's sea lion, scopas tang , takhi , tiger , Vietnamese pheasant, volcano rabbit, wild water buffalo
  • 20. Made byUTKARSH