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Chapt 03

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  • 1.
  • 2. Chapter 3 : Cell Membrane TransportationCourse Purpose
    • This course introduces animal cells based on structure, characteristics, functions and cellular division. It also emphasises the theory of inheritance including the structure
    and role gene, DNA, and chromosome.
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 3. Chapter 3 : Cell Membrane TransportationTopic Outlines
    3.1 Movement of molecules in & out of cells
    3.1.1 Types of movement
    3.2 Passive transport
    3.2.1Definition
    3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example
    3.3 Active Transport
    3.3.1 Principles & example of active transport
    3.4 Vesicular transport
    3.4.1 Principles & example of active transport
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 4. Chapter 3 : Cell Membrane TransportationCourse Objectives
    • To develop understanding of general biology and genetics basic principles and definition.
    • 5. To understand the scope of biology and human genetics which includes the study of cell, structure of cell, division of cells, genetic materials, mutation and common genetic condition.
    • 6. To acquire knowledge according diseases caused by genetic mutation.
    • 7. To understand basic techniques involved in biology laboratory.
    • 8. To understand laboratory hazards and step to ensure safety in biology procedure.
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 9. Chapter 3 : Cell Membrane TransportationLearning Outcomes
    After completing this lecture, students will be able to:
    (a) List out the types of cell membrane’s transport
    (b) Describe passive transport
    Diffusion
    Osmosis
    (c) Explain active transport
    Sodium/Potassium Pump
    (d) Summarize vesicular transport
    Exocytosis
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 10. Chapter 3 : Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.1 Movement of molecules in & out of cells
    Types of movement
    • Passive Transport
    • 11. Active Transport
    • 12. Vascular Transport
    (a) Endocytosis
    (b) Exocytosis
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 13. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.1/3.2.2 : Passive Transport/Definition
    • Does not require energy (ATP)from the cell
    Example include
    • - diffusion of O2 & CO2
    • 14. - osmosis
    • 15. - Facilitated diffusion
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 16. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.1/3.2.2 : Passive Transport/Definition
    Characteristics
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 17. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example
    Diffusion
    • Net movement of solutes(molecule, ions or atoms) from a region of higher concentrationto a region of lower concentration(down a concentration gradient)
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 18. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 19. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example
    The rate of diffusion depends on:
    • Concentration gradient (difference of concentration between the two areas)
    • 20. Distance of diffusion
    • 21. Area of diffusion
    • 22. Size of diffusing molecules
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 23. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example
    Facilitated Diffusion
    • Movement of solutes acrossa membrane, with the help of transport proteins.
    • 24. Follows the concentration gradient& no energyis needed
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 25. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example
    Osmosis
    • Passive movementof water across a the fine pores of the semi-permeable membrane
    • 26. Spontaneous, as a result of a downhill energy system called ‘water potential’
    • 27. Water moves from an area of higher potentialto an area of lower water potential
    • 28. Water potential= the tendency for water molecules to enter or leave a solution by osmosis
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 29. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example
    A high concentration of waterA lower concentration of water
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 30. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example
    Dissolving solute molecules in pure water will reduce the water potential.
    Why?
    Example of osmosis
    • Hypotonic medium – a dilute solution, with a higher water concentration than the cell – the cell will gain water through osmosis
    • 31. Isotonic medium – a solution with exactly the same water concentration as the cell – there will be no net movement of water across the cell membrane
    • 32. Hypertonic medium – a concentrated solution, with a lower water concentration if compared with the cell – the cell will loose water by osmosis
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 33. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 34. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.3 : Active Transport
    • The movement of substances across membranes, which requires energyin the form of ATP.
    • 35. From an area of low concentrationto an area of high concentration
    • 36. Involves carrier proteinsin membranes
    • 37. The cell uses active transport in three situations:
    (a) when a particle is going from low to high concentration
    (b) when particles need help entering the membrane because they are selectively impermeable
    (c) when very large particles enter and exit the cell
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 38. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.3 : Active Transport
    Characteristics
    • Carrier proteinsor channel proteinis required
    • 39. Each type of carrier protein is specific for one type of substance to carry
    • 40. It will go against concentration gradient
    • 41. The process will only stopwhen there is no moreof the substance to transport
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 42. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.3.1: Principles & example of active transport
    Sodium Potassium Pump
    • The sodium/potassium pump must break ATP downinto ADP in order to pump three ions sodium outsidethe cell, while it pumps two potassium ions intothe cell. The ATPphosphorylates(adds a phosphate to) the membrane proteinas it binds to the sodium and breaks down, and it dephosphorylates the protein as it binds with the potassium
    • 43. Cellular respiration must occur to add the phosphate back to ADP, thus restoring the ATP
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 44. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.3.1:Principles & example of active transport
    Sodium Potassium Pump
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 45. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.3.1:Principles & example of active transport
    Sodium Potassium Pump
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 46. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.3.1:Principles & example of active transport
    Sodium Potassium Pump
    • In order to maintain the cell potential, cells must keep a low concentrationof sodium ions& high levels of potassium ions within the cell (intracellular)
    • 47. Outside the cells (extracellular), the are high concentrations of sodium & low concentrations of potassium
    • 48.  diffusion occurs through ion channels in the plasma membrane
    • 49. Eg. Neuron & muscle
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 50. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.4:Vesicular Transport
    • Cytosis – movement with vesicles @ vacuoles
    • 51. Endocytosis
    (a) Phagocytosis
    (b) Pinocytosis
    • Exocytosis
    Vesicle: relatively small intracellular, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 52. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.4.1:Principles & example of active transport
    Endocytosis
    Uptake of substances by cell en mass or in bulk in the form of
    vesicle
    Two types:
    (a) phagocytosis
    (b) Pinocytosis
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 53. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.4.1:Principles & example of active transport
    Phagocytosis
    • Cellular eating
    • 54. Solid substances or whole organisms are brought inside the cell by invagination (an infolding of the cell membrane)
    • 55. A vacuole is formed, the inner surface of which is derived from the outer surface of the cell surface membrane
    • 56. Eg. Amoeba, white blood cells (phagocytes) perform phagocytosis
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 57. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.4.1:Principles & example of active transport
    Phagocytosis
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 58. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.4.1:Principles & example of active transport
    Pinocytosis
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 59. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.4.1:Principles & example of active transport
    Exocytosis
    • Reverse of endocytosis in which the cell egests or secretes substances
    • 60. Transportof materials out of a cell
    • 61. Materials to be exported must first be enclosed in a membrane vesicle, usually from the rough endoplasmic reticulum & Golgi apparatus eg. hormones & digestive enzymes & residue indigested microorganisms from the intracellular digestion by lysosomes
    • 62. Eg. Secretion of mucus or hormones
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 63. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.4.1:Principles & example of active transport
    Exocytosis
    Hormones & digestive enzymes are secreted by exocytosis from the secretory cells of the intestine & endocrine glands. Vesicles & vacuoles move to the cell surface membrane, fuse with it & release their contents to the outside
    © 2010 Cosmopoint
  • 64. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.4.1:Principles & example of active transport
    Summary
    © 2010 Cosmopoint

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