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    Chapt  01 Chapt 01 Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 01 : INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR BIOLOGY
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologyCourse Purpose
      • This course introduces animal cells based on structure, characteristics, functions and cellular division. It also emphasises the theory of inheritance including the structure
      and role gene, DNA, and chromosome.
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologyTopic Outlines
      1.1 Cell Theory
      1.1.1 “Theory of Spontaneous Generation”
      1.1.2 History of Cell Discovery
      1.1.3 Theory of cells
      1.2 Types of cells
      1.2.1 Prokaryote
      1.2.2 Eukaryote
      1.3 Human cells
      1.3.1 Characteristic of human/animal cell
      1.4 General structure of human cell
      1.4.1 Components of a cell
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologyCourse Objectives
      • To develop understanding of general biology and genetics basic principles and definition.
      • To understand the scope of biology and human genetics which includes the study of cell, structure of cell, division of cells, genetic materials, mutation and common genetic condition.
      • To acquire knowledge according diseases caused by genetic mutation.
      • To understand basic techniques involved in biology laboratory.
      • To understand laboratory hazards and step to ensure safety in biology procedure.
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologyLearning Outcomes
      After completing this lecture, students will be able to:
      (a) Define a cell
      (b) List names of scientists in history of cell discovery
      (c) Outline the theory of cells
      (d) Identify types of human cells
      (e) Explain typical structure of a cell & its components
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.1.1: “Theory of Spontaneous Generation”
      Abiogenesis
      • Hypothetical process by which living organisms develop from nonliving matter/decaying organic substances.
      • Archaic theory that utilizes this process to explain the origin of life.
      • Pieces of cheese and bread wrapped in rags and left in a dark corner, for example, were thus thought to produce mice, according to this theory.
      • Because after several weeks, there were mice in the rags.
      • Many believed in spontaneous generation because it explained such occurrences as the appearance of maggots on decaying meat.
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.1.2 : History of Cell Discovery
      Hans & Zacharias Janssen (1595)
      • Dutch lens grinders, father & son
      • produced 1st compound microscope (2 lenses)
      Robert Hooke (1665)
      • English scientist
      • looked at a thin slice of cork (oak cork) through a compound microscope
      • observed tiny, hollow, roomlike structures
      • called these structures ‘cells’ because they reminded him of the rooms that monks lived in
      • only saw the outer wall (cell walls) because cork cells are not alive
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.1.2 : History of Cell Discovery
      Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1680)
      • Dutch fabric merchant & amateur scientist
      • looked at blood, rainwater, scrapings from teeth through a simple microscope (1 lens)
      • observed living cells; called some ‘animalcules’
      • some of the ‘animalcules’ are actually bacteria
      Matthias Schleiden (1838)
      • German botanist
      • viewed plant parts under a microscope
      • discovered that plant parts are made of cells
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.1.2 : History of Cell Discovery
      Theodor Schwann (1839)
      • German zoologist
      • viewed animal parts under a microscope
      • discovered that animal parts are made of cells
      Rudolph Virchow (1855)
      • German physician
      • stated that all living cells come only from other living cells
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.1.3 : Theory Of Cells
      • Basic unit of structure & function of all living organisms.
      • Arise from pre-existing cells by cell division.
      • Made up of protoplasm surrounded by a semi-permeable lipoprotein membrane.
      • Divided into 2 types: prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.1.3 : Theory Of Cells
      • Living things are made up of cells
      • Thecellis the basic unit of structure& function
      • Almost all organismsconsist of cells&cell products
      • All cellsare produced by the divisionof preexistingcells(through reproduction)
      • Each cell contains genetic materialthat is passed down during this process
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.1.3 : Theory Of Cells
      • All basic chemical & physiological functions (eg. Repair, growth, movement, immunity, communication & digestion) are carried out inside of cells
      • The activities of cells depends on the activities of subcellular structures within the cell (organelles, plasma membrane, nucleus)
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.2: Types of Cell
      • Prokaryotes
      • Eukaryotes
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.2.1: Prokaryotes
      • Primitive cells
      • Not true cells
      • Single-called organism that lacks membrane-bound organelles
      • Do not have nucleus
      • Has a single chromosome containing its entire DNA (lie free in the cytoplasm in a ring formation, not enclosed within a nuclear membrane)
      • Found in bacteria & cyanobacteria (kingdom Prokaryotae)
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.2.1: Prokaryotes
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.2.1: Prokaryotes
      • Structure of prokaryotes cell.
      • Cell wall– contains peptidoglycan (consists of sugars & polymers which are linked with short polypeptides)  provides rigid framework to support & maintain the shape of the cell, prevents rupture of the cell.
      • Plasma membrane– made up of phospholipids  controls the exchange of waste of waste materials & nutrients, fully permeable, as receptor of hormones, neurotransmitters & other chemicals
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.2.1: Prokaryotes
      • Mesosomes– infolding of the surface during cell division, organise the separation of 2 daughter cells & help in the formation of the cross wall between daughter cells
      • Ribosomes– 70S, tiny organelles, consists of 2 subunits, made up of equal amounts of RNA & proteins
      • Naked DNA – unit of inheritance, usually organised into genes & chromosomes
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.2.2: Eukaryotic
      • True cells
      • With nucleus, more advanced cells as found in plants, animal & fungi
      • Have linear strands of DNA within their nuclei
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.2.2: Eukaryotic
      PLANT CELL
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.2.2: Eukaryotic
      Main Difference between Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic cells
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.2.2: Eukaryotic
      Main Difference between Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic cells
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.2.2: Eukaryotic
      Main Difference between Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic cells
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.2.2: Eukaryotic
      Characteristics of a plant cell
      • A large central vacuole, which is bounded by a specialised membrane called tonoplast
      • A cell wall(made up of cellulose, pectins, hemicellulose & protein)
      • Contain a nucleus controls all chemical activities & pass heritable information from 1 generation to next through division of DNA
      • Nucleus is surrounded by nuclear membrane
      • Cytoplasm contains organelles
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.2.2: Eukaryotic
      Characteristics of a plant cell
      • The plasmodesmata, linking pores in the cell wall that allow each plant cell to communicate with other adjacent cells
      • Plastids, especially chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll
      • Plant groups without flagella (including conifers & flowering plants) also lack centrioles that are present in animal cells
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.3 : Human/animal cells
      • Is bordered by a plasma membrane, but it has no cell wall & contains no large permanent vacuoles
      • Nucleus
      • An organelle, called centrosome, consisting of two centrioles, is found beside the nucleus
      • The cytoplasm may contain food granules, secretory granules & often temporary vacuoles/vesicles
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.3.1 : Characteristics of an animal cells
      Types of Human cells
      • Blastomere
      • Egg
      • Embryonic stem cell
      • Erythrocyte
      • Fibroblast
      • Hepatocyte
      • Myoblast
      • Myotube (muscle: skeletal, smooth, cardiac)
      • Neuron
      • Oocyte
      • Osteoblast
      • Osteoclast
      • T-Cell
      • Zygote
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.3.1 : Characteristics of an animal cells
      Types of Human cells
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.4 : General Structure Of Human Cell
      • Diagram of a typical animal (eukaryotic) cell, showing subcellular components.Organelles:(1) nucleolus(2) nucleus(3) ribosome(4) vesicle(5) rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)(6) Golgi apparatus(7) Cytoskeleton(8) smooth endoplasmic reticulum(9) mitochondria(10) vacuole(11) cytoplasm(12) lysosome(13) centrioles within centrosome
      © 2010 Cosmopoint
    • Chapter 1 : Introduction To Cellular BiologySub Topic 1.4 .1 :Component Of Cell
      • Cell membrane / plasma membrane
      • Cytoplasm (with organelles)
      • Nucleus
      © 2010 Cosmopoint