REFERENCING St. George’s guide to citing references
If you quote or make use of another writer's work, you must ensure that it is properly referenced.
This is a standard academic practice intended to make sure that you acknowledge your sources so and to enable a reader to trace them.
For a book, the bibliographic reference should include :
author or editor(s) with initials or forenames
title (underlined or in italics)
edition (unless it is the first)
date of publication
page number(s) if referred to
These should be ordered as shown in the examples you will be given later. If there are three or more authors, you should give the name of only the first, followed by et al. ('et alia' meaning 'and others' in Latin).
For a journal article, the reference should include
author(s) with initials or forenames
full journal title (underlined or in italics)
date of publication
These should be ordered as shown in the examples that you will be given later. Again, if there are three or more authors, you should give the name of only the first, followed by et al.
References to electronic resources must also include a note that it is electronic, its address (URL or otherwise) and, because much Internet material is unfixed or transient, the date when the material was accessed.
Many journals and some books are also now available in electronic format. Where the electronic version duplicates the paper version with the same pagination, etc., reference the item as paper.
REFERENCING There are various referencing systems. At Saint George’s, we will be using the Numeric System/British Standard System. How the system works: Publications cited or referred to in the text are consecutively numbered, usually in superscript. For example: In a recent study 77 it was argued... However, other research 78 suggests... References are then arranged in numerical order at the end of the text or chapter, or as footnotes. If you wish to refer to a particular page, you should do this in the reference itself. Examples are as follows. 77. Harrington, A. The placebo effect . 2nd ed. Harvard U.Pr., 1997. 78. Fee, E. & Brown, T.M. Making medical history . John Hopkins U.Pr., 1997, 18. 79. Harrington, R. The neuroses of the railway. History Today , 1994, 44, 15-21. 80. Adem, A. et al. Group representations . American Mathematical Society, 1998.
REFERENCING For a chapter in a multi-authored book: 81. Hacking, I. Styles of statistical reasoning in McMullin, E. (ed.) The social dimensions of science . Univ.of Notre Dame Pr., 1992, 130-57. For an Internet site: 82. Bournemouth University Library. Guide to Citing Internet Resources . Available from: http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/library/citing_references/citing_refs_main.html [Accessed 26 November 2009].
REFERENCING Some conventions within the numeric system If you are referring consecutively in the bibliography to the same work, it is usual to use the convention Ibid. (from the Latin word 'ibidem' meaning 'in the same place') in the following way. 83. Goldman, J.A. Building New York's sewers . Purdue U.Pr., 1997, 121. 84. Ibid. , 155. Similarly, you can refer back to an item which you have listed already using op. cit. (from the Latin 'opere citato' meaning 'in the work cited'). 85. Adem, A. et al. op. cit. , 122.
REFERENCING The full references in the bibliography are arranged in alphabetical order by author. Works by the same author are arranged according to date, and those with the same author and date, alphabetically by title, as follows. Adem, A. et al. (1998) Group representations . American Mathematical Society. Bournemouth University Library. (2002) Guide to Citing Internet Resources . Available from: http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/library/citing_references/citing_refs_main.html [Accessed 26 November 2009]. Fee, E. & Brown, T.M. (1997) Making medical history . John Hopkins U.Pr. Hacking, I. (1992) Styles of statistical reasoning in McMullin, E. (ed.) The social dimensions of science . Univ. Notre Dame Pr., 130-57. Harrington, A. (1997a) Placebos in clinical trials. Medical History , 42, 116-31. Harrington, A. (1997b) The placebo effect . 2nd ed. Harvard U.Pr.
Don’t forget that you must reference all quotations and ideas that you have used from other sources, even if they are paraphrased.