1                               Dissertation                                  OnA study on the role of consumer perception...
2Title of Project Report: - A study on the role of consumer perception and brandpersonality traits for making cosmetic pur...
3                                    CERTIFICATE       I, Ms. Vandana Gupta hereby certify that Tabish Ahmad, student of M...
4                                 Acknowledgement       Iexpress my deep gratitude to almighty, the supreme guide, for bes...
5                                         (iv)S.No.                     Tables of Contents            Page No. 1.     Chap...
6            Pilot Study                     27            Data Analysis                   274.   Chapter 4               ...
7S.No.                          List of the Tables                            Page No. 1.     ANOVA (Table 1.1) – Factors ...
8S.No.                            List of Figures                                Page No. 1.              Figure 1.0 – In-...
9  Chapter 1INTRODUCTION
10                             CHAPTER 1: Introduction       The history of ancient cosmetics can be traced back to the cu...
11       The Indian Cosmetics Industry, basically constitute of skin care, hair care, colorcosmetics, fragrances and oral ...
12                                  Size of the industry       The size of Indian Cosmetics Industry globally is $ 274 bil...
13       In India, the oldest use of lipstick can be traced back to the era of Indus Valleycivilization, when women in tha...
14                      Top leading Companies in Indian Market        India has now become a developed market for cosmetic...
155. Shahnaz Husain‟s Herbal Pvt. Ltd.offers Face creams (Shahnaz Husain‟s   Ayurvedic Diamond Cream, 24 Carat Gold Ayurve...
16        Hindustan Unilever‟s Products      Proctor & Gamble‟s ProductsGodrej Consumer Care‟s ProductsAyur Herbal‟s Produ...
17                                  Purpose of the Study1.To understand, how different segment of consumers, based on thei...
18                              Significance of the Study1.) To understand how different segment of consumers, based on co...
19    Chapter 2Reviewof Literature
20                                  Review of literature       Krugman, H.E. (1966/1967). was one of the first scholars to...
21to physical attractiveness, self-expression and self-image, and power and control. Highinvolvement ARR women (versus low...
22contains the Big Five Dimensions. Sincerity conveys warmth, acceptance, honesty andcaring qualities. Excitement portrays...
23brand benefits of the brand used by each interviewed participant, as well as the degree ofsatisfaction with the surveyed...
24degree of satisfaction with the surveyed brand. The collected data was modeled usingstructural equation analysis.       ...
25importance of combining eye-tracking and purchase data to obtain a full picture of theeffects of in-store and out-of-sto...
26                                        Figure 1.0            (Source:Journal of Marketing; Nov2009, Vol. 73 Issue 6, p1...
27(the share of a brand among directly competing brands) and need share (the extent towhich consumers rely on a brand to a...
28       They had differentiated brand attachment and brand attitude by starting from thenature of the affect they implica...
29        According to her,going back to the design school is one of the first things, inorder to make a powerful visual b...
30             Chapter 3Research Methodology and Procedures
31                                  Purpose of the Study1.) To understand, how different segment of consumers, based on th...
32line of the companies, which segment of the customers, are usually open to the trail of abrand or a product, then measur...
332. Does point of purchase plays an important role in making cosmetic purchase decision?         H0: Point of purchase do...
34Sampling methods used:Convenience sampling in selecting the different cosmetic shops, companies own outlets,variousparlo...
35                                       Pilot Study       Pilot study is conducted in order to find out the various possi...
36        Chapter 4:Data Analysis and Findings
37                              Results of research questions                                           ANOVA Factors form...
38           This is done through One way ANOVA where dependent variable were Factors    forming positive perception towar...
39       Through, One way ANOVA, where dependent variable were the personality traitsthat cosmetic users expects from a co...
40                                            ANOVAPlace of purchasing the                    Sum of                   Mea...
41                                           ANOVA  Factors of in storemarketing playing role in point of purchase        ...
42                                             ANOVAFactors stimulating trail                    Sum of       purchase    ...
43       One way ANOVA has been used, where dependent variable were factorsstimulating trail purchase of the cosmetic prod...
4471.1 % cosmetic users believe packaging of the cosmetic products to be very important asthey consider packaging as the e...
45Who influences the male cosmetic purchase decisions?         72       Celebrity Endorsements         97        Experts O...
46Factors for retaining the male cosmetic users.                        Bonus Packs for retaining the male segment        ...
47         Above 60           40 - 60                                                                                Serie...
48                                            Males                                                                       ...
49Factor Analysis on reasons to use cosmetic products                                Total Variance Explained             ...
50                             Component Matrixa                                                      Component           ...
51                                 Rotated Component Matrix   Reasons to use cosmetic products                           C...
52Thissuggests that factor 2 is a combination of these two original variables. (Table 4.7)also suggests the similar groupi...
53          Chapter 5:Conclusion and Recommendations
54                               Summary of the findings         One way ANOVA was used where between Factors forming posi...
55       One way ANOVA has been used, between factors stimulating trail purchase ofthe cosmetic products, andcosmetic buye...
56       It can be easily seen from the (Table 4.2) and (Figure 4.3)that the age group 40 -60 are the heavy cosmetic users...
57Significant differences exist between point of purchase andfrequent cosmeticpurchasers or we could conclude that Point o...
58cosmetics in the male cosmetic market is moderate and packaging too is steady,moderate and simple.It can be easily seen ...
59cosmetic products has significant influence on cosmetic purchasers. Refer to the(Table 1.5)From (Table 2.4) 72.6 % peopl...
60                              ReferencesAaker, J. L. (1999) the malleable self: The role of self-expression in persuasio...
Disertation report by tabish ahmad
Disertation report by tabish ahmad
Disertation report by tabish ahmad
Disertation report by tabish ahmad
Disertation report by tabish ahmad
Disertation report by tabish ahmad
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Dissertation on, A study on the role of consumer perception and brand personality traits for making cosmetic purchase decisions
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Tabish Ahmad

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Disertation report by tabish ahmad

  1. 1. 1 Dissertation OnA study on the role of consumer perception and brand personality traits for making cosmetic purchase decisions By Tabish Ahmad A0102210108 MBA – M&S Class of 2012 Under the Supervision of Ms. Vandana Gupta Assistant Professor Department of Marketing & Sales In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Business Administration – Marketing & Sales at AMITY BUSINESS SCHOOL AMITY UNIVERSITY UTTAR PRADESH SECTOR 125, NOIDA - 201303, UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA 2011 DECLARATION
  2. 2. 2Title of Project Report: - A study on the role of consumer perception and brandpersonality traits for making cosmetic purchase decisions.I declare(a)That the work presented for assessment in this Dissertation Report is my own, that ithas not previously been presented for another assessment and that my debts (for words,data, arguments and ideas) have been appropriately acknowledged(b)That the work conforms to the guidelines for presentation and style set out in therelevant documentation.Date: 21st March 2012Place: Noida Tabish Ahmad A0102210108 MBA – M&S Class of 2012 (ii)
  3. 3. 3 CERTIFICATE I, Ms. Vandana Gupta hereby certify that Tabish Ahmad, student of Masters ofBusiness Administration – M&S at Amity Business School, Amity University UttarPradesh has completed Project Report on “A study on the role of consumer perceptionand brand personality traits for making cosmetic purchase decisions”, under myguidance. Ms. Vandana Gupta Assistant Professor Department of Marketing & Sales (iii)
  4. 4. 4 Acknowledgement Iexpress my deep gratitude to almighty, the supreme guide, for bestowing hisblessings upon me in my entire endeavor. I would like to express my sincere thanks to Ms. Vandana Gupta, Asst. Prof.Department of Marketing and Sales for all her assistance. Her overall direction andguidance has been responsible for the successful completion of the project. I would like be grateful to all the cosmetic retailers and shop owners for helpingme in every difficulty that I faced during my dissertation. Their experience gave me adeep insight about the cosmetic industry. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my parents who guided me andgave me strength and support throughout my project. Finally, I would like to thank all the faculty members of the Department ofMarketing & Sales and my friends for their constant support and encouragement.
  5. 5. 5 (iv)S.No. Tables of Contents Page No. 1. Chapter 1 Introduction 2 Market capitalization 3 Size of the industry 4 Brief history of Cosmetics 4 Top leading Companies in Indian Market 6 Purpose of the Study 9 Context of the Study 9 Significance of the Study 10 Theoretical Framework 10 2. Chapter 2 11 Review of Literature 3. Chapter 3 22 Research Methodology and Procedures Purpose of the Study 23 Research Design 24 Research Questions 24 Participation / Samples 25 Data collection procedures 26 Instrumentation 26
  6. 6. 6 Pilot Study 27 Data Analysis 274. Chapter 4 28 Data Analysis and Finding Results of research questions 295. Chapter 5 45 Conclusion and Recommendations Summary of the findings 46 Conclusion 48 Recommendations 506. References 527. APPENDIX A 53 Questionnaire A (v)
  7. 7. 7S.No. List of the Tables Page No. 1. ANOVA (Table 1.1) – Factors forming positive perception towards 29 a brand 2. ANOVA (Table 1.2) – Personality traits that cosmetic users expects 30 from a cosmetic brand 3. ANOVA (Table 1.3) – Place of purchasing the cosmetic products 32 4. ANOVA (Table 1.4) – Factors of in store marketing playing role in 33 point of purchase selection 5. ANOVA (Table1.5) – Factors stimulating trail purchase 34 6. Frequency (Table 2.1) – Eye catching Appearance 35 7. Frequency (Table 2.2) – Expression of product personality 35 8. Frequency (Table 2.3) – Details of Ingredients 36 9. Frequency (Table 2.4) – Direction of usage 36 10. Frequency (Table2.5) – Easy usage and Storage 36 11. Frequency (Table 4.1) – Bonus Packs for retaining the male segment 38 12. Cross Tabulation (4.2)between age of the cosmetic users and 38 frequency of their purchase in six months. 13. Cross Tabulation (4.4)betweengender of the cosmetic users and 39 frequency of their purchase in six months 14. Factor Analysis – Total Variance Explained (Table 4.6) 41 15. Factor Analysis – Component Matrix (Table 4.7) 42 16. Factor Analysis – Rotated Component Matrix (Table 4.8) 43 (vi)
  8. 8. 8S.No. List of Figures Page No. 1. Figure 1.0 – In-store/ Out-store Marketing Factors 18 2. Figure 3.1 – Showing who influences the male cosmetic purchase 37 decisions 3. Figure 4.3 – Showing age of the cosmetic users and frequency of their 39 purchase in six months. 4. Figure 4.5 – Showing gender of the cosmetic users and frequency of 40 their purchase in six months (vii)
  9. 9. 9 Chapter 1INTRODUCTION
  10. 10. 10 CHAPTER 1: Introduction The history of ancient cosmetics can be traced back to the cultures of ancientGreece and Roman Empire, where people used herbal concoction with components likehenna, sage and chamomile to darken their hair. At present in India, the demand forcosmetics products are so high that it could become the world‟s largest cosmeticconsuming country in the next few decades, due to the rising demand a large number oflocal as well as international manufacturers have gradually extended their ranges andproduct lines in different provinces of India. Cosmetic industry in India came into limelight immediately after the globalizationof 1991 which was followed by the crowning of many Indian women at the internationalbeauty pageants. These events led to the change in the cosmetic consumption in India. Inthe Indian Cosmetic Industry, electronic as well as print media have played anastonishing role in spreading awareness about the cosmetic products and developingfashion consciousness among the Indian consumers. As a result of which Indian cosmeticIndustry had a rapid growth in the last couple of years, growing at a CAGR of around7.5% between 2006 and 2008. While this is due to the improving purchasing power andincreasing fashion consciousness, the industry is expected to maintain the momentumgrowth during the period 2009-2012. With the coming up of the satellite television, number of television channels aswell as the Internet in the today‟s scenario, the Indian consumers are constantly beingupdated about all the new cosmetic products and are translated into the desire to purchasethem. In addition to all this, the flourishing Indian fashion/film industry also plays a veryfruitful role in fuelling the growth into the Cosmetic industry by making Indians torealize the importance of having good looks and appearances. Today most of thecosmetics manufacturers, in India cater to the domestic market but they are graduallyestablishing their footholds in overseas markets as well.
  11. 11. 11 The Indian Cosmetics Industry, basically constitute of skin care, hair care, colorcosmetics, fragrances and oral care segments which stood at an estimated $2.5 billion in2010. Also the herbal cosmetics industry is providing full support to the beauty businessin India and is expected to grow at a rate of 7% as more people use chemical products infavor of organic ones. According to a new research report, the Indian Cosmetics Industryis expected to witness impressive growth rate in the near future, owing to rising beautyconcern of both men and women. Currently the industry holds promising growthprospects for both existing and new players. The Indian Cosmetic market which is traditionally a stronghold of a few majorIndian players like Godrej Consumer Care, Hul, Emami, ITC and a lot many,have seenforeign entrants into the market within the last decade. As India is a very price sensitivemarket of the cosmetics and personal care products, considering this in mind, the newforeign entrants had to work out new innovative strategies that suited the Indianpreferences, for thisthey budgeted themselves to establish a hold onto the Indian marketand finally are able to established a “niche market” for themselves. On the other part, theIndian players, counter attacked the foreign entrants by going in forrural expansion andare offering specialized products to generate revenues from all the corners of the country. Market capitalization According to analysis and figures given by the Confederation of Indian Industries(CII), the total Indian beauty and cosmetic market size currently stands at USD 950million and showing growth between 15-20% per annum. The overall beauty andwellness market that includes beauty services stands at about USD 2,680 million,according to CII estimates.
  12. 12. 12 Size of the industry The size of Indian Cosmetics Industry globally is $ 274 billion, while that of theIndian cosmetic industry is $ 4.6 billion. The current size of Indian Cosmetic Industry in2011 is USD 600 million. And the fastest growing segment is color cosmetics,accounting for around USD 60 million of the market. Industry sources estimate a rapidgrowth rate of 20% per annum across different segments of the cosmetics industryreflecting with an increasing demand for all kinds of beauty and personal care product in India. Growth in the Indian Cosmetic Industry has come mainly from the low andmedium-priced categories that account for 90 % of the cosmetics market in terms ofvolume. Brief history of Cosmetics The history of cosmetics is directly linked to the European and Western countriesand shows the evidence of its existence since 6th century, where mixtures and pastes wereused to whiten face. But these mixtures and pastes also had harmful effects whichsometimes led to paralysis, strokes or death. Another method which was used at that timeand recommended by many famous pharmacists, of that era was to bleed oneself usingleeches. But in the late of 19th century, women in the western countries use to do theirmake up using mixtures, which were then prepared by the household products. It was inthe 20th century, when people thought of putting make-up openly for sale. It was in thisera only, when tanning of skin became a popular fad. Whereas from 1930 to 1940speople learn the fashion trends with respect to the lipstick in particular and how graduallyit became darker and darker with the every passing year. With the world-wide demandfor make-up, people finally had few cosmetics which were made available to themthrough sale. Some of the common cosmetics included at that time were lipsticks,eyeliners, mascaras, foundations and eye shadows.
  13. 13. 13 In India, the oldest use of lipstick can be traced back to the era of Indus Valleycivilization, when women in that period use to crush semi-precious stones and mixedthem into a paste to apply it on their lips for an added color. Since then lipstick remainedpopular among women through centuries, irrespective of their cultures and periods theybelonged to. It was a known fact then that lipsticks were manufactured by the twocommon techniques one was with using potent and toxic chemicals where as other onewas used vegetables and animal extract. Today a wide variety of lipsticks are available inthe market to cater to various needs of the female consumers. There are organic andnatural lipsticks as well as lip gloss and lip pencils which come in a wide variety ofcolors to suit a huge spectrum of skin tones. Today lipsticks are the most popularcosmetic in the cosmetic market today. Perfume is another important component of thecosmetics. It is basically a fragrant mixture prepared by using various oils and aromaticcompounds. Every perfume manufacturer keeps the combination of ingredients a secret,especially in the case of perfumes that are manufactured by the large brand names. Blush-on or Rouge is a cosmetic which is used to color the cheeks red. In the ancient timeswomen used mulberries, beetroot and other such extracts to color their cheeks in order toacquire a healthy look. Today rouge is available as a pressed powder as well in a creambased paste. Eye liner is another important component of the cosmetics as it is used toemphasis the shape of eyes. There are many kinds of eyeliners like liquid eyeliners,Kajal, Kohl which can be used to create different effects and looks. Nowadays smokyeyes and the gothic look are popular which can be used by applying Kohl over and underthe eyes with metallic gold and silver eye shadow.
  14. 14. 14 Top leading Companies in Indian Market India has now become a developed market for cosmetic players since the lastdecade. Currently there are several cosmetic manufacturing companies, who areoperating in all kinds of cosmetics. In the entire range of products that fall within theterritory of the Indian cosmetic, the most popular items are color cosmetics, of which nailvarnish, lipsticks and lip glosses account for the most sales. In this area, popular localbrand names include Lakme and Revlon. Skin-care cosmetics have experienced a slowergrowth and products such as anti-wrinkle creams, cleansers and toners, for instance arenot as popular as facial creams, moisturizers and fairness creams in this genre.Companies like Ponds and Fair and Lovely rule the roost in this segment. Unilever and Procter & Gamble are major players in the Indian cosmetic sector ofshampoos and hair products. However, the Indian hair-care cosmetic sector now has afew foreign brands to compete with these giants as well. Finally, one of the most popularcosmetic produced in India are herbal cosmetics which have gained popularityinternationally in recent years, Emami and Ayur herbal products are the most well-knownin this area. 1. Hindustan Unilever Ltd. offers Lakme, Dove, Sunsilk, Closeup, Pepsodent, Fair and Lovely. 2. Proctor and Gamble Ltd. offers Olay (Moisturizers, Toner, Cleanser, Lightening Lotions, Treatment Masks, Face washes, Stretch and fit mask, UV blocker, Wrinkle treatment), Aussie, Gillette, Pantene, Head and shoulders etc. 3. Godrej Consumer Care Ltd. offers Cinthol (Shampoo, Deo, Talc, and Shaving Gel), Color Soft, Renew (hair color) and Fair Glow. 4. Ayur Herbal Pvt. Ltd. offers Sunscreen Lotion, Smudge Kajal, Silky Instant Bleach, Aloe Vera Cold cream, Age lock skin lotion, Aromaz (skin moisturizers), Face Gels, Face packs, Under eye line and Anti-wrinkle gel, Hand / Foot Scrub.
  15. 15. 155. Shahnaz Husain‟s Herbal Pvt. Ltd.offers Face creams (Shahnaz Husain‟s Ayurvedic Diamond Cream, 24 Carat Gold Ayurvedic cream) Cleansers (Shamoon, Sharoze, Shabase, Shafair, Shazema, Shamint, Shasoap, Shacleanse), Moisturizers (Shataj, Shalow, Shasilk, Shamoist), Scrub (Shagrain), Cream and Lotions ( Anti-wrinkle cream, Day/Night cream, Diamond Lotion, Shaclove, Shaclear, Precious Pearl, Shafair), Make up (Shashine eyeliner, Hair touch up, Shacover, Shalash Mascara, Shashine lip balm, Shaeyes Kajal), Hair care (Shatone, Shalocks, Shmala, Shagrow, Sharinse, Shahair, Shalisma).6. Garnier India Pvt. Ltd. offers Face creams (Pure, Pure active, Nourishing cold cream, Fairness for men), Face Washes ( Sun Control, Men power light, Age lift, Wrinkle lift), Hair care products ( Fructis long and strong, Damage repair, Oil and shampoo, Wet shine), Hair color (Color Naturals), Deodorants (Mineral for men , Mineral for women).7. Loreal India Pvt. Ltd. offers Face Care ( Hydration, Anti-Ageing Preventive and Anti-Ageing Curative), Hair creams (Excellence Creme, Casting Crème Gloss), Cosmetics for (Nails, Eyes, Lips), Face (UV protection, Whitening and Anti- Ageing Cleansers, Toner, Moisturizers), Hair care (Nutri Gloss, Smooth Intense, Total Repair, Color protect), Men skin care (Men Expert White Active, UV perfect, Hydra fresh, Pearl Perfect, Youth code),8. Imperial Tobacco Companyoffers Fiama De wills (Shampoo), Fima, Femme, Superia and Inizio (perfume)9. Emami Ltd. offers Fair and Handsome (men), Malai Kesar cold cream, Hair life.10. Calvincare Pvt. Ltd. offers Fairever, Spinz (Deo and Talc), Nyle cold cream,
  16. 16. 16 Hindustan Unilever‟s Products Proctor & Gamble‟s ProductsGodrej Consumer Care‟s ProductsAyur Herbal‟s ProductsShahnaz Husain‟s Herbal Products Garnier Cosmetic‟s Products
  17. 17. 17 Purpose of the Study1.To understand, how different segment of consumers, based on their consumerinvolvement type hold different perception about cosmetic brand and it‟s the brandpersonality association.2.To know,whether the purchase of cosmetic by the consumers is actually affected by thedifferent point of purchase (POP) or not. This will help the research to know,what factorsof in store marketing play an important role in outlet selection.3.This study will also focus on the part whether the packaging of the cosmetic productsactually plays a role or not in the mind of the consumers while making the cosmeticpurchase decision.4. This study will try to know, how the male buyer of the cosmetics gets influenced, andfor that what cosmetics companies and retailers are doing to target the male buyer fortheir cosmetics.And what stimulate consumer to trail purchase cosmetic products. Context of the Study Cosmetic companies‟ needs to understand the changing environment in theindustry as it can actually influence thepurchase decision, as of now there are manypoints of purchases in the current cosmetic market which are the company‟s owned retailoutlets, company‟s dealers and distributors, different parlors and salons, due to which thebig cosmetic brands need to know which kind of distribution strategy will best suit theirproduct. Research will help the cosmetic manufacturers to know the perception of thecosmetic consumers towards different point of purchases. As well as what brandpersonality traits, consumers look for in their preference of cosmetic brands. Study willalso give in depth knowledge about the importance of packaging in cosmetic industry.
  18. 18. 18 Significance of the Study1.) To understand how different segment of consumers, based on consumer involvementtype, hold different impressions of brands based on brand personality association.2.) To understand consumer‟s perception regarding different point of purchase (POP).3.) To check how does brand personality and brand attitude leads to purchase decision.4.) To check whether packaging plays a role in influencing the consumer to purchasecosmetics. Theoretical Framework Theoretical frame work of the research revolves around the consumer‟sperception as how cosmetics consumers based on brand personality association, differ intheir perceptions towards brands. The research helps cosmetic companies to know thefactors that revolve aroundthe potential consumers while making the cosmetic purchasedecisions. According to the research, products physical qualities, price, advertisement andpromotion plays an important role.
  19. 19. 19 Chapter 2Reviewof Literature
  20. 20. 20 Review of literature Krugman, H.E. (1966/1967). was one of the first scholars to apply egoinvolvement theory to a marketing context, examined a person‟s involvement withadvertising. Since his work, several involvement conceptualizations have emerged. Hedescribed involvement as a combination of needs, values, interests and situationalvariables. Houston, M. J.( 1978).Houston defines involvement as „a state of interest,motivation or arousal‟ and Bloch as an „unobservable state reflecting the amount ofinterest, arousal, or emotional attachment a consumer has with a product ‟ Houstonclassifies involvement into three types: Situational, Enduringand Response. Situationalinvolvement (SI) describes temporary arousal and interest induced by currentenvironmental factors (for example per perceived risk, price and durability of goods) andaccompanied by a decrease in involvement- related behaviors once the situation ends.Enduring involvement (EI) represents the stable and long-term arousal and interest witha product. EI occurs with few products and is based on past experience with the productand important relevant values (for example self-image and pleasure). Studies have confirmed Houston‟ s SI and EI, but not an interaction between SIand EI, showing that consumers ‟ stable involvement level is independent of the purchasesituation.Response or felt involvement describes the combined effects of SI and EI and isthe individual‟s overall personally relevant feelings that result from the product andsituation. Leisure product enthusiasts, who show high EI levels during leisure activities,Bloch termed it as „ AdornmentRelated Recreational activities (ARR) ‟ it possess distinctcharacteristics such as testing and talking about new grooming methods with friends,obtaining new information on Adornments, also maintaining and enhancing products, aswell as portraying the qualities: Perceptual vigilance, innovativeness, interest and opinionleadership. Extrinsic rewards (for example physical attractiveness) and Intrinsic rewards (forexample control and self-esteem). Past research has confirmed leisure activity is related
  21. 21. 21to physical attractiveness, self-expression and self-image, and power and control. Highinvolvement ARR women (versus low involvement ARR women) spent 8 min more perday applying makeup, felt makeup application was more pleasurable and rewarding andspent 60 per cent more on fashion goods in the past 6 months. Kapferer, J. and Laurent, G. (1985/1986) in their study described involvementas the state of motivation or arousal induced by factors such as Interest, pleasure, signvalue and risk.In an extensive study, Kapferer and Laurent identified five antecedents ofinvolvement– Interest, Pleasure, Sign, Risk importance and Probability of error – tocreate the consumer involvement profile (CIP). Interest refers to the interest andimportance in a product category, while pleasure is the enjoyment derived from theproduct purchase. Sign value is the character, personality and identity communicatedthrough the product class or brand. Risk importance is the importance placed on theoutcome of a miss purchase. It represents how the consumer will feel if he / shepurchases the wrong product, for example, upset, irritated or annoyed. Probability oferror measures feelings of uncertainty, based on the likelihood of a miss purchase. Thesefive dimensions combine aspects of both EI and SI. Brand personality is a group of human characteristics that describe a specificbrand whether it is similar to human personality because consumers ascribe humanqualities to brand names and often feel they relate to brands in a personal way. Aaker, J. L. (1999) his study was based on Tupes‟ and Christal‟ s and Norman‟sfive human personality dimensions, Aaker created a five dimensional brand personalityframework to identify the traits consumers associate with a brand, and developed thebrand personality scale (BPS) to measure how consumers use brands symbolically andemotionally. Applying Malhorta‟s product, person and self-concepts scale, Aakerconstructed a personality trait scale from psychology and marketing personality scalesand her own qualitative research study. Through a series of scale development studies,Aaker identified five dimensions of brand personality: Sincerity, Excitement,Competence, Sophistication and Ruggedness. Aaker‟s Brand Personality Framework
  22. 22. 22contains the Big Five Dimensions. Sincerity conveys warmth, acceptance, honesty andcaring qualities. Excitement portrays sociability, energy, activity and youthfulness whileresponsibility, dependability and security describe Competence. Sophisticationdescribes upper class, glamorous and sexy brands and Ruggedness depicts brands withwestern American qualities such as strength and masculinity. Prior studies have also found that some consumers prefer brands that match theirown personality, while others choose brands that match the personality of thesituation.Brand personality, therefore, allows a better understanding of consumer‟s brandperceptions, as well as how individual and situational factors contribute to brandpreference. Brand personality influences consumer attitudes towards a brand. Indeveloping the Brand personality Scale (BPS), Aaker included only „positively valencetraits‟, explaining that the BPS should measure how brand personality influences thereceptivity of a product. Studies confirm the positive relationships between brandpersonality dimensions and positive brand attitudes, purchase intentions and brandassociations. Wysong, S. (2002) found that brand personality perceptions varied based onconsumers‟ Enduring Involvement EI with beer products. Participants with high EI(versus low EI participants) desired down-to-earth and honest beers, both Sincerity traits,as well as outdoorsy beers. Wysong et al believe that high EI consumers differ from theirlow EI counterparts because they possess prior brand and product knowledge that allowsthem to identify with a brand‟s personality. Hartmann, P. & Diehl, S. (2010), suggested that the exposure to pictures ofgood-looking and even slightly above-average-looking females lowers the self-image ofexposed women and increases dissatisfaction with their own appearance. They hadanalyzed the effect of perceived instrumental/utilitarian and hedonic/emotional brandbenefits on women‟s satisfaction with cosmetic brands, focusing on their relief fromdissatisfaction with one‟s self-image as one of four identified emotional brandexperiences. A survey of 355 women was carried out, assessing instrumental and hedonic
  23. 23. 23brand benefits of the brand used by each interviewed participant, as well as the degree ofsatisfaction with the surveyed brand. The collected data was modeled using structuralequation analysis. Results indicated that utilitarian and hedonic brand benefits had bothcontributed to the satisfaction with the cosmetic brands – with an overall strongerinfluence of emotional consumption experiences. The greatest influences were found forthe feeling of relief from dissatisfaction with one‟s self-image. Their research revealedthat one of the mechanisms through which cosmetics advertising works is by loweringwomen‟s self-perception in the first place and then delivering relief from this negativefeeling as an emotional benefit through the brand. However, from an ethical point ofview, such a strategy is questionable, especially given the problems of eating disordersand body dysmorphia. Cosmetics have been traditionally used by women to control their physicalappearance and their physical attractiveness. Authors focused on women the most salientconsumers of cosmetic products, male consumers are also increasingly targeted by thecosmetics industry. Several researchers have examined the psychology that correlates andconsequences the cosmetic use.The findings indicated that the benefits sought after in thepurchase of cosmetics in general as well as in deciding on a specific cosmetic brand arenot limited to instrumental or functional benefits but may also be related to hedonistic oremotional consumption experiences. It is therefore, not surprising that a significant shareof the claims in cosmetic brand advertising can be related to subjective psychologicalconsumption motives, rather than objective outcomes. The aim of the study was toexplore the brand associations of cosmetic brands from female consumers‟ perspectiveand to analyze the comparative effect of identified brand benefits on female consumers‟satisfaction. The scope of the researchextends to why women consume specific cosmeticbrands, what role does cosmetics consumption play in emotional/hedonistic benefits inaddition to the perception of instrumental/utilitarian benefits and to what extentadvertising is involved in evoking benefits of cosmetic brands. For this purpose, a surveyof consumer perceptions of cosmetic brands was carried out, assessing instrumental andhedonic brand benefits of the brand used by each interviewed participant, as well as the
  24. 24. 24degree of satisfaction with the surveyed brand. The collected data was modeled usingstructural equation analysis. Guthrie, M. &Jung, J. (2008).in their study to examine womens perceptions ofbrand personality with respect to womens facial image and cosmetic usage, theyhadfound that the brand personality of competence was most important across all thebrands, consumer perceptions pertaining to the brand personality traits differed. Theirstudy found that consumers facial image influenced the total quantity of cosmetics usedbut not the variation in quantity in different situations. Results also indicated that arelationship exists between facial image and brand perceptions. Also, it was found that adifferent group of brand personality traits influenced brand attitude for each cosmeticbrand. For these findings they conducted an electronic survey which was administered toa sample of 225 female participants in the USA. The survey included items measuringfacial image, cosmetic usage, brand personality, and brand attitude. By examining howfacial image and cosmetic usage both of them determined that companies can improvetheir marketing strategies to enhance customer satisfaction and increase their customerbase. Moreover, by identifying the brand personalities that attract consumers, companiescan pin-point the characteristics that customers look for in a product, which in turn can beused to enhance brand image. Chandon, P. Hutchin, W. Bradlow, T. & Young, S (2009).the authors haveexamined the interplay between in-store and out-of-store factors on consumer attentionand evaluation of brands displayed on supermarket shelves. Using an eye-trackingexperiment, they find that the number of facings has a strong impact on evaluation that isentirely mediated by its effect on visual attention and works particularly well for frequentusers of the brand, secondly for low-market-share brands and thirdly for young andhighly educated consumers who are willing to trade off brand and price. They also foundout that gaining in-store attention is not always sufficient to drive sales. For example, top-and middle-shelf positions gain more attention than low-shelf positions; however, onlytop shelf positions carry through to brand evaluation. The results underscore the
  25. 25. 25importance of combining eye-tracking and purchase data to obtain a full picture of theeffects of in-store and out-of-store marketing at the point of purchase. Prior research did not examine the effects of in-store marketing on visual attentionand brand consideration. Therefore, it cannot be determined whether the effects of in-store marketing on choice are mediated by enhanced attention and consideration orwhether they do influence choice directly or not. Alsoprior research did not manipulatethe fact that in-store factors are independent of brand- and consumer-specific out-of-storefactors, and therefore it was not possible to compare the relative impact of in-store andout-of-store factors or to determine whether in-store factors are more effective for low- orhigh-market share brands or for regular users or nonusers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the interplay between in-store and out-of-store factors on consumer attention and evaluation of brands displayedon supermarket shelves. Hence authors applied multiple examining measures of attentionand evaluation which was more important by the trendusing the point of purchase as anadvertising medium which is solely aimed at building brand awareness and image overthe long run and not just as a distribution channel. Authors have finding for the retail managers; the main result is that all shelf-spaceactions are not equal. They showed that the number of facings has a consistent andpositive effect on attention and through attention, on evaluation and that its influence onchoice is particularly strong for regular users, for low market-share brands, and for youngand highly educated shoppers who value both brands and low prices. In contrast, theeffects of shelf position are mixed. Positioning of the brands is important, on the top shelfand near the center of a shelf improves both attention and evaluation, but positioningthem on the middle shelves helps attention without improving evaluation
  26. 26. 26 Figure 1.0 (Source:Journal of Marketing; Nov2009, Vol. 73 Issue 6, p1-17) Park, C. Maclnnis, D. Priester, J. & Lacobucci, D. (2010).in there researchthey had made conceptual, measurement, and managerial contributions. Conceptually,they had defined brand attachment, its defining properties and have explained how it isdifferentiated from brand attitude strength. From a measurement perspective, they havedeveloped and validated a parsimonious measure of brand attachment, have tested all theassumptions that underlie it and have finally demonstrated that it indicates the concept ofattachment. They had also demonstrated the convergent and discriminant validity of thismeasure in relation to brand attitude strength. Managerially, they had demonstrated thatbrand attachment offers value over brand attitude strength in predicting consumers‟intentions to perform difficult behaviors, actual purchase behaviors, brand purchase share
  27. 27. 27(the share of a brand among directly competing brands) and need share (the extent towhich consumers rely on a brand to address relevant needs), including those brands insubstitutable product categories. Brand attachment is the strength of the bond which connects the consumer withthe brands;therefore attachment is critical because it affects the behaviors that fosterbrand profitability and customer lifetime value (Thomson, MacInnis, and Park 2005). Atthe same time, authors have long invoked the constructs of attitudevalence and strengthas key antecedents to consumer behaviors. They have defined attitude valence as thedegree of positivity or negativity with which an attitude object is evaluated. They haveconceptualized brand attitudestrength as the positivity or negativity (valence) of anattitude weighted by the confidence or certainty with which it is held i.e., the extent towhich it is considered valid. Prior research has shown that brand attitude strength predictsbehaviors of interest to firms, including brand consideration, intention to purchase,purchase behavior, and brand choice (Fazio and Petty 2007); (Petty, Haugtvedt, andSmith 1995). The rich history of research on brand attitude strength raises questionsabout the need for a construct such as brand attachment. Does attachment provide valuebeyond measures of brand attitude strength? The answer to this question is elusivebecause research to date has not verified how brand attachment and brand attitudestrength differ conceptually or empirically. Nor have researches differentiated whatunique consumer behaviors, if any, each predicts. Author‟s had made three key contributions pertinent to these issues. First, authorshave differentiated the brand attachment construct from brand attitude strengthconceptually, arguing that the two constructs have distinct conceptual properties andentail different formation processes. Secondly, they had validated this distinctionempirically, by developing a novel scale that maps the conceptual properties of brandattachment and assessing its relationship to attitude strength. Thirdly and mostsignificantly, they had empirically demonstrated that attachment and attitude strengthhave distinct behavioral implications. .
  28. 28. 28 They had differentiated brand attachment and brand attitude by starting from thenature of the affect they implicate. They said attachment implicates “hot” affect from thebrand‟s linkage to the self, where as strong brand attitudes reflect evaluations and “cold”affect involving a judgment about the brand. This difference in affect has importantimplications for brand behaviors. In this sense, the constructs differ in their motivationalpower because attachment, unlike attitude strength, has emotional and self-implicationsthat serve as more powerful drivers of behaviors. Secondly, both constructs involveassessments of strength; the entity to which “strength” applies differs. With attachment,what is strong is the bond that connectsas brand-related thoughts and memories becomemore prominent. With strong attitudes, what is strong is a person‟s judgment of thegoodness or badness of the brand. Such strength is indicated by the connections betweenthe self and the brand and a subjective sense of brand prominence. With strong attitudes,strength references the attitude object and the confidence with which it is held. Suchstrength is often indicated by objective indicators of attitude accessibility. Moreover, thefactors that lead to variation in strength differ. With strong brand attitudes, strength variesnot as a function of brand (self-connections or the prominence of brand thoughts) butrather as a function of the confidence with which the judgment is rendered. Hill, A. (2011), has given few tips, considering the important role that packagingplays in displaying a brand. Hill believes that it is typically the first thing a consumerinteracts with in a brand experience. In fact, packaging can be the sole influencer in aconsumers purchase decision. She said even for this reason, small companies will ofteninvest heavily in their product packaging when compared to other parts of a brandcampaign. She wrote in her work that strongest packages are authentic expressions of thebrand personality and speak clearly to the audience or consumer. This is the key to thetarget customer by picking up a package and feeling as if it is speaking directly to them.Hill wrote for todays high-speed world, where people have so many choices and so littletime to make purchase decisions, she said that for this reason, a strong initial impact onthe shelf is of much more importance.
  29. 29. 29 According to her,going back to the design school is one of the first things, inorder to make a powerful visual because people are wired when it comes to noticing, asthey look for what is different, when looking at a grouping of objects. She said thisprinciple applies to all aspects of designs, whether its the shape, color or content of thedesign. Designing a product package that stands out is ultimately achieved through apackaging identity that is honest and targeted, she said in her work. By simply beingdifferent for the sake of being different isnt enough, in fact, it can come off as a gimmickto todays sophisticated consumer. Hill also paid special attention to the fact by saying its important to keep in mindthat a brand is not the product, or even the package that presents the product. It is thevisceral reaction a person has to that product and the public perception of the companybehind it.Because being authentically different is the key to standing out from thecompetition, it is critical to analyze what the competitors are doing and saying in order tofind a unique, ownable niche. Hill gave importance to study packaging identity trends asit is also critical to look at factors such as messaging trends and structural packagingtrends. Only with a thorough analysis it would be clear if a packaging identity is trulyunique in its form, brand identity and messaging. Hill finally concluded by giving importance to communicating a unique brandidentity, on a package design that can be expressed through the visual form of thepackage, or through the graphic design, the verbal communication or the copy writingand the tactility of the package, or the shape and material. Unique form or overall designaesthetic, regardless of the trends in the marketplace, can give the packaging that extraedge in standing out on the shelf. For her unique packaging forms are particularlyimportant for female-targeted brands, as women are sensorial in nature. She also quotedthat trends come and go quickly, so the most important thing to remember whenconsidering a new package design is to stay true to the core values of the company andthe characteristics of the product itself.
  30. 30. 30 Chapter 3Research Methodology and Procedures
  31. 31. 31 Purpose of the Study1.) To understand, how different segment of consumers, based on their consumerinvolvement type hold different perception about cosmetic brand and it‟s the brandpersonality association.2.) To know, whether the purchase of cosmetic by the consumers is actually affected bythe different point of purchase (POP) or not. This will help the research to know,whatfactors of in store marketing play an important role in outlet selection.3.) This study will also focus on the part whether the packaging of the cosmetic productsactually plays a role or not in the mind of the consumers while making the cosmeticpurchase decision.4.) This study will try to know, how the male buyer of the cosmetics gets influenced, andfor that what cosmetics companies and retailers are doing to target the male buyer fortheir cosmetics. And what stimulate consumer to trail purchase cosmetic products. Research DesignThis research will be carried out in two phases1.)In the initial phase, detailed secondary search was conducted to know about thecosmetic industry in India, its characteristics, major players in the market, marketsegmentation.2.)Exploratory research will be conducted among different cosmetic shops, companiesown outlets, variousparlors and salons and different organized retail outlets in theDelhi/NCR by applying a survey method. This will not only help in keeping the samplingsize least biased but also in providing a broader insight on the in store marketing, factorsthat plays an important role in stimulating the consumers to buy a particular brand, inknowing the most loyal customer segments, their purchasing power, the preferred product
  32. 32. 32line of the companies, which segment of the customers, are usually open to the trail of abrand or a product, then measures are taken to retain the male customers.3.) Thirdly a Descriptive research design will be used to conduct the research further afterknowing the potential and regular buying cosmetic segment, as this will guide theresearch in knowing their actual perception towards different point of purchase and theimportance of packaging in an organized way. As this research demands perception of theregular cosmetics buyerswhich in turn leads to buying decisions. Research QuestionsBefore preparing the questionnaire, following issues were considered What are the different cosmetic buyers in terms of involvement types? Which are the factors which lead to formation of positive perception towards cosmetic brands? On which personality traits do a cosmetic buyer, evaluate and considers a particular brand. What are the specific reasons to use the cosmetic products? Among the various point of purchases, which will be the most preferred? And why? As what factors goes in the selection of a retail outlet. What measures are taken by the cosmetic retailers to retain the male cosmetic buyers? And how consumers are stimulated to try a cosmetic product. To what extend does packaging plays an important role in stimulating the buyer to make a purchase.1. Does purchase involvement type has great influence on the brand personalityassociation? H0: Consumer Involvement is not influenced by the brand personality association H1: Consumer Involvement type is affected with the brand personality association
  33. 33. 332. Does point of purchase plays an important role in making cosmetic purchase decision? H0: Point of purchase does not play an important role in making cosmeticpurchase decision. H1: Point of purchase plays an important role in making cosmetic purchasedecision.3. Does packaging of the cosmetic products plays an important role in influencing thecosmetic buyer to make a purchase? H0: Packaging of the cosmetic products does not influence the cosmetic buyer tomake a purchase. H1: Packaging of the cosmetic products does influence the cosmetic buyer tomake a purchase. Participation / SamplesSampling Elements: Various colleges as well as housing societies of south Delhi.Sample Size:124. Out of which 25 were males and 99 were females.81 people were married and 43 were unmarried. Age of the persons Age Cumulativegroups Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid 13 - 19 6 4.8 4.8 4.8 20 - 40 41 33.1 33.1 37.9 40 - 60 73 58.9 58.9 96.8 Above 60 4 3.2 3.2 100.0 Total 124 100.0 100.0
  34. 34. 34Sampling methods used:Convenience sampling in selecting the different cosmetic shops, companies own outlets,variousparlors and salons and different organized retail outlets in the Delhi/NCR.Stratified random sampling method, is used as the data collected from the exploratoryresearch will be divided into the age brackets of the respondents as Teenagers (13 to 19),Young men / women (20 to 40), Middle Aged men / women (40 to 60), Old men / women(above 60) Data collection procedures Personal interviews is conducted with the potential customer segments afterknowing about them from the exploratory researchis conducted among different cosmeticshops, company‟s own outlets, variousparlors and salons and different organized retailoutlets in the Delhi/NCR by applying a survey method. After knowing the regularcosmetic buying segments,personal interviews will play an effective role in collecting thedata from the respondents of the regular cosmetic buying segments. This will beaccompanied by a structured questionnaire having – closed format andlikert scale basedquestions. Instrumentation Research included only type of instrumentation, which was a questionnaire.Where in two Questionnaires are required, one for the retailers and another one for therespondents. Questionnaires include questions in closed format andlikert scale.
  35. 35. 35 Pilot Study Pilot study is conducted in order to find out the various possible errors that mightoccur in the survey, questionnaire or to find out whether it is tiring for customers to fillthe given questionnaire. A pilot study will be conducted among few randomly selectedretailers as well as cosmetic users. The sample size will be limited to 20 people. After thepilot testing, it will be possible to understand the real areas of problem encounter for aconsumer while filling up the questionnaire; this will in turn help the research to makenecessary changes in the survey process and thus can increase the effectiveness of thetotal research so that the final findings would be more reliable. Data Analysis Collecting the raw data does not give any valuable information. Processing thisdata using a valuable tool will help us to interpret more meaningful statistical informationout of the data. This information can thus be used to strategize the marketing proceduresin order to overcome the possible faults and continue to enjoy a good market share. Dataanalysis in SPSS includes various techniques like Factor Analysis, Anova, and CrossTabulation, Frequencies, Bar charts and Pie charts. This will give us valuableinformation on the various aspects which is otherwise very difficult to understandthrough normal observation.
  36. 36. 36 Chapter 4:Data Analysis and Findings
  37. 37. 37 Results of research questions ANOVA Factors forming positive Sum of Meanperception towards a brand Squares df Square F Sig. Brand‟s Marketing share Between Groups 20.614 1 20.614 41.933 .000 Within Groups 58.992 120 .492 Total 79.607 121 Past Experience Between Groups 19.460 1 19.460 28.117 .000 Within Groups 26.073 120 .317 Total 26.533 121 Family and Reference group Between Groups 35.723 1 35.723 114.141 .000 Within Groups 37.556 120 .313 Total 73.279 121 Good will of the parent Between Groups 30.049 1 30.049 109.084 .000 company Within Groups 69.787 120 3.582 Total 69.836 121 T.V. Ads Between Groups 25.392 1 25.392 26.931 .000 Within Groups 50.502 120 3.421 Total 50.893 121Promotional Activities adopted Between Groups 13.479 1 13.479 167.705 .000 Within Groups 9.644 120 3.080 Total 23.123 121 Word of mouth Between Groups 3.756 1 3.756 25.293 .000 Within Groups 17.818 120 .148 Total 21.574 121 Expert‟s reviews Between Groups .000 1 3.320 24.545. .000 Within Groups .000 120 .000 Total .000 121 (Table 1.1)
  38. 38. 38 This is done through One way ANOVA where dependent variable were Factors forming positive perception towards cosmetic products, Factors considered were “ Brand‟s Marketing share”, “Past Experience”, “Family and Reference group”, “ Good will of the parent company” , “ T.V. Ads”, “ Promotional Activities adopted”, “ word of mouth”, “Expert‟s reviews”. Whereas independent variable was the consumer involvement type. If F probability is less than 0.05, we reject null hypothesis at 95% confidence level. From the above output, (Table 1.1), of one way ANOVA, significance is 0.000 which is less than 0.05 therefore, null hypothesis is rejected. Hence,significant differences exist between consumer involvement type and factors forming positive perception towards cosmetic product.We can also conclude that Consumer Involvement type is affected bypositive perception towards the brand. ANOVAPersonality traits thatcosmetic users expects Sum of Meanfrom a cosmetic brand Squares df Square F Sig. Caring Qualities Between Groups 12.536 1 12.536 83.775 .000 Within Groups 17.956 120 .150 Total 30.492 121 Glamorous Between Groups 11.559 1 11.559 51.538 .000 Within Groups 43.605 120 .363 Total 44.164 121 Dependability/ Between Groups 1.878 1 1.878 11.141 .001 Responsibility Within Groups 20.229 120 .169 Total 22.107 121 Youthfulness Between Groups 5.774 1 5.774 2.551 .000 Within Groups 36.406 120 .303 Total 37.180 121 Strength/ Ruggedness Between Groups 7.724 1 7.724 11.593 .001 Within Groups 79.956 120 .666 Total 87.680 121 (Table 1.2)
  39. 39. 39 Through, One way ANOVA, where dependent variable were the personality traitsthat cosmetic users expects from a cosmetic brand, personality traits considered were “Caring Qualities”, “Glamorous”, “Dependability/ Responsibility”, “ Youthfulness” , “Strength/Ruggedness”. Whereas independent variable considered was the consumerinvolvement type. If F probability is less than 0.05, we reject null hypothesis at 95%confidence level. From the above output, (Table 1.2), of one way ANOVA, significanceis 0.000 which is less than 0.05 therefore, null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, significantdifferences exist between cosmetic purchase involvementtype and personality traitsexpected from a cosmetic brand. Therefore Consumer Involvement type is affected withthe brand personality association. One way ANOVA has been used, where dependent variable were cosmetic pointof purchase “ company owned outlets”, “company authorized dealers”, “local cosmeticshops”, “organized retail outlets”, “ salons & parlors”, “ direct from internet”. Whereasindependent variable considered were the frequent cosmetic purchasers. If F probabilityis less than 0.05, we reject null hypothesis at 95% confidence level. From the aboveoutput, (Table 1.3), of one way ANOVA, significance is 0.000 which is less than 0.05therefore, null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, significant differences exist betweencosmetic point of purchase andfrequent cosmetic purchasers or we could conclude thatPoint of purchase plays an important role in making cosmetic purchase decision.
  40. 40. 40 ANOVAPlace of purchasing the Sum of Mean cosmetic products Squares df Square F Sig.Company Owned retail Between Groups 54.473 2 27.237 38.563 .000 outlet Within Groups 85.462 121 .706 Total 139.935 123Company‟s Authorized Between Groups 18.045 2 9.023 29.646 .000 Dealers Within Groups 36.826 121 .304 Total 54.871 123 Local cosmetic shops Between Groups 11.625 2 5.812 8.678 .000 Within Groups 81.045 121 .670 Total 92.669 123Organized Retail Outlets Between Groups 20.196 2 10.098 32.136 .000 Within Groups 38.022 121 .314 Total 58.218 123 Parlor and Salons Between Groups 18.226 2 9.113 7.955 .001 Within Groups 138.613 121 1.146 Total 156.839 123 Direct from Internet Between Groups 3.679 2 1.840 11.096 .000 Within Groups 20.063 121 .166 Total 23.742 123 (Table 1.3) One way ANOVA has been used, where dependent variable were in store marketing factors that play an important role in selecting the point of purchase. Whereas independent variable considered is the cosmetic buyers. If F probability is less than 0.05, we reject null hypothesis at 95% confidence level. From the above output, (Table 1.4), of one way ANOVA, significance is 0.000 which is less than 0.05 therefore, null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, in store marketing factors that play an important role in selecting the point of purchasehas significant influence on cosmetic purchasers.
  41. 41. 41 ANOVA Factors of in storemarketing playing role in point of purchase Sum of Mean selection Squares df Square F Sig. Factors of in store Between Groups 14.440 3 4.813 24.560 .000marketing playing role Within Groups 23.519 120 .196 in outlet selection Total 37.960 123 Factors of in store Between Groups 36.602 3 12.201 54.075 .000marketing playing role Within Groups 27.075 120 .226 in outlet selection Total 63.677 123 Factors of in store Between Groups 4.066 3 1.355 27.295 .000marketing playing role Within Groups 5.958 120 .050 in outlet selection Total 10.024 123 Factors of in store Between Groups 17.126 3 5.709 77.553 .000marketing playing role Within Groups 8.833 120 .074 in outlet selection Total 25.960 123 Factors of in store Between Groups 7.354 3 2.451 12.595 .000marketing playing role Within Groups 23.356 120 .195 in outlet selection Total 30.710 123 Factors of in store Between Groups 3.603 3 1.201 8.810 .000marketing playing role Within Groups 16.357 120 .136 in outlet selection Total 19.960 123 Factors of in store Between Groups 23.159 3 7.720 17.827 .000marketing playing role Within Groups 51.962 120 .433 in outlet selection Total 75.121 123 (Table 1.4) .
  42. 42. 42 ANOVAFactors stimulating trail Sum of purchase Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Product Trails/ Between Groups 5.907 3 1.969 15.529 .000 Demonstration Within Groups 15.214 120 .127 Total 21.121 123Celebrity Endorsement Between Groups 35.675 3 11.892 26.826 .000 Within Groups 53.196 120 .443 Total 88.871 123 Proper display of the Between Groups 25.585 3 8.528 18.863 .000 product Within Groups 54.254 120 .452 Total 79.839 123Price off/ Special offer Between Groups 8.948 3 2.983 16.447 .000 Within Groups 21.762 120 .181 Total 30.710 123Low price of the product Between Groups 15.669 3 5.223 31.172 .000 Within Groups 20.106 120 .168 Total 35.774 123 Ingredients explained Between Groups 12.212 3 4.071 34.540 .000 Within Groups 14.143 120 .118 Total 26.355 123 Innovative packaging Between Groups 1.659 3 .553 2.326 .001 Within Groups 28.534 120 .238 Total 30.194 123Right shelf positioning Between Groups 39.812 3 13.271 43.587 .000 Within Groups 36.535 120 .304 Total 76.347 123 (Table1.5)
  43. 43. 43 One way ANOVA has been used, where dependent variable were factorsstimulating trail purchase of the cosmetic products, factors considered were “ProductTrails/ Demonstration”, “Celebrity Endorsement”, “Proper display of the product”, “Priceoff/ Special offer”, “Low price of the product”, “Ingredients well explained”, “Innovativepackaging”, “Right shelf positioning”. Whereas independent variable considered is thecosmetic buyers. If F probability is less than 0.05, we reject null hypothesis at 95%confidence level. From the above output, (Table 1.5), of one way ANOVA, significanceis 0.000 which is less than 0.05 therefore, null hypothesis is rejected. Hence,factorsstimulating trail purchase of the cosmetic products has significant influence oncosmetic purchasers.Importance of packaging: 1.) Eye catching Appearance Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Important 52 41.9 41.9 41.9 very important 72 58.1 58.1 100.0 Total 124 100.0 100.0 (Table 2.1)58.1 % of the cosmetic users consider packaging of the cosmetic products to be veryimportant as they believe packaging attracts human eye balls towards it catchingappearance. 2.) Expression of product personality Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid important 36 29.0 29.0 29.0 very important 88 71.0 71.0 100.0 Total 124 100.0 100.0 (Table 2.2)
  44. 44. 4471.1 % cosmetic users believe packaging of the cosmetic products to be very important asthey consider packaging as the expression of the cosmetic product‟s personality. 3.) Details of Ingredients Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid important 56 45.2 45.2 45.2 very important 68 54.8 54.8 100.0 Total 124 100.0 100.0 (Table 2.3)54.8% cosmetic users believe packaging is very important as it gives detail informationabout the ingredients used in the cosmetic product. 4.) Direction of usage Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid important 34 27.4 27.4 27.4 very important 90 72.6 72.6 100.0 Total 124 100.0 100.0 (Table 2.4)72.6 % people consider packaging to be very important as it shows direction of usage,which is important from consumer point of view, before using a cosmetic product. 5.) Easy usage and Storage Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid important 58 46.8 46.8 46.8 very important 66 53.2 53.2 100.0 Total 124 100.0 100.0 (Table2.5)53.2% people consider packaging to be very important as it helps in usage and storage.
  45. 45. 45Who influences the male cosmetic purchase decisions? 72 Celebrity Endorsements 97 Experts Opinion 75 Family/ Friends Series1 86 Spouse 83 They themselves 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Figure 3.1The above figure (figure 3.1) depicts who influences the male cosmetic purchasedecision the most, when asked from the cosmetic userswith the given options, “Theythemselves”, “Spouse”, “ Family / Friends”, “ Experts opinion”, “ CelebrityEndorsements”. Maximum of the people selected the option “Experts opinion” as theybelieved that the male cosmetic purchase decisions are majorly influenced by theopinionof the cosmetic industry experts than the Celebrity Endorsements. Second they believedthat for the most of the married men, their spouse plays an important role in making thecosmetic purchase decisions.
  46. 46. 46Factors for retaining the male cosmetic users. Bonus Packs for retaining the male segment Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid neutral 9 7.3 7.3 7.3 agree 24 19.4 19.4 26.6 strongly agree 91 73.4 73.4 100.0 Total 124 100.0 100.0 (Table 4.1)From the (Table 4.1), For retaining the male cosmetic users. 73.4% of the peoplestrongly agree to the fact that retailers has to come up with some kind of bonus packs, sothat the male cosmetic users gets to use more of a quantity at a given price. As the priceof the cosmetics in the male cosmetic market is moderate and packaging too is steady,moderate and simple.Cross TabulationCross Tabulation between age of the cosmetic users and frequency of their purchase insix months. How often do you purchase cosmetic products for yourself twice thrice above thrice TotalAge of the person 13 - 19 6 0 0 6 20 - 40 16 13 12 41 40 - 60 10 31 32 73 Above 60 0 0 4 4 Total 32 44 48 124 Table (4.2)
  47. 47. 47 Above 60 40 - 60 Series1 20 - 40 13 - 19 0 20 40 60 80 Figure 4.3It can be easily seen from the (Figure 4.3) and (Table 4.2) that the age group 40 - 60 arethe heavy cosmetic users, as they buy cosmetics above three times in a given period ofsix months, thus we can conclude that people belonging to the age group 40-60 spendmost on the cosmetic products.Cross Tabulation between gender of the cosmetic users and frequency of their purchasein six months How often do you purchase cosmetic products for yourself twice thrice above thrice Total Gender of the person male 20 4 1 25 female 12 40 47 99 Total 32 44 48 124 (Table 4.4)
  48. 48. 48 Males 1 2 Females Figure 4.5It can be easily seen from the (Figure 4.5) and (Table 4.4)that the age group offemalesare the heavy cosmetic users, as they buy cosmetics above three times in a given periodof six months, thus we can conclude that femalespend most on the cosmetic productscompared with men
  49. 49. 49Factor Analysis on reasons to use cosmetic products Total Variance Explained Extraction Sums of Squared Rotation Sums of Squared Initial Eigenvalues Loadings Loadings % of Cumulative % of Cumulative % of CumulativeComponent Total Variance % Total Variance % Total Variance % 1 4.486 40.781 40.781 4.486 40.781 40.781 4.356 39.598 39.598 2 2.779 25.265 66.046 2.779 25.265 66.046 2.826 25.688 65.286 3 1.471 13.372 79.418 1.471 13.372 79.418 1.555 14.133 79.418 4 .986 8.963 88.381 5 .574 5.217 93.598 6 .298 2.706 96.305 7 .196 1.783 98.087 8 .122 1.109 99.197 9 .068 .622 99.819 10 .020 .180 99.999 11 .000 .001 100.000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.(Table 4.6)From the (Table 4.6), we look at the factors extracted, their Eigen values and thecumulative percentage of variance. From the Cumulative % column in the table we seethat three factors extracted together account for 79.418 per cent of the total variance,which is a pretty good bargain, because we are able to economise on the number ofvariables from 11 variables it has reduced to 3. In other words, 79.418 percent is retainedby the 3 extracted factors out of the original 11 variables.
  50. 50. 50 Component Matrixa Component 1 2 3 Improve the skin .087 .250 .797 Skin protection .915 .005 -.065 To look Attractive .406 .100 -.759To look Young/ Anti-Aging .731 -.446 .208Self Esteem / Social Class .659 .422 .076 Self Confidence .939 -.224 .036 Solving skin problem .886 -.320 .125 Hygiene issues .663 .223 .209 To look Fair .046 .935 .199 To smell good -.099 .942 -.056 Others .625 .605 -.322 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. a. 3 components extracted.
  51. 51. 51 Rotated Component Matrix Reasons to use cosmetic products Component 1 2 3 Improve the skin .178 .258 -.779 Skin protection .878 .156 .216 To look Attractive .251 .168 .812 To look Young/ Anti-Aging .818 -.320 -.070 Self Esteem / Social Class .585 .525 .021 Self Confidence .955 -.066 .127 Solving skin problem .934 -.170 .033 Hygiene issues .643 .329 -.104 To look Fair -.073 .929 -.217 To smell good -.259 .913 .009 Others .455 .700 .402 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. a. Rotation converged in 4 iterations.(Table 4.8) From the (Table 4.6), we look at the factors extracted, their Eigen values and thecumulative percentage of variance. From the Cumulative % column in the table we seethat three factors extracted together account for 79.418 per cent of the total variance,which is a pretty good bargain, because we are able to economise on the number ofvariables from 11 variables it has reduced to 3. In other words, 79.418 percent is retainedby the 3 extracted factors out of the original 11 variables. Looking at the (Table 4.8)Rotated Component Matrix, The variable number 2, 4, 6, and 7 i.e. “Skin protection”,“Anti-Aging”, “Self-Confidence”, “Solving skin problems” has high loadings underfactor 1, there loadings are 0.878, 0.818, 0.955 and 0.934 respectively. This suggests thatthe factor 1 is a combination of these four original variables. (Table 4.7) also suggeststhe similar grouping. Similarly looking under the factor 2 in (Table 4.8) RotatedComponent Matrix, the variable 9 and 10 i.e. “To look fair” and “To smell good” hashigh loadings under factor 2, there loadings are 0.935 and 0.942 respectively.
  52. 52. 52Thissuggests that factor 2 is a combination of these two original variables. (Table 4.7)also suggests the similar grouping.
  53. 53. 53 Chapter 5:Conclusion and Recommendations
  54. 54. 54 Summary of the findings One way ANOVA was used where between Factors forming positive perceptiontowards cosmetic products and consumer involvement type . From the output, Table 1.1,of one way ANOVA, significance is 0.000 which is less than 0.05 therefore, nullhypothesis is rejected. Hence,significant differences exist between consumer involvementtype and factors forming positive perception towards cosmetic product.We can alsoconclude that Consumer Involvement type is affected bypositive perception towards thebrand. One way ANOVA, was used between personality traits that cosmetic usersexpects from a cosmetic brand and consumer involvement type. From the output, Table1.2, of one way ANOVA, significance is 0.000 which is less than 0.05 therefore, nullhypothesis is rejected. Hence, significant differences exist between consumerinvolvement type and personality traits expected from a cosmetic brand. ThereforeConsumer Involvement type is influenced by the brand personality association. One way ANOVA has been used, between cosmetic point of purchase andfrequent cosmetic purchasers. From the above output, Table 1.3, of one way ANOVA,significance is 0.000 which is less than 0.05 therefore, null hypothesis is rejected. Hence,significant differences exist between cosmetic point of purchase andfrequent cosmeticpurchasers or we could conclude that Point of purchase plays an important role in makingcosmetic purchase decision. One way ANOVA has been used, between in store marketing factors that play animportant role in selecting the point of purchase and cosmetic buyers. From the output,Table 1.4, of one way ANOVA, significance is 0.000 which is less than 0.05 therefore,null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, in store marketing factors that play an important rolein selecting the point of purchase andhas significant influence on cosmetic purchasers.
  55. 55. 55 One way ANOVA has been used, between factors stimulating trail purchase ofthe cosmetic products, andcosmetic buyers. From the above output, (Table 1.5), of oneway ANOVA, significance is 0.000 which is less than 0.05 therefore, null hypothesis isrejected. Hence, factorsstimulating trail purchase of the cosmetic products has significantinfluence on cosmetic purchasers. From (Table 2.1) 58.1 % of the cosmetic users consider packaging of thecosmetic products to be very important as they believe packaging attracts human eyeballs towards it catching appearance. From (Table 2.2) 71.1 % cosmetic users believepackaging of the cosmetic products to be very important as they consider packaging asthe expression of the cosmetic product‟s personality. From (Table 2.3) 54.8% cosmeticusers believe packaging is very important as it gives detail information about theingredients used in the cosmetic product. From (Table 2.4) 72.6 % people considerpackaging to be very important as it shows direction of usage, which is important fromconsumer point of view, before using a cosmetic product. From (Table 2.5) 53.2%people consider packaging to be very important as it helps in usage and storage. (Figure 3.1) depicts who influences the male cosmetic purchase decision themost, when asked from the cosmetic users with the given options, “They themselves”,“Spouse”, “ Family / Friends”, “ Experts opinion”, “ Celebrity Endorsements”.Maximum of the people selected the option “Experts opinion” as they believed that themale cosmetic purchase decisions are majorly influenced by the opinion of the cosmeticindustry experts than the Celebrity Endorsements. Second they believed that for the mostof the married men, their spouse plays an important role in making the cosmetic purchasedecisions on their behalf. From the (Table 4.1), depicts retaining the male cosmetic users. 73.4% of thepeople strongly agree to the fact that retailers has to come up with some kind of bonuspacks, so that the male cosmetic users gets to use more of a quantity at a given price. Asthe price of the cosmetics in the male cosmetic market is moderate and packaging too issteady, moderate and simple.
  56. 56. 56 It can be easily seen from the (Table 4.2) and (Figure 4.3)that the age group 40 -60 are the heavy cosmetic users, as they buy cosmetics above three times in a givenperiod of six months, thus we can conclude that people belonging to the age group 40-60spend most on the cosmetic products. It can be easily seen from the (Table 4.4) and (Figure 4.5)that the females are theheavy cosmetic users, as they buy cosmetics above three times in a given period of sixmonths, thus we can conclude that femalespend most on the cosmetic products comparedwith men. Looking at the (Table 4.8)Rotated Component Matrix, The variable number 2, 4,6, and 7 i.e. “Skin protection”, “Anti-Aging”, “Self-Confidence”, “Solving skinproblems” has high loadings under factor 1, there loadings are 0.878, 0.818, 0.955 and0.934 respectively. This suggests that the factor 1 is a combination of these four originalvariables. (Table 4.7) also suggests the similar grouping. Similarly looking under the factor 2 in (Table 4.8)Rotated Component Matrix, thevariable 9 and 10 i.e. “To look fair” and “To smell good” has high loadings under factor2, there loadings are 0.935 and 0.942 respectively. This suggests that factor 2 is acombination of these two original variables. (Table 4.7) also suggests the similargrouping. ConclusionFrom the above data analysis we conclude that that Consumer Involvement type is affected by positive perception towards the brand. Refer to the (Table 1.1) Significant differences exist between consumer purchase involvement type and personality traits expected from a cosmetic brand. Therefore Consumer Involvement type is influenced by the brand personality association. Refer to the (Table 1.2)
  57. 57. 57Significant differences exist between point of purchase andfrequent cosmeticpurchasers or we could conclude that Point of purchase plays an important role inmaking cosmetic purchase decision among the frequent cosmetic purchasers.Refer to the (Table 1.3)In store marketing factors that play an important role in selecting the point ofpurchase and has significant influence on cosmetic purchasers. Refer to the(Table 1.4)Factors stimulating trail purchase of the cosmetic products has significantinfluence on cosmetic purchasers. Refer to the (Table 1.5)From (Table 2.1) 58.1 % of the cosmetic users consider packaging of thecosmetic products to be very important as they believe packaging attracts humaneye balls towards it catching appearance. From (Table 2.2) 71.1 % cosmetic usersbelieve packaging of the cosmetic products to be very important as they considerpackaging as the expression of the cosmetic product‟s personality. From (Table2.3) 54.8% cosmetic users believe packaging is very important as it gives detailinformation about the ingredients used in the cosmetic product. From (Table 2.4)72.6 % people consider packaging to be very important as it shows direction ofusage, which is important from consumer point of view, before using a cosmeticproduct. From (Table 2.5) 53.2% people consider packaging to be very importantas it helps in usage and storage.From (Figure 3.1), which depicts who influences the male cosmetic purchasedecision the most? Maximum of the people selected the option “Experts opinion”as they believed that the male cosmetic purchase decisions are majorly influencedby the opinion of the cosmetic industry experts than the Celebrity Endorsements.Second they believed that for the most of the married men, their spouse plays animportant role in making the cosmetic purchase decisions on their behalf.From the (Table 4.1), which depicts, 73.4% of the people strongly agree to thefact that retailers has to come up with some kind of bonus packs, so that the malecosmetic users gets to use more of a quantity at a given price. As the price of the
  58. 58. 58cosmetics in the male cosmetic market is moderate and packaging too is steady,moderate and simple.It can be easily seen from the (Table 4.2) and (Figure 4.3) that the people fromthe age group 40 - 60 are the heavy cosmetic users, as they buy cosmetics abovethree times in a given period of six months, thus we can conclude that peoplebelonging to the age group 40-60 spend most on the cosmetic products.It can be easily seen from the (Table 4.4) and (Figure 4.5) that the females arethe heavy cosmetic users, as they buy cosmetics above three times in a givenperiod of six months, thus we can conclude that female spend most on thecosmetic products compared with men.Looking at the (Table 4.8) Rotated Component Matrix, The variable number 2, 4,6, and 7 i.e. “Skin protection”, “Anti-Aging”, “Self-Confidence”, “Solving skinproblems”. This suggests that the factor 1 is a combination of these four originalvariables. (Table 4.7) also suggests the similar grouping.Similarly looking under the factor 2 in (Table 4.8) Rotated Component Matrix,the variable 9 and 10 i.e. “To look fair” and “To smell good”. This suggests thatfactor 2 is a combination of these two original variables. (Table 4.7) also suggeststhe similar grouping. RecommendationsPoint of purchase plays an important role in making cosmetic purchase decisionamong the frequent cosmetic purchasers. Therefore cosmetic companies shouldgo for various distribution channels, as cosmetic buyers like to purchase cosmeticproducts from all sorts ofvendors, whoever can provide a new buying experience.Refer to the (Table 1.3). Also, in store marketing factors that play an importantrole in selecting the point of purchase and has significant influence on cosmeticpurchasers. Refer to the (Table 1.4).Cosmetic companies should give more emphasis in stimulating a trial purchase ofits new products,as research showed that factors stimulating trail purchase of the
  59. 59. 59cosmetic products has significant influence on cosmetic purchasers. Refer to the(Table 1.5)From (Table 2.4) 72.6 % people consider packaging to be very important as itshows direction of usage, which is important from consumer point of view, beforeusing a cosmetic product. Cosmetic companies must make sure that direction ofusage is properly mentioned on the packaging of their product, as cosmetic buyersdo consider it as an important part of the product.Cosmetic companies‟ needs to target the cosmetic industry experts than going forcelebrity endorsements in terms of making television commercials, as thecosmetic purchase decisions of the male segment is highly influenced by thecosmetic industry experts. Secondly cosmetic companies should target femalestoo, for selling males cosmetic products asthe research showed that for most ofthe married men, their spouse plays an important role in making the cosmeticpurchase decisions on their behalf. Refer to the (Table 3.1)From the (Table 4.1), which depicts, 73.4% of the people strongly agree to thefact that retailers has to come up with some kind of bonus packs, so that the malecosmetic users gets to use more of a quantity at a given price. As the price of thecosmetics in the male cosmetic market is moderate and packaging too is steady,moderate and simple.It can be easily seen from the(Table 4.2) and (Figure 4.3) that the people fromthe age group 40 - 60 are the heavy cosmetic users, as they buy cosmetics abovethree times in a given period of six months, thus we can conclude that peoplebelonging to the age group 40-60 spend most on the cosmetic products.It can be easily seen from the (Table 4.4) and (Figure 4.5) that the females arethe heavy cosmetic users, as they buy cosmetics above three times in a givenperiod of six months, thus we can conclude that female spend most on thecosmetic products compared with men.
  60. 60. 60 ReferencesAaker, J. L. (1999) the malleable self: The role of self-expression in persuasion.Journal of Marketing Research 36 (1): 45 – 57.Chandon, P., Hutchin, W., Bradlow, T. & Young, S (2009).Does In-StoreMarketing effects of the Number and Position of Shelf Facings on BrandAttention and Evaluation at the Point of Purchase. Journal of Marketing;Nov2009, Vol. 73 Issue 6, p1-17, 17p, 1 Color Photograph, 2 Diagrams, 4 Charts,2 GraphsGuthrie, M. & Jung, J. (2008).The effects of facial image and cosmetic usage onperceptions of brand personality.Journal of Fashion Marketing & Management;May2008, Vol. 12 Issue 2, p164-181, 18pHartmann, P. & Diehl, S. (2010).BEST BRAND DECISIONS--ConsumerDefined. Global Cosmetic Industry; Mar2011, Vol. 179 Issue 2, p36-38, 3pHill, A. (2011). Standing out in the crowd. Global Cosmetic Industry; Sep2011,Vol. 179 Issue 8, p52-56, 3p, 1 Color PhotographHouston, M. J., & Rothschild, M. L. (1978).Conceptual and methodologicalperspectives in involvement. In: S.C. Jain (ed.) Research Frontiers in Marketing:Dialogues and Directions. Chicago, IL: American Marketing Association, pp. 184– 187.Krugman, H. E. (1966/1967).The measurement of advertising involvement.Public Opinion Quarterly 30 (4): 583 – 596Kapferer, J., & Laurent, G. (1985/1986). Consumer involvement profiles: A newpractical approach to consumer involvement. Journal of Advertising Research 25(6): 48 – 56.Park, C. Maclnnis, D. Priester, J. & Lacobucci, D. (2010). Customer satisfactionacross organizational units. Journal of Service Research; Feb2004, Vol. 6 Issue 3,p231-242, 12p

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