The variousness perspective

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  • 1. The ‘Variousness’ Perspective: Are teachers ready?Isabel Pefianco MartinDepartment of EnglishAteneo de Manila Universitymmartin@ateneo.edu
  • 2. • English language proficiency and the „teacher factor‟• Beliefs and attitudes about the English language• The „variousness‟ perspective (Kachru 1995)
  • 3. 92% of elementary school children are enrolled in the public schools (as of 2009-10)private school enrolment (1.1 million) public school enrolment (12.8 million)
  • 4. 80% of secondary school children are enrolled in the public schools (as of 2009-10)private school enrolment (1.3 million) public school enrolment (5.4 million)
  • 5. Proportion of public to private elementary school teachers (as of 2009-10)13% 87%
  • 6. Proportion of public to private secondary school teachers (as of 2009-10) 28% 72%
  • 7. NAT Elementary School Results School Year English MPS 2003-04 49.92 2004-05 59.15 2005-06 54.05 2006-07 60.78 2007-08 61.62 2008-09 61.81 2009-10 67.81
  • 8. NAT Secondary School Results School Year English (MPS) 2003-04 50.08 2004-05 51.30 2005-06 47.73 2006-07 51.78 2007-08 53.46 2008-09 52.90 2009-10 46.95
  • 9. • deteriorating mastery of English• the „teacher factor‟• teacher competence?• beliefs and attitudes about the English language?• the study: 185 public school teachers throughout the country
  • 10. English you teach?0.60.50.40.30.20.1 0 American British Philippine just English English English English
  • 11. Why Philippine English (PE)?• All my pupils are Filipinos• Because my pupils are Filipinos• All pupils are Filipinos• Because we are Filipinos• As a Filipino, it is essential• To introduce stories based on the Philippine settingPE as rooted in Filipino culture and identity
  • 12. Why Philippine English?• Whatever is in the Philippine Curriculum and based on the Basic Education Curriculum, I just follow the competencies to be taught• Based on the textbook provided by the DepEd• Objectives are specified in the RBEC• I teach Philippine English provided it is found in the scope and sequence of the subjects I handle• The books are from Philippine authors
  • 13. Why Philippine English?• Because were using books mostly by Filipino authors• We use textbooks by Filipino authors• The textbooks and other references used are Philippine made• Philippine English is suited to our educational settingPE as prescribed by official policy and practice
  • 14. Why Philippine English?• Philippine English is free from slang and words are pronounced more clearly• My students can only understand Philippine English• They sound clear to Filipino students• English (that is) most commonly used in the Philippines• It can be easily understood
  • 15. Why Philippine English?• The usual way Filipino students understand my delivery of English• It is commonly used as medium of instruction. Students are used to it, and it could be easily understood by the pupils. It is not slang.• Philippine English is easy to understand and I will start from where I am• It‟s the first English learned• It is easily understood by the pupils
  • 16. Why Philippine English?• I am used to Philippine English rather than any other English• Philippine English because that is easy to teach to my pupilsPE as familiar and accessible
  • 17. Why Philippine English?• Because it is what the pupils can relate to and understand (Taglish)• English with matching Filipino or Taglish and sometimes English, Filipino and vernacular• Teaching them with the vernacular languagePE as Taglish (Tagalog-English)
  • 18. Why Philippine English?• I teach them Philippine English, but I try to introduce to them American English, the grammar and accent.• I‟m correcting student pronunciation and informing them about errors in Filipinism.• As a Filipino teacher, of course my English is Philippine English, but as an English teacher, I am trying to use and introduce American and British English to my students so that they will be aware of English often used in our country.
  • 19. Why Philippine English?• I dont only teach Philippine English but also American as well as British English.PE as inferior to inner circle (native speaker) varieties
  • 20. Target language?0.50.40.30.20.1 0 American British Philippine just English English English English
  • 21. Why American English (AE)?• They [Filipino students] have to learn first the basics.• Knowing American English can avoid arguments and debates about the correct spelling and pronunciation.• The pronunciation of some words is conventional.• An approximately correct English— understandable and acceptable internationally
  • 22. Why American English (AE)?• Since it is the most accepted English.• It‟s the ideal, the standard in terms of language usage.• So that pupils will become more eloquent, smart in talking, and can communicate the language not only in speaking but in writing as well.AE as the only acceptable standard of correctness
  • 23. Why American English?• You could use American movies as patterns for [teaching] speaking skills.• It‟s widely used in communicative learning.• American English is applicable nationwide.• It is a global language.• American English is the universal language.
  • 24. Why American English?• American English is the standard international language.• American English is universally accepted.AE as widely used in various domains
  • 25. Why American English?• Because the expressions used are familiar to us having being under the American regime/way of education.• Because the Americans were the first to teach English to the Filipinos.AE as part of Philippine history
  • 26. Why American English?• [It is] easier for us to speak and apply [for a job abroad].• It‟s clearer, more widely used and a lot of Filipinos go to the USA to work.• This is preferred by companies with networks abroad.• For wherever [my students] may go, they will be able to survive.
  • 27. Why American English?• So we can cope up [in communicating] with other countries.• To make the children more globally competitive.AE as providing access to economic opportunities
  • 28. Why Philippine English (PE)?• My pupils are all Filipinos• We are Filipinos• Because my pupils are Filipinos• Because Im dealing with Filipino pupilsPE as rooted in Filipino culture and identity
  • 29. Why Philippine English?• Because textbooks use the Philippine English language• Textbooks use the Philippine English language as a medium of instruction• Textbooks and manuals use the Philippine English languagePE as prescribed by official policy and practice
  • 30. Why Philippine English?• It is because, Filipino pupils could easily understand the way we use the English language here in the Philippines.• Students should learn English commonly used in the Philippines• Philippine English is their second language.• Philippine English, because the words used are American and some are British, but sometimes our pronunciation and diction are Filipino.
  • 31. Why Philippine English?• Pupils easily relate to it• To speak in a conversational way, not so slangPE as familiar and accessible.
  • 32. Beliefs do not match realitiesBeliefs• PE is the English spoken in the Philippines• PE is more familiar, less formal, more conversational and more accessible• PE is prescribed by the DepEdRealities• PE is a variety with its own features• PE is used widely, but by the educated class• PE is not identified in any official document
  • 33. American English as superior• the only acceptable standard of correctness• provides access to jobsModel Dependency Myth (Kachru, 1995)• exocentric models of inner circle varieties are standard models that must be promoted
  • 34. English changingBautista‟s (2000) grammatical features of PE:1. Liquidity problems of rural banks on a massive scale is [are] being experienced for the first time.2. * [A] Majority of the public school teachers do not want to serve as poll officials in the May elections.3. This results to [in] a better quality of life.4. But it was only in 1510 that a more authentic epidemic has been [was] described.
  • 35. English changingBolton and Butler‟s (2008) “localized vocabularies of English usage” in Philippine dailies:…Politicians are found guilty of economic plunder („large-scale embezzlement of public funds‟) or challenged by the press in ambush interviews („surprise interviews‟); corrupt cops are accused of coddling criminals („treating leniently‟), or mulcting („extorting money from‟) motorists. ..
  • 36. English changingBolton and Butler‟s (2008) “localized vocabularies of English usage” in Philippine dailies:…Hapless citizens borrow money from five- six money lenders („borrowing at high rates of interest,‟ i.e. borrowing five thousand and returning six…). Meanwhile, motorists stuck in traffic get high blood („enraged‟) in frustration, and the affairs of various topnotchers („high achievers‟) fill the gossip columns.
  • 37. English changingFrom the Anvil-Macquarie Dictionary of PE for HS (2000):• academician noun Philippine English a teacher in a college, university, or institution of higher education.  NOTE This word is from the French acadèmicien.• bedspacer noun Philippine English someone who stays in a dormitory or shared room of a board house but does not take meals there.• dirty kitchen noun Philippine English a kitchen for everyday use or use by maids, as opposed to a kitchen used for show or by the owner of the house.
  • 38. • Lack of awareness about the existence of a PE variety• Canagarajah (2006): “... multilingual users of the language will be about 30 million more than the „native‟ speakers by 2050.”• “This changing demography of English has profound implications for language norms. At its most shocking, this gives the audacity for multilingual speakers of English to challenge the traditional language norms and standards of the „native speaker‟ communities.”
  • 39. Not WE WEDeveloping mastery of a Striving for competence insingle “target language” a repertoire of codes and discoursesJoining a speech Shuttling betweencommunity communities in contextually relevant waysCanagarajah (2006)
  • 40. Not WE WEFocusing on Approaching “error” as thecorrectness learner‟s active negotiation and exploration of choices and possibilitiesTeaching Teaching communicativegrammatical rules in strategies (creative ways toa normative and negotiate norms in diverseabstract way contexts)Canagarajah (2006)
  • 41. Conclusion• Certain beliefs about the English language may hamper the successful teaching and learning of the language.• The surfacing of teachers‟ beliefs and attitudes about English presents an opportunity to develop a more realistic perspective for ELT in the Philippines—the „variousness‟ perspective, which may offer an alternative, real-life response to the challenges of teaching a changing language.
  • 42. References1. Anvil-Macquarie Dictionary of Philippine English for High Schools. (2000) Pasig City: Anvil Publishing Inc.2. Bautista, Maria Lourdes. (2000) The grammatical features of educated Philippine English. In Parangal Cang Brother Andrew: Festschrift for Andrew Gonzalez on his sixtieth birthday. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines, pp. 146-158.3. Bolton, Kingsley and Butler, Susan. (2004) Dictionaries and the stratification of vocabulary: towards a new lexicography for Philippine English. World Englishes, 23 (1), pp. 91-112.4. Canagarajah, A. Suresh (2006) The Place of World Englishes in Composition: Pluralization Continued. The CCC Online 57 (4), 588-619.5. Kachru, Braj B. (1995) Teaching world Englishes without myths. In by S. K. Gill et al. (eds.), INTELEC „94: International English Language Education Conference, National and International Challenges and Responses. Bangi, Malaysia: Pusat Bahasa Universiti Kebangsaan.6. Kachru, Braj B. (1997) World Englishes and English-using communities. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 17. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66-87.7. Kachru, Braj B. (2006) World Englishes and culture wars. In The handbook of World Englishes. Edited by Braj B. Kachru, Yamuna Kachru, and Cecil L. Nelson. UK: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 446-471.
  • 43. The ‘Variousness’ Perspective: Are teachers ready?Isabel Pefianco MartinDepartment of EnglishAteneo de Manila Universitymmartin@ateneo.edu