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Meeting the Challenge of Using a Second Language (English) as Medium of Instruction in a Multilingual Environment Goal of Basic Education Concerns Developing Functional Literacy Cognitive Deficit Semilingualism
Addressing the Issues in Multilingual Education Language Proficiency Content Mastery Medium of Instruction Levels of Education Elementary Secondary Tertiary Language Native language Second language Foreign language
A.The learner’s first language (L1) will be used as * the primary medium of instruction from preschool to at least Grade 3 *the main vehicle to teach understanding and mastery of all subject areas like Math. Science, Makabayan, and language subjects like Filipino and English B.The mother tongue as a subject and a language of teaching and learning will be introduced in Grade 1 for conceptual understanding C.Other additional languages such as Filipino, English, etc. are to be introduced no earlier than Grade 2 DepEd Order No. 74 series 2009 ”Institutionalizing Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MLE)”
Experiment Iloilo (I) 1948-1954 Rizal 1960-1966 Iloilo (II) 1961-1964 Lubuagan 1998-2006 Medium of Instruction Hiligaynon (Grades I & 2) English (Grades 3 - 6) Tagalog (Grades I & 2 or I to 4) English (rest of the grades) Hiligaynon ( Same as in Iloilo (i) Experiment) Lilubuagan (Grades 1 to 3) with the same matter taught later in English and Filipino
Group that excelled
Subjects superior in
Experimental group after Grades 1 & 2 language reading arithmetic social studies Control Group End of Grade 4 In English tests English , arith. computation health & science social studies Best with Hiligaynon as medium of instruction to introduce in Grade 1 both Tagalog & English Outperformed other schools In 2006 Nat’l Achievement Test for 3 rd Grade reading After Grades 3 to 6 : arith . social studies reading In Tagalog tests arith. problems social studies health & science
Issues on the Preschool and Elementary Level Languages other than the mother tongue are to be introduced no earlier than Grade 2 To avoid semilingualism To prevent cognitive deficit Mother tongue – a subject in Grade 1 for conceptual understanding
Focus on decoding skills
Lack of instructional materials in the minor local languages
Addressing the Issues in the early grades Preschool * Production of instructional materials in the local language (songs, rhymes, etc.) * Introduction to the written code Lower Elementary * Developing decoding and cognitive skills in the local language * Transitioning to Filipino and English using L2 approaches to language learning Upper Elementary Developing literacy and language skills: *study skills for information search * macro language skiils *oral interaction in English & Filipino *developmental reading skills Developing language learning strategies
Although classes will be taught in Filipino and English, L1 will be used as auxiliary medium of Instruction to explain concepts to make sure students understand them.
Cognitive skills are to be developed in one’s L1 first for transfer in their L2 later.
Encourages code switching Thrust will be on decoding skills Fails to develop learner autonomy in making sense of concepts expressed in a foreign language in information-dense texts
Addressing the Issues in the Secondary Level Limited practice in oral skills Pair work Small group discussions Fish-bowl technique Task-based methodology Code- switching and telegraphic responses CLL Methodology Expansions and follow-up sentences
Issues on the Tertiary Level *With English now as the global lingua franca in today’s information age, isn’t there a need for more practice in English to enable one to make sense of and use the wealth of materials written in English? * To develop learner autonomy, shouldn’t the thrust be on strategy training to attain content mastery? * Don’t content-area teachers also serve as models of the language they use as medium of instruction in the subjects they teach?? The use of more than two languages for literacy and instruction remains a fundamental policy and program in the whole stretch of formal education
Possible cognitive deficit in the content-areas (mathematics and science) where English is used as medium of instruction Addressing the Issues in the Tertiary Level Language Across the Curriculum Content-based Instruction (CBI) English for Specific Purposes
CBI – Content Based Instruction ESP – English for Specific Purposes Sustained
Content-Based Instruction Models Model Teacher Focus & Materials Used 1.Theme-based English teacher Themes/topics are chosen and materials used are taken from different content areas 3.Sheltered class Content-area teacher Uses comprehensible input strategies 2. Adjunct model English teacher in consultation with the content-area teacher Skills needed to make sense of the content-area texts 4.Sustained English teacher Materials focused on only one content-area
Enabling Readers to Make Sense of Information Dense Scientific and Technical Texts -Noting the vocabulary skills that the text would call for * On the Word or Lexical Level Affixation Clusters Noun Compounds Technical Sub-technical Terms Vocabulary Skills
Lexical Problems Technical Terms Highly specialized vocabulary in a given discipline which is primarily the concern of the subject specialist. Sub-Technical Vocabulary Words which occur with high frequency across disciplines, some of which take on special meaning in specific and technical fields. This, too, is the primary concern of the subject specialist but the language teacher can be of assistance if there is a team-up between the English teacher and the subject specialist. Noun Compounds Also called noun strings, these are two or more nouns plus necessary adjectives, and sometimes verbs and adverbs that together make up a single concept
number dividend - divisor multiplicand - multiplier minuend - subtrahend addends Technical or subtechnical odd - even base - power exponent constant - variable minus - plus nominal - ordinal rational prime scale set integer whole - fraction - mixed unit proper - improper numeral Arabic - Roman addition (added to; plus) quotient inverse division (divided by) product power multiplication (multiplied by; times) difference subtraction (subtracted from; taken away from; less)
Noun Compounds in English for Science and Technology ( from Trimble ) For the language teacher For the content area teacher Noun Compounds More Complex 2 or 3+ Noun modifiers + compound noun headword
Very Complex Expanded noun modifiers + compound noun headword
Full swivel steerable non-retracting tail wheel overhaul
*On the Discourse Level -A. Noting the macro-discourse pattern The Problem Solution (P-Sn) Pattern The Topic- Restriction- Illustration (TRI) Pattern Situation Problem Attempted Solution Result Evaluation Topic Restriction Illustration
*On the Discourse Level -B. Noting what one does in the text (Rhetorical Functions) Definition Description Classification Instruction Visual-Verbal Relationship
The Mind-Body Relationship Western doctors are beginning to understand what traditional healers have always known – that the mind and body are inseparable. The World Health Organization, in fact, recommends that in some countries, urban doctors might have greater success if they take a traditional healer with them as they visit patients. Until recently, modern urban physicians healed the body, psychiatrists the mind, and priests and ministers the soul. However, the medical world is now paying more attention to holistic medicine – an approach based on the belief that people’s state of mind can make them sick or speed their recovery from sickness. Topic Orientation to the topic Assertion about the topic Making sense of texts through discourse analysis Whole text: Overall macro-discourse pattern Paragraphs: Number and functions of physical and conceptual paragraphs
Several studies show that the effectiveness of a certain drug often depends on the patient’s expectations of it. For example, in one recent study, psychiatric patients at a major hospital were divided into two groups. One group was given a tranquilizer to make them calm. The other group was given a placebo; the members of the second group did not know, of course, that their “tranquilizer” had no medication in it at all. Surprisingly, more patients were tranquilized by the placebo than by the actual tranquilizer. It seems likely that a person’s hope of a cure and belief in the physician influence the effect of medication. In study after study, there is a positive reaction in almost exactly one-third of the patients taking placebos. How is this possible? How can a placebo have an effect on the body? Evidence from a 1997 study at the University of California shows that several patients who received placebos were able to produce their own natural “drug.” Restriction 1 Mental *Developed by exemplification (Example 1 – Use of placebos for tranquilizers ) Problem-Solution (Example 2 – To explain why placebos work Problem-Solution
Another study demonstrates the importance of environment on patients’ recovery from illness. A group of doctors and health experts recently changed a Veterans’ Administration hospital from a crowded, colorless building into a bright, cheerful one. Although the doctors expected some improvement, they were amazed at the high rate of recovery. After just three months in this pleasant environment, many patients who had been in the hospital for three to ten years were healthy enough to be released and to lead normal lives. Restriction 2 Environmental ( Example 3 – To contrast results attributed to improved environment) Problem-Solution That is, as they took the placebos (which they thought were actual medication) their brains released enkephalins and endorphins – natural chemicals that act like a drug. Scientists theorize that the amount of these chemicals released by a person’s brain quite possibly indicates the amount of faith a person has in his or her doctor. Restatement Elaboration
Restriction 3 Emotional ( Example 4 – To contrast results of expressing and suppressing stressful emotions) Evaluation & response to the results (Suport /Proof 1) Problem-Solution It is even possible that there is a connection between a person’s mind and the risk of developing cancer. Doctors are learning that people who express their emotions by occasionally shouting when they’re angry or shouting when they’re sad might be healthier than people who suppress their feelings. Scientists at the National Cancer Institute studied a large group of patients who had had successful operations for cancerous growths. The scientists discovered that those whose cancer later returned were people who suppressed their emotions, felt angry but denied their anger, and refused to admit that their illness was serious . There is more evidence every day to prove that our minds and bodies are closely connected. Negative emotions, such as loneliness, depression, and helplessness, are believed to cause a higher rate of sickness and death..
Similarly, it’s possible that positive thinking can help people remain in good physical health or become well faster after an illness. Although some doctors are doubtful about this, most accept the success of new therapies (e.g. relaxation and meditation) that help people with problems such as ulcers, high blood pressure, insomnia (sleeplessness) and migraine headaches. (Support/ Proof 2) Conclusion
Learner’s Needs Language Proficiency Motivation Learning Strategies Learning Styles Multiple Intelligence Level of Education Preschool Who will be taught? Tertiary Secondary Elementary
What is to be taught him/her ? Content Skills Language Social Science Arithmetic Psycho-motor Cognitive Science
Basic interpersonal communication (BICS) Cognitive academic language use (CALP) or To establish social relationships To get things done or Encoding or Decoding Oral or Written Language For what will it be used and with whom?