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Dr. andrew moody 2 Dr. andrew moody 2 Document Transcript

  • Silibil N’ Brains‘Authenticity’ of English in Asian Popular Music Andrew Moody University of Macau Gavin Bain and Billy Boyd 1 2 The Proclaimers California Schemin’ We walked out on to the tiny stage to an intense roar from a packed venue. The atmosphere was electric, everyone expectant. Before the lights came on to blind me, I scanned the crowd and saw several familiar faces: Ruth, old fans, old A&Rs, friends and enemies. Behind me, the band launched into our opening song, Become the Monster, and it carried me up on a wave of pure momentum. This, I knew, was it. I would not fuck things up, not this time. I would do what had to be done. I approached the microphone and gripped it tightly between two clammy palms. Over the sound of the building drumbeat, I spoke. Were Hopeless Heroic, I said, not in my affected accent, but in my broad, natural one, and with pride. Im Gavin Bain and . . . My mouth was dry. I took a breath. And Im not American, Im Scottish. I dared a glace at Grant on guitar, who was watching me curiously, as if 1988 waiting for the punchline to a joke he didnt get. I turned to face the crowd again as Become the Monster took off, and I sang out loud in my own voice — at last. Gavin Bain (2010), p. 273 3 4 Linguistic Importance Linguistic Importance of ‘Authenticity’ of ‘Authenticity’ . . .our goal is to observe the way people use In its political guise, Romanticism sought to locate language when they are not being observed. the underpinnings of the European nation in the All of our methods involve an approximation spirit of its people -- particularly the peasants whose to this goal: when we approach from two culture supposedly remained untouched by urbanity. different directions, and get the same result, In its scholarly guise, Romanticism valorized the we can feel confident that we have reached rural population as the authentic source of past the Observer’s Paradox to the structure traditional cultural knowledge and practice, including that exists independently of the analyst. language. Dialectology furthered both of these efforts. William Labov (1972), pp. 61-2 Mary Bucholtz (2003), p. 399 5 6
  • Linguistic Importance Linguistic Importance of ‘Authenticity’ of ‘Authenticity’In fact, my starting point is that sociolinguistics hasinvested very heavily -- and arguably too heavily -- in Playful, ironic, quotative or other ‘performing’the view that some sorts of language and some sorts informants have, until recently, been either hard toof speaker are authentic, and that it has thought conceive or easy to ignore in sociolinguistics.them more valuable for being more authentic. Nikolas Coupland (2003), p. 423 Nikolas Coupland (2003), p. 418 7 8 Linguistic Importance Special Issue of of ‘Authenticity’ Discourse StudiesThe sociolinguistic study of authenticity proposedhere therefore has two principal aims. The first is to November 2001 Volume 3, No. 4examine the authenticating practices of language Special Issue onusers. The second is to examine the authenticating Authenticity in Broadcast Talkpractices of sociolinguists themselves. 8 articles Mary Bucholtz (2003), p. 399 9 10 Linguistic Importance Sociolinguistic Approaches of ‘Authenticity’ to ‘Authenticity • Stylisation (relational approach to identity) -- Coupland (2001)It is not so much the authority of the speaker thatauthenticates the [broadcast news] account. Instead, • Linguistics of contact -- Pratt (1987)it is the nature and manner of the talk itself that • Communities of practice -- Eckert and McConnell-makes for compelling testimony. Ginet (1992) Martin Montgomery (2001), p. 404 • Language crossing -- Rampton (1995) • Audience and referee design -- Bell (1984, 2001) 11 • Act of identity -- LePage and Tabouret-Keller (1985) 12
  • Cultural Importance of Types of Authenticity ‘Authenticity’ When people say a musical performance or recording is authentic, they might refer to representational authenticity, or music that is exactly what it says it is — unlike, say Milli Vanilli posing as signers, where they werent. They might refer to Good music is the authentic expression of cultural authenticity, or music that reflects a cultural tradition— something — a person, an idea, a feeling, a shared the traditional black guitarist and singer Mississippi John Hurts experience, a Zeitgeist. Bad music is inauthentic — it version of Stagger Lee, an old African American song about an expresses nothing. The most common term of abuse outlaw, is more culturally authentic than the Grateful Deads. They might refer to personal authenticity, or music that reflects in rock criticism is bland — bland music has the person or people who are making it — when Ozzy nothing in it and is made only to be commercially Osbourne sings Iron Man, he tells us nothing about his own pleasing. life, but when Loretta Lynn signs Coal Miners Daughter, she tells us a lot. Simon Frith (1987), p. 136 Hugh Barker and Yuval Taylor (2007), p. x (emphasis added) 13 14Tension between Cultural Authenticity Cultural Authenticity and Personal Authenticity • On the one hand, the musical performance and Last night or the night before that, I wont say which night cultural authenticity requires a specific type of linguistic performance in order to appear authentic. A seaman friend of mine, Ill not say which seaman, - Dusty Springfield or Tom Jones Walked up to a big old building, • On the other hand, individual performers find it I wont say which building, And would have not walked up the stairs, artistically difficult to suppress their linguistic and cultural identity and personal authenticity may not to say which stairs, prevail. If there had not been two girls, leaving out the names of those two girls. - Robert Plant or Rod Stewart 15 16 Personal Authenticity Transcultural Flows My seaman buddy and girl moved off after a couple of pages and there I was, All night long, laying and listening and forgetting the poems. ‘ways in which cultural forms move, change, And as well as I could recall and are re-used to fashion new identities in or my seaman buddy could recollect, diverse contexts’ The girl had told us that she was a niece, Pennycook (2006) Global Englishes and of Walt Whitman, but not which niece, Transcultural Flows And it takes a night and a girl and a book of this kind A long long time to find its way back 17 18
  • Language Leaking into Transcultural Flows Performance Dialects The flood of Anglo-American music around the world in the 1950s and 1960s influenced local musicians but did not prevent them from developing their own styles, adapting to their own cultures. The result has been transculturation, where individual music cultures pick up elements from transcultural music — but also Peter Trudgill (1983) some national and local music cultures contribute to transcultural music. The resulting process is characterized by a two-way flow. Craig Lockard (1998), pp. 49-50 19 20John Lennon and a fan on accent Beatles on accent, September 1963 ‘I want to play me drums for the Queen’ -- Ringo 21 22Royal Variety Show, September 1963 Flow of Language Across Cultural Forms ‘linking and intrusive /r/’ There were birds in the sky The Beatles But I never saw them winging (Paul McCartney) No I never saw them at all ‘Till There Was You’ Till there was you 23 24
  • Acts of Authenticity: Acts of Authenticity:Manufacturing Authenticity Manufacturing Authenticity Language Culture • In the same way that acts of identity may be evaluated as focussed or diffuse, authenticity may also be Performers evaluated as focussed or diffuse. Performances • Focussed authenticity: the characteristics that make the language performance authentic are easily identifiable and acknowledged within the community. Audience • Diffuse authenticity: the authentic characteristics of Transcultural Flows the performance are not easily identifiable nor widely acknowledged. 25 26 Dengue Fever Dengue Fever ‘Seeing Hands’ 27 28 Love Psychedelico Pink Floyd Animals ©Capitol, 1977 ["Last Smile"] [In this song ("Last Smile"), both Japanese and English exist at the same temperature. That is new. (This song) goes back and forth between Japanese and English easily and wonderfully. Moreover, the lyrics dont seem to be a circus of words, but make good sense.] (79) Nobuaki, Konuki [ ]. [Language Magic in Songs]. Tokyo: Yamaha Music Media Corporation, 2003. Love PsychedelicoLove Psychedelic Orchestra ©Victor, 2002 The Who Quadrophenia ©MCA, 1973 29 30
  • Your Song I Miss You style (you are still all in imaginary style) sky (you are the sky) fly (fly like an image of flowers) fly (fly in a dream) queen (clear pupils and slender, queen tonight lie (lie forever)again) deep inside die (inside me, love die) smile (smile with a favorite pose) after (grief after)oh sing it to me mind (wavering mind)oh sing it to me (like I want to cry) days (endless days of you) another sightoh sing it to me side (unfinishable my side)oh sing it to me your songdont you know? I will be nothing to you (sadness is calling) (a deep sky) [yond!lu] dive (took me and dive) 31 32 ride on, ride Waltz life (eternally existed life) love (darkness and brightness are ordinary love) every time nobody calls my name nakitai k"#ai nobody calls my name (Ive loved) on your lips, on your lips n!ktai k#ai stay by your side (Ive gone, but not by your side) mind (that is stay, floating alone mind) everywhen please dont close your eyes everywhen please dont close your eyes sentence in clouds. . . and the radio turns on, so I good-bye (now dearest you, good-bye) (thinking of you now like blind) sway (sway in the wind) ride on, ride 33 34 Interpreted as ‘Personal Cultural Authenticity Authenticity’ • Psychedelic music, at the time that Kumi • Kumi’s English is often proclaimed to be as good was living in San Francisco, was probably as her Japanese, and this is often attributed to not the dominant genre available, although the ‘fact’ that she is a returnee. it is very much a part of the SF music • ‘Psychedelic style’ often attributed to returnee scene. experience in San Francisco in the 1970s. • Love Psychedelico are very much a part of • In a recent interview with Love Pscyhedelico a naive ‘hippy movement’ in Japanese pop in the late 1990s. Kumi acknowledged that she had lived in San Francisco when she was age 2-7 (i.e. 1978-85). - Okada Tamio, Puffy, etc. 35 36
  • Musical Singing Style ‘Returnee’ Style• Often compared in the reviews and trade publications • Grammar is usually correct, although it may not show the usual sensitivity to style and register as ‘the Japanese Sheryl Crow’. requirements.• Might have influenced the Ting Tings (UK). • A large number of English words, usually not• Style of Japanese is very unique, and difficult for most adapted to Japanese usage. Japanese speakers to even identify as Japanese. • Stereotypical ‘foreign’ features of pronunciation:• Difficultly in performing Karaoke, makes similar groups - aspiration of consonants, retroflex of post- like Superfly more popular than Love Psychedelico. vocalic /r/, diphthongization of vowels, etc. 37 38 Authenticity of Returnee Style Zee Avi, ‘Zee Avi’ (2009) • Although this may not be a style that Kumi has personal authenticity with using, she likely does have access to the style and close knowledge of it. • The cultural authenticity of the style seems to be widely accepted within Japanese culture, suggesting that the influence of English is more than just a single aberration. 39 40 Zee Avi: CulturalZee Avi, ‘Honey Bee’ (2009) Authenticity • Has not really experienced much success in Malaysia, and does not seem to have tried to find a local route to success. • Many young Malaysians feel that her use of English is somewhat inauthentic and that she should instead perform in Malay. 41 42
  • Zee Avi, ‘Kantoi’ (2009)Semalam I call you, you tak answerYou kata you keluar pergi dinnerYou kata you keluar dengan kawan you [last night I call you, you dont answer] [you said you went out to dinner] [you said you went out with your friends ] Personal AuthenticityBut when I called Tommy he said it wasnt trueSo I drove my car pergi Damansara [to Damansara]Tommy kata maybe you tengok bolaTapi bila I sampai, you tak ada [Tommy said maybe you are watching a football match] [but when I arrived, you were not there] • Zee Avi notes that the language of ‘Kantoi’Lagilah I jadi gila! [Of course I became angry] is an authentic language that she uses, andSo I called and called sampai you answerYou kata, Sorry, sayang. Tadi tak dengar. [until] [You said Sorry, darling. I didnt hear the call.] the use of the language within the song is aMy phone was on silent; I was at the gym.Tapi latar belakang suara perempuan lain. [But another womans voice was in the background] performance of identity.Sudahlah, sayang, I dont believe you [Enough, darling]Ive always known that your words were never trueWhy am I with you? I pun tak tahu [I do not know] • At the same time the other 11 songs, whichNo wonder-lah my friends pun tak suka you [do not like you] are not written in mixed code, maySo I guess thats the end of our story represent a sort of performance of aAkhir kata she accepted his apology [Finally]Tapi last-last kita dapat tahu she was cheating too [But last-last (in the end) we know that] musical genre with cultural authenticity.With her ex-boyfriends best friend...Tommy...Kantoi 43 44 Journey Journey after 1987, or so December 2007 exit Steve Perry enter Arnel Pineda 45 46 Discovered Singing on Journey YouTube© 47 48
  • Style Defined by Cultural Authenticity Steve Perry • Little chance for Pineda to express his personal linguistic identity, which might be represented by Filipino. • It is more likely, however that the personal authenticity is able to find expression in new material that Journey writes with Pineda. • Cultural authenticity, in this case, becomes more important to the band, which had become largely irrelevant. The ideology that is presented here values approximation of the original recording. 49 50 Conclusions Conclusions• Linguistic authenticity may be measured along these • ‘Authenticity’ is implicitly a value two different axis: cultural and personal. judgement: authentic is good, inauthentic is bad.• While authenticity does not simplify the study of language in popular culture, it allows us to account for some of the interesting contradictions involved in • Performers are evaluated as ‘authentic’ less often than performances are evaluated. performing music and, to some extent, performing ethnicity. • Personal and cultural authenticity criteria may very well be taken in opposition to• Authenticity becomes a ‘value-adding’ feature of the one another. language of popular music. 51 52 Conclusions Conclusions • Performers manipulate various factors to • Performances my be conceived not as ‘acts authenticate a performance. These may of identity’, but as ‘acts of authenticity’. In include linguistic factors, musical, visual, this environment authenticity is personal history, etc. manufactured by the performer and/or audience. • Flows of language and culture create complex multilinguistic and multicultural • The evaluation of authenticity is based on environments in which authenticity may be whether or not the manipulated features performed or evaluated. are focussed or diffuse. 53 54
  • Authenticity of English in Asian Popular Music Andrew Moody University of Macau amoody@umac.mo 55