• Traditionally, marketing has relied on ‘Promotion Mix’ i.e. personal selling,
advertising, sales promotion and publicity for communicating to the
• In present times this approach serves a very limited function Today cos
rely on the other elements of marketing mix for effective communication
i.e. product features, price. place of delivery to communicate their offer.
• All the 4Ps of marketing are considered as components of marketing mix.
• The cos communicate through quality product, attractive and convenient
packaging, pictures and symbols, price and the terms of the sale,
attractive stores/showrooms and efficient salesmen.
• The process also involves feedback from the consumer to gauge how the
communication is being received by the target market.
INFORMATION FLOW FROM OTHER MEDIA
• Today, there is a big threat to the conventional promotional measures
because information is reaching the consumer thru Print, TV, Net, Mobile,
Blogs, Chat groups Youtube.
• Well before the formal message reaches the target audience, much more
comprehensive and factual message reaches the consumers thru various
routes. The situation is further compounded by the reliability and
credibility of these alternate channels.
• As communication reaches faster from various other sources, the
marketer cannot rely on the conventional measures used so far.
COMMUNICATION THRU—PRODUCT PERSONALITY
• A basic generic product acquires a distinct personality thru marketing efforts.
• By positioning we tell how it is different from other similar products.
• Thru branding the product makes a promise and develops loyal customers.
• When this finely managed product lands on the shelf it is communicating to the
consumer thru its shape, colour, packaging, logo, labeling etc.
• COMMUNICATION THRU BRAND NAME & LOGO
• No woman buys cosmetics They buy Lakme, L’Oreal, Ponds, Garnier. As utility
and function is concerned any of these products will serve the purpose. The
buyer, however, distinguishes one product from another thru brand name.
• COMMUNICATION THRU COMPANY NAME
• Well established cos can add to the positive impression e.g. Raymonds, Tata’s,
• PRICE QUALITY EQUATION.
• Consumers tend to use price as an indicator of quality. When several
brands of same product are available, the buyer tends to decide on the
basis of price. The higher priced brands are associated with quality.
• Same case with gifts. The consumer cannot gauge the nature of the gifts;
however, he concludes that if the price is high enough it must be of higher
• PRICE AS A STATUS SYMBOL
• In certain cases price becomes a symbol of esteem and status.-cars,
residential locations, restaurants, can be a major source of prestige.
• PRICE AS AN INDICATOR OF TECHNOLOGICAL SUPERIORITY
• For various consumer goods price can also indicate technical superiority,
latest technology, innovation etc
• CONSUMERS CONCEPT OF ‘REASONABLE PRICE’
Why do people say “I buy only from X store.” Why
They have a wide selection
Their service is good
It is cheap
Location is good
They have quality products.
• STORE IMAGE The outlets/stores also project a unique image about
themselves—by virtue of location, décor, extent of merchandise, trained
salesmen extra service eg Home Saaz Modern Stores
• STORE MERCHANDISE
• The range and type of merchandise offered may make a customer switch
over to the store eg Lifestyle, Westend Vimal fabrics.
• Store is a powerful communicator for leading brands—Mount Blanc
pens,Baccarose cosmetics etc.
• For a long period marketing communications was considered to be
synonymous with promotions.
• Promotions consist of following components:
• a) Personal selling
• b) Advertising
• c) Sales promotions
• d) Publicity
• Unlike other components which can be controlled by the firm, publicity
cannot be entirely controlled by the firm.
• The firm is a part of the society and therefore cannot remain immune
from and indifferent to the impressions that the society forms about it.
• A firm tackles these issues on two fronts:
• a) Oversee and ensure that stories and write-ups that appear about it are
favourable to it.
• b) Conduct publicity campaigns around some innovation developed by it
or some social issues—health , environmental-- tackled by it.
• Various routes by firms these days are
• a) Sponsorship of events
• b) Event Management
• c)Public Relations—Management of reputation.
The following steps are necessary for effective communication:
a) Identifying the target audience
b) Determining the communication objective
c) Designing the message
d) Selecting the communication channel
e) Establishing the communication budget
f) Determining the communication mix
g) Measuring the effect of communication
h ) Managing the IMC process
TARGET AUDIENCE IDENTIFICATION
• The marketers should have a clear idea as to whom the communication is
directed .Is it individuals, groups, specific section of public, potential
prospects of company, p resent users. deciders,, influencers etc.
• Knowledge of target audience influences the message: “what’ is to be
said; to “whom” is it to be said; “where” “when” “how” is it to be said.
• IMAGE ANALYSIS
• This is an exercise that attempts to understand hoe the target market
“sees” the co. i.e. percept-analysis.
• After the target audience has been established, the marketer must decide
on the response he would like from the target audience.
• The various responses may be
• a) Awareness
• In case a large proportion of the target market is not aware of the product
or service being offered by the firm, the objective may be to spread
awareness about the product.
• e g MBA from IBS in addition to CFA
• b) Knowledge
• The target audience may be aware of the product but may not have
detailed knowledge about the product
• e g ICFAI having so many other programs.
• The firm must find out why a particular product or service is liked or
disliked by the target audience. If there some perceptual gaps in the
product or service being offered , the firm must try and correct them.
• The target audience may be aware of the product, may have knowledge
and liking, but may not be preferring the product. The co must find out the
reasons for the consumers not preferring their product and must educate
the consumers on the quality, value, performance of the product.
• The consumers may prefer the product but may lack the conviction to
purchase . e g PGDBA from IBS need not be doubted.
• Even if the target market is convinced about the product, it may not
purchase it. At this stage, the communicator must persuade these
potential customers to purchase their product thru discounts, sampling
etc. e g IBS can ask some graduates to attend career counseling sessions
• Once the co has decided on the response, it has to work on the
• A message is said to be effective if it is able to hold attention, generate
interest, induce desire for the product and provoke action
• A message can have three types of appeals
• a) Rational
This approach is helpful in industrial products eg car ads present
• Positive and negative appeals are used to induce people to buy. E g Onida
• Appeals to what is correct.eg Indian Oil, Times of India
• i) Best ads let the viewers form their own opinion
• Ii)Forcing an opinion may lead to a very narrow definition
• Iii)Some ambiguity pushes the consumer towards purchase
• Iv) Communication will be seen as negative if the sender is untrustworthy.
• v) Explicit conclusion can limit appeal
• PERSONAL COMMUNICATION CHANNELS
• --Advocate Channels: sales persons talking to buyers
• --Expert Channels; Experts talking to buyers
• --Social Channels; Friends,family members known people talking to buyers
• NON-PERSONAL COMMUNICATION CHANNELS
• --Print media
• --Electronic media
• --Broadcast media-radio,television
• --Outdoor media
MARKETING COMMUNICATION MIX
• The major components of marketing mix are
• a) Advertising
• b) Sales Promotion
• c)Public Relations
• d)Personal Selling
• DEFINING THE ADVERTISING OBJECTIVE
• --Informative Advertising
Used largely in the introductory stage of the product.
• --Persuasive Advertising
• Used largely in competitive stage to steer the consumer towards your
• Duracell batteries last 3 times more than other batteries
• Pepsodent claiming that it is 102 times better than others
• Bisleri claiming that it is giving 10% more than other mineral water
• --Reminder advertising
• Used largely in the maturity stage as a reinforcement. Meant to reassure
the consumer that he has made the right decision.
• ADVERTISING BUDGETS
• Factors influencing advertising budget:
• a) Stage in PLC
• b) Market share& consumer base
• c) Competition & clutter
• d) Frequency
• e) Product substitutability