0
VIRTUAL PRIVATEVIRTUAL PRIVATE
NETWORKS (VPN)NETWORKS (VPN)
BY:BY:
Diana AshikyanDiana Ashikyan
Nikhil JerathNikhil Jerath...
Traditional ConnectivityTraditional Connectivity
[From Gartner Consulting][From Gartner Consulting]
What is VPN?What is VPN?
Virtual Private Network is a type of privateVirtual Private Network is a type of private
network...
Private NetworksPrivate Networks
vs.vs.
Virtual Private NetworksVirtual Private Networks
Employees can access the network...
Remote Access Virtual PrivateRemote Access Virtual Private
NetworkNetwork
(From Gartner Consulting)
Brief Overview of How it WorksBrief Overview of How it Works
Two connections – one is made to theTwo connections – one is...
Four Critical FunctionsFour Critical Functions
AuthenticationAuthentication – validates that the data was– validates that...
EncryptionEncryption
Encryption -- is a method of “scrambling”Encryption -- is a method of “scrambling”
data before trans...
TunnelingTunneling
A virtual point-to-point connectionA virtual point-to-point connection
made through a public network. I...
Four Protocols used in VPNFour Protocols used in VPN
PPTP -- Point-to-Point Tunneling ProtocolPPTP -- Point-to-Point Tunn...
VPN Encapsulation of PacketsVPN Encapsulation of Packets
Types of ImplementationsTypes of Implementations
What does “implementation” mean inWhat does “implementation” mean in
VPN...
Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
Basic Architecture
Device TypesDevice Types
 What it meansWhat it means
 3 types3 types
 HardwareHardware
 FirewallFirewall
 SoftwareSof...
Device Types: HardwareDevice Types: Hardware
 Usually a VPN type of routerUsually a VPN type of router
Pros
• Highest net...
Device Types: FirewallDevice Types: Firewall
 More security?More security?
Pros
• “Harden” Operating System
• Tri-purpose...
Device Types: SoftwareDevice Types: Software
 Ideal for 2 end points not in same org.Ideal for 2 end points not in same o...
AdvantagesAdvantages
VS.VS.
DisadvantagesDisadvantages
 Eliminating the need for expensive long-distanceEliminating the need for expensive long-distance
leased linesleased line...
Flexibility of growthFlexibility of growth
Efficiency with broadband technologyEfficiency with broadband technology
Adva...
VPNs require an in-depth understanding ofVPNs require an in-depth understanding of
public network security issues and prop...
Applications: Site-to-Site VPNsApplications: Site-to-Site VPNs
Large-scale encryption between multipleLarge-scale encrypti...
Site-to-Site VPNsSite-to-Site VPNs
Applications: Remote AccessApplications: Remote Access
Encrypted connections between mobile orEncrypted connections betwe...
Industries That May Use a VPNIndustries That May Use a VPN
Healthcare:Healthcare: enables the transferring of confidentia...
Statistics From Gartner-Statistics From Gartner-
Consulting*Consulting*
50%
63%
79%
90%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Access to ...
Some Businesses using a VPNSome Businesses using a VPN
CVS Pharmaceutical Corporation upgraded theirCVS Pharmaceutical Cor...
Where Do We See VPNsWhere Do We See VPNs
Going in the Future?Going in the Future?
VPNs are continually being enhanced.VPNs...
Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz!
VPN stands for…
a) Virtual Public Network b) Virtual Private Network
c) Virtual Protocol Network
d)
Vir...
Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz!
A.1A.1
b) Virtual Private Network
VPN stands for…
VPN stands for "Virtual Private Network" or "Virtual ...
Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz!
What are the acronyms for the 3 most common VPN
protocols?
Q.2Q.2
Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz!
A.2A.2
• PPTP
• L2TP
• IPsec
3 most common VPN protocols are…
PPTP, IPsec, and L2TP are three of today'...
Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz!
What does PPTP stand for?
Q.3Q.3
Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz!
A.3A.3
PPTP = Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol !
Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz!
What is the main benefit of VPNs compared to
dedicated networks utilizing frame relay, leased
lines, an...
Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz!
A.4A.4
c) reduced cost
The main benefit of VPNs is…
The main benefit of a VPN is the potential for sign...
Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz!
In VPNs, the term "tunneling" refers to
Q.5Q.5
a) an optional feature
that increases network
performanc...
Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz!
A.5A.5
b) the encapsulation of packets inside packets
of a different protocol to create and
maintain th...
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  1. 1. VIRTUAL PRIVATEVIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORKS (VPN)NETWORKS (VPN) BY:BY: Diana AshikyanDiana Ashikyan Nikhil JerathNikhil Jerath Connie MakalintalConnie Makalintal Midori MurataMidori Murata
  2. 2. Traditional ConnectivityTraditional Connectivity [From Gartner Consulting][From Gartner Consulting]
  3. 3. What is VPN?What is VPN? Virtual Private Network is a type of privateVirtual Private Network is a type of private network that uses public telecommunication,network that uses public telecommunication, such as the Internet, instead of leased lines tosuch as the Internet, instead of leased lines to communicate.communicate. Became popular as more employees worked inBecame popular as more employees worked in remote locations.remote locations. Terminologies to understand how VPNs work.Terminologies to understand how VPNs work.
  4. 4. Private NetworksPrivate Networks vs.vs. Virtual Private NetworksVirtual Private Networks Employees can access the network (Intranet)Employees can access the network (Intranet) from remote locations.from remote locations. Secured networks.Secured networks. The Internet is used as the backbone for VPNsThe Internet is used as the backbone for VPNs Saves cost tremendously from reduction ofSaves cost tremendously from reduction of equipment and maintenance costs.equipment and maintenance costs. ScalabilityScalability
  5. 5. Remote Access Virtual PrivateRemote Access Virtual Private NetworkNetwork (From Gartner Consulting)
  6. 6. Brief Overview of How it WorksBrief Overview of How it Works Two connections – one is made to theTwo connections – one is made to the Internet and the second is made to theInternet and the second is made to the VPN.VPN. Datagrams – contains data, destinationDatagrams – contains data, destination and source information.and source information. Firewalls – VPNs allow authorized usersFirewalls – VPNs allow authorized users to pass through the firewalls.to pass through the firewalls. Protocols – protocols create the VPNProtocols – protocols create the VPN tunnels.tunnels.
  7. 7. Four Critical FunctionsFour Critical Functions AuthenticationAuthentication – validates that the data was– validates that the data was sent from the sender.sent from the sender. Access controlAccess control – limiting unauthorized users– limiting unauthorized users from accessing the network.from accessing the network. ConfidentialityConfidentiality – preventing the data to be– preventing the data to be read or copied as the data is beingread or copied as the data is being transported.transported. Data IntegrityData Integrity – ensuring that the data has– ensuring that the data has not been alterednot been altered
  8. 8. EncryptionEncryption Encryption -- is a method of “scrambling”Encryption -- is a method of “scrambling” data before transmitting it onto thedata before transmitting it onto the Internet.Internet. Public Key Encryption TechniquePublic Key Encryption Technique Digital signature – for authenticationDigital signature – for authentication
  9. 9. TunnelingTunneling A virtual point-to-point connectionA virtual point-to-point connection made through a public network. It transportsmade through a public network. It transports encapsulated datagrams.encapsulated datagrams. Encrypted Inner Datagram Datagram Header Outer Datagram Data Area Original Datagram Data Encapsulation [From Comer] Two types of end points:  Remote Access  Site-to-Site
  10. 10. Four Protocols used in VPNFour Protocols used in VPN PPTP -- Point-to-Point Tunneling ProtocolPPTP -- Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol L2TP -- Layer 2 Tunneling ProtocolL2TP -- Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol IPsec -- Internet Protocol SecurityIPsec -- Internet Protocol Security SOCKS – is not used as much as theSOCKS – is not used as much as the ones aboveones above
  11. 11. VPN Encapsulation of PacketsVPN Encapsulation of Packets
  12. 12. Types of ImplementationsTypes of Implementations What does “implementation” mean inWhat does “implementation” mean in VPNs?VPNs? 3 types3 types Intranet – Within an organizationIntranet – Within an organization Extranet – Outside an organizationExtranet – Outside an organization Remote Access – Employee to BusinessRemote Access – Employee to Business
  13. 13. Virtual Private Networks (VPN) Basic Architecture
  14. 14. Device TypesDevice Types  What it meansWhat it means  3 types3 types  HardwareHardware  FirewallFirewall  SoftwareSoftware
  15. 15. Device Types: HardwareDevice Types: Hardware  Usually a VPN type of routerUsually a VPN type of router Pros • Highest network throughput • Plug and Play • Dual-purpose Cons • Cost • Lack of flexibility
  16. 16. Device Types: FirewallDevice Types: Firewall  More security?More security? Pros • “Harden” Operating System • Tri-purpose • Cost-effective Cons • Still relatively costly
  17. 17. Device Types: SoftwareDevice Types: Software  Ideal for 2 end points not in same org.Ideal for 2 end points not in same org.  Great when different firewallsGreat when different firewalls implementedimplemented Pros • Flexible • Low relative cost Cons • Lack of efficiency • More labor training required • Lower productivity; higher labor costs
  18. 18. AdvantagesAdvantages VS.VS. DisadvantagesDisadvantages
  19. 19.  Eliminating the need for expensive long-distanceEliminating the need for expensive long-distance leased linesleased lines  Reducing the long-distance telephone chargesReducing the long-distance telephone charges for remote access.for remote access.  Transferring the support burden to the serviceTransferring the support burden to the service providersproviders  Operational costsOperational costs  Cisco VPN Savings CalculatorCisco VPN Savings Calculator Advantages: Cost SavingsAdvantages: Cost Savings
  20. 20. Flexibility of growthFlexibility of growth Efficiency with broadband technologyEfficiency with broadband technology Advantages: ScalabilityAdvantages: Scalability
  21. 21. VPNs require an in-depth understanding ofVPNs require an in-depth understanding of public network security issues and properpublic network security issues and proper deployment of precautionsdeployment of precautions Availability and performance depends on factorsAvailability and performance depends on factors largely outside of their controllargely outside of their control Immature standardsImmature standards VPNs need to accommodate protocols otherVPNs need to accommodate protocols other than IP and existing internal network technologythan IP and existing internal network technology DisadvantagesDisadvantages
  22. 22. Applications: Site-to-Site VPNsApplications: Site-to-Site VPNs Large-scale encryption between multipleLarge-scale encryption between multiple fixed sites such as remote offices andfixed sites such as remote offices and central officescentral offices Network traffic is sent over the branchNetwork traffic is sent over the branch office Internet connectionoffice Internet connection This saves the company hardware andThis saves the company hardware and management expensesmanagement expenses
  23. 23. Site-to-Site VPNsSite-to-Site VPNs
  24. 24. Applications: Remote AccessApplications: Remote Access Encrypted connections between mobile orEncrypted connections between mobile or remote users and their corporate networksremote users and their corporate networks Remote user can make a local call to an ISP, asRemote user can make a local call to an ISP, as opposed to a long distance call to the corporateopposed to a long distance call to the corporate remote access server.remote access server. Ideal for a telecommuter or mobile sales people.Ideal for a telecommuter or mobile sales people. VPN allows mobile workers & telecommuters toVPN allows mobile workers & telecommuters to take advantage of broadband connectivity.take advantage of broadband connectivity. i.e. DSL, Cablei.e. DSL, Cable
  25. 25. Industries That May Use a VPNIndustries That May Use a VPN Healthcare:Healthcare: enables the transferring of confidential patientenables the transferring of confidential patient information within the medical facilities & health care providerinformation within the medical facilities & health care provider ManufacturingManufacturing: allow suppliers to view inventory & allow: allow suppliers to view inventory & allow clients to purchase online safelyclients to purchase online safely Retail:Retail: able to securely transfer sales data or customer infoable to securely transfer sales data or customer info between stores & the headquartersbetween stores & the headquarters Banking/Financial:Banking/Financial: enables account information to beenables account information to be transferred safely within departments & branchestransferred safely within departments & branches General Business:General Business: communication between remotecommunication between remote employees can be securely exchangedemployees can be securely exchanged
  26. 26. Statistics From Gartner-Statistics From Gartner- Consulting*Consulting* 50% 63% 79% 90% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Access to network for business partners/customers Site-to-site connectivity between offices Remote access for employees while traveling Remote access for employees working out of homes % of Respondents Percentages *Source: www.cisco.com
  27. 27. Some Businesses using a VPNSome Businesses using a VPN CVS Pharmaceutical Corporation upgraded theirCVS Pharmaceutical Corporation upgraded their frame relay network to an IP VPNframe relay network to an IP VPN ITW Foilmark secured remote location orders,ITW Foilmark secured remote location orders, running reports, & internet/intranetrunning reports, & internet/intranet communications w/ a 168-bit encryption bycommunications w/ a 168-bit encryption by switching to OpenReach VPNswitching to OpenReach VPN Bacardi & Co. Implemented a 21-country, 44-Bacardi & Co. Implemented a 21-country, 44- location VPNlocation VPN
  28. 28. Where Do We See VPNsWhere Do We See VPNs Going in the Future?Going in the Future? VPNs are continually being enhanced.VPNs are continually being enhanced. Example:Example: Equant NVEquant NV As the VPN market becomes larger, moreAs the VPN market becomes larger, more applications will be created along withapplications will be created along with more VPN providers and new VPN types.more VPN providers and new VPN types. Networks are expected to converge toNetworks are expected to converge to create an integrated VPNcreate an integrated VPN Improved protocols are expected, whichImproved protocols are expected, which will also improve VPNs.will also improve VPNs.
  29. 29. Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz! VPN stands for… a) Virtual Public Network b) Virtual Private Network c) Virtual Protocol Network d) Virtual Perimeter Network Q.1Q.1
  30. 30. Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz! A.1A.1 b) Virtual Private Network VPN stands for… VPN stands for "Virtual Private Network" or "Virtual Private Networking." A VPN is a private network in the sense that it carries controlled information, protected by various security mechanisms, between known parties. VPNs are only "virtually" private, however, because this data actually travels over shared public networks instead of fully dedicated private connections.
  31. 31. Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz! What are the acronyms for the 3 most common VPN protocols? Q.2Q.2
  32. 32. Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz! A.2A.2 • PPTP • L2TP • IPsec 3 most common VPN protocols are… PPTP, IPsec, and L2TP are three of today's most popular VPN tunneling protocols. Each one of these is capable of supporting a secure VPN connection.
  33. 33. Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz! What does PPTP stand for? Q.3Q.3
  34. 34. Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz! A.3A.3 PPTP = Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol !
  35. 35. Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz! What is the main benefit of VPNs compared to dedicated networks utilizing frame relay, leased lines, and traditional dial-up? Q.4Q.4 a) better network performance b) less downtime on average c) reduced cost d) improved security
  36. 36. Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz! A.4A.4 c) reduced cost The main benefit of VPNs is… The main benefit of a VPN is the potential for significant cost savings compared to traditional leased lines or dial up networking. These savings come with a certain amount of risk, however, particularly when using the public Internet as the delivery mechanism for VPN data.
  37. 37. Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz! In VPNs, the term "tunneling" refers to Q.5Q.5 a) an optional feature that increases network performance if it is turned on b) the encapsulation of packets inside packets of a different protocol to create and maintain the virtual circuit c) the method a system administrator uses to detect hackers on the network d) a marketing strategy that involves selling VPN products for very low prices in return for expensive service contracts
  38. 38. Pop Quiz!Pop Quiz! A.5A.5 b) the encapsulation of packets inside packets of a different protocol to create and maintain the virtual circuit In VPNs, the term "tunneling" refers to…
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