3. LEXICAL COHESION
• Lexical Cohesion is a linguistic device which helps
to create unity of text and discourse.
• Lexical cohesion deals with the meaning in text.
“This is the cohesive effect achieved by the
selection of vocabulary” (Halliday and Hasan,
4. • The mango is sweet. The „mana lagi‟ is sour too.
The mango is …
5. CATEGORIES OF LC (
Reiteration is a form of lexical cohesion which
involves the repetition of lexical item, at one end of
Repetition, or sometimes called reiteration, is
the most direct and obvious source of lexical
cohesion since it is the mere identical
recurrence of a preceding lexical item.
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1. Algy met a bear. The bear was bulgy.
2. Budi kick the ball. The ball is circle
3. Trying ……
7. CATEGORIES OF LC
According to the Oxford advance
learning Dictionary, synonymy refers to “the
fact of two or more words or expressions having
the same meaning.”
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I heard a sound, but I couldn’t figure
out where that noise came from.
Noise refers back to sound. Both terms have the
same level of generality and are therefore
synonyms in the narrower sense.
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Seven blackbirds began to sing in the
morning. These birds were singing
Birds refers back to blackbirds but has a higher
level of generality and is therefore a superordinate
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Describes a “specific-general” relationship
between lexical items.
A: Then they began to meet vegetation
B: prickly cactus-like plants and coarse grass.
Plants and grass are specific parts of vegetation and
therefore altogether form a cohesive relationship.
11. 1. A way of achieving cohesion by way of repeating the
same word or phrase or using chains of related words
that contribute towards the continuity of lexical
meaning: „Each day she had gone with Tom and
Peter or just with Tom down into the Underground and
played her violin‟ (BNC, EDN).
1. „Each day she had gone with Tom and Peter or just
with Tom down into the Underground and played her
violin‟ (BNC, EDN).
2. In the above example, Tom is repeated a second
time, in order to make it clear who is being referred to.
1. In the above example, Tom is repeated a second
time, in order to make it clear who is being referred
2. A pronoun like him would have been ambiguous.
12. 1. I hate someone who is sitting in front of me.
2. Because she always disturbs me.
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Describes a “part-whole” relationship between lexical items.
Example: She knelt down and looked along the passage into the
loveliest garden you ever saw. How she longed to wander about
among those beds of bright flowers and those cool fountains.
• Flowers and Fountains are typical parts of a garden and therefore
altogether form a cohesive relationship.
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• Describes a relationship between lexical items
that have opposite meanings.
Example: He fell asleep. What woke him was
a loud crash.
Asleep and woke are antonyms and therefore
form a cohesive relationship.
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Definition is a natural combination of words; it
refers to the way English words are closely
associated with each other. This collocation divides
into two types:
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Systemic semantic relation (systematically
– Mary likes green apple.
– She does not like red ones.
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Nonsystematic semantic relation (not
– Mary spent three hours in the garden yesterday.
– She was dinging potatoes.