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Lexical cohesive analysis

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  • 1. Lexical Cohesive Analysis Agus Purnomo Uspan Sayuti Vetty Kurnely
  • 2. BACKGROUND • Discourse organization • Coherence, cohesion, genre • Cohesion: grammatical and lexical cohesion
  • 3. LEXICAL COHESION • Lexical Cohesion is a linguistic device which helps to create unity of text and discourse. • Lexical cohesion deals with the meaning in text. “This is the cohesive effect achieved by the selection of vocabulary” (Halliday and Hasan, 1976).
  • 4. • The mango is sweet. The „mana lagi‟ is sour too. The mango is …
  • 5. CATEGORIES OF LC ( Reiteration is a form of lexical cohesion which involves the repetition of lexical item, at one end of the scale. A. Repetition Repetition, or sometimes called reiteration, is the most direct and obvious source of lexical cohesion since it is the mere identical recurrence of a preceding lexical item.
  • 6. CATEGORIES OF LC A. Repetition Example: 1. Algy met a bear. The bear was bulgy. 2. Budi kick the ball. The ball is circle 3. Trying ……
  • 7. CATEGORIES OF LC B. Synonym According to the Oxford advance learning Dictionary, synonymy refers to “the fact of two or more words or expressions having the same meaning.”
  • 8. CATEGORIES OF LC Example: I heard a sound, but I couldn’t figure out where that noise came from. Noise refers back to sound. Both terms have the same level of generality and are therefore synonyms in the narrower sense.
  • 9. CATEGORIES OF LC Another example: Seven blackbirds began to sing in the morning. These birds were singing beautifully. Birds refers back to blackbirds but has a higher level of generality and is therefore a superordinate term.
  • 10. CATEGORIES OF LC C. Hyponymy Describes a “specific-general” relationship between lexical items. Example: A: Then they began to meet vegetation B: prickly cactus-like plants and coarse grass. Plants and grass are specific parts of vegetation and therefore altogether form a cohesive relationship.
  • 11. 1. A way of achieving cohesion by way of repeating the same word or phrase or using chains of related words that contribute towards the continuity of lexical meaning: „Each day she had gone with Tom and Peter or just with Tom down into the Underground and played her violin‟ (BNC, EDN). 1. „Each day she had gone with Tom and Peter or just with Tom down into the Underground and played her violin‟ (BNC, EDN). 2. In the above example, Tom is repeated a second time, in order to make it clear who is being referred to. 1. In the above example, Tom is repeated a second time, in order to make it clear who is being referred to. 2. A pronoun like him would have been ambiguous.
  • 12. 1. I hate someone who is sitting in front of me. 2. Because she always disturbs me.
  • 13. CATEGORIES OF LC D. Metonymy Describes a “part-whole” relationship between lexical items. Example: She knelt down and looked along the passage into the loveliest garden you ever saw. How she longed to wander about among those beds of bright flowers and those cool fountains. • Flowers and Fountains are typical parts of a garden and therefore altogether form a cohesive relationship.
  • 14. CATEGORIES OF LC E. Antonymy • Describes a relationship between lexical items that have opposite meanings. Example: He fell asleep. What woke him was a loud crash. Asleep and woke are antonyms and therefore form a cohesive relationship.
  • 15. CATEGORIES OF LC F. Collocation Definition is a natural combination of words; it refers to the way English words are closely associated with each other. This collocation divides into two types:
  • 16. CATEGORIES OF LC  Systemic semantic relation (systematically classifiable). Example: – Mary likes green apple. – She does not like red ones.
  • 17. CATEGORIES OF LC  Nonsystematic semantic relation (not systematically classifiable). Example: – Mary spent three hours in the garden yesterday. – She was dinging potatoes.