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Apush unions2


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  • 1. APUSH Audio lecture Unions
  • 2. Industrialization Problems • Long Working hours (60+ hour weeks) • Unsafe working conditions • Job Insecurity • By 1920s America most industrialized nation, and leader in industrial accidents Benefits • High standards of livings • Formation of modern America
  • 3. Answer to the industrial problems Socialism/ Communism (REDS) • • • • • • Similar systems Government control of factors of production Equal distribution of all things Favored by the working classes Feared by Wealthy Socialism – strong belief in democracy – Tend to be peaceful • Communism – Working classes are too stupid to create change – Workers need to be led by an educated elite – Tend to believe in violence Anarchism (BLACKS) • Anti Government • Believed states were against human nature • Believed in communal ownership, similar to socialism • Tended toward terrorism None of these work for America
  • 4. Unions • Group of workers organized to protect its members • Goals – Higher wages – Better working conditions – Shorter hours • Strategies – Strikes – Boycotts – Arbitration/negotiations • Problems – Yellow dog contracts • Employers forced workers to sign promising not to join unions – Blacklisting union members
  • 5. Knights of Labor • Founded 1869 • Represented both skilled and unskilled workers, and any race (except Chinese) • Had wide ranged social reforms – Homesteading – Contract labor – Monetary reform • Wanted worker collectives • Haymarket Affair ends the organization
  • 6. American Federation of Labor • Formed 1886 – Samuel Gompers • Skilled Workers – Not minorities • Focused on specific workplace issues • New Unionism – Supporting pro-labor politicians – Supporting Urban reformers
  • 7. Haymarket Affair • • • • • Chicago May 4, 1886 Knights led strike against the McCormick Company Police kill one union member Next day Union holds a vigil in Haymarket Square Police arrive and someone throws a bomb killing several Policemen • Policemen open fire killing several Union members • 8 suspected anarchists arrested and found guilty of the crime
  • 8. Pullman Strike • Pullman Il, Outside of Chicago 1894 • Workers Paradise • Factory town that made Railroad Sleeper Cars • Pullman cut wages, but left rents and prices at the factory store high • Strike • Ends with violence • 80 mill in damages • 30 people died • Ends with the Federal Government intervention to stop the strike because of mail • Army put the final end of the union
  • 9. Homestead Strike • • • • • • • • • • Homestead PA, just outside of Pittsburgh 1892 Strike at a Carnegie Steel mill run by Henry Frick Lock workers out of factories Workers picket factories to prevent Scabs from working Frick hires armed private security firm (Pinkertons) to protect Scab workers Striking workers arm themselves Strike degrades into open warfare between the Pinkertons and the Union State Militia called into to end the violence Union not supported by AFL Union responsible dissolves following the end of the strike
  • 10. Union Summary Gains Losses • Average # of hours dropped • Average pay increased • Recognition of worker’s rights • Gave some power to the working class • Government took side of business owners in most cases • Used Sherman Antitrust Act against unions • Failed to win the respect of gov’t and the people at this time in the late 1800s