Bhutto and islamization in pakistan

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Bhutto and islamization in pakistan

  1. 1. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan Assignment (Pak. Studies) Topic: Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan Submitted to: Sir RaiShabbir Submitted by: M. UsmanGohar(bpd02113204) AwaisRasool(bpd02113057) ArslanElahi(bpd02113037) Section: 3rd C The University of Lahore (Dept. of Pharmacy)Prepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 1
  2. 2. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan ContentsIntroduction------------------------------------------------------3About Zulfiqar Ali BhuttoAbout AssignmentAddresses of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto--------------------------4THE ISLAMIC HERITAGEPERSONALITY OF THE HOLY PROPHET(P.B.U.H)Bhutto’s View on Kashmir----------------------------------5Constitution of 1973-------------------------------------------6Islamic Provisions of 1973 Constitution-----------------7Official NameState ReligionSovereignty Belongs to AllahDefinition of a MuslimDefinition of Non-MulimA Muslim to be a President and Prime MinisterIslamic Way of lifePromotion of Social Justice and Eradication of Social EvilsTeachings of Holy QuranStrengthen Bond with Muslim WorldCouncil of Islamic IdeologyError Free Publication of QuranOath to Project and Promote Islamic IdeologyThe Ulama and Bhutto-------------------------------------10The Ahmadis Question------------------------------------13Pakistan’s Relations with the Muslim World-------15The 1974 Lahore Islamic Summit Conference------17International Congress on Seerat(1976)---------------19Bhutto And The Politics of Islamic Bomb-----------21References----------------------------------------------------24Prepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 2
  3. 3. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan Introduction About Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (January 5, 1928 – April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician, active in the early years of the Pakistani Government. He was the son of Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto. Bhutto served in the position of President (from 1971 to 1973) and as Prime Minister, from 1973 to 1977, of Pakistan. He has the rare distinction of being a civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator. Deposed in a coup by General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, he was hanged on charges of authorizing the murder of a political opponent in 1974. About Assignment: This assignment contains struggle by Mr. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on subjects related with Islam. As Chairman and Founder of the Pakistan people‘s Party which swept the polls in December 1970 on a programme of economic well-being for the masses, then as President of Pakistan, an office he assumed in December 1971 after the separation of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and thefall of the military dictatorship, and later as Prime Minister under the new Constitution promulgated in August 1973, Mr. Bhutto made numerous speeches on various aspects of Islam as it affected life in this country. The people of Pakistan haveunbounded love and devotion for their religion, and Mr. Bhutto‘s opponents tried their utmost to turn the people against him bypainting him as anti-religious, or rather un-Islamic, in his political approach, an effort in which they miserably failed.Prepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 3
  4. 4. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan Addresses of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto 1. THE ISLAMIC HERITAGE: (Address In: The University of Southern California Los Angeles 1 April 1948) I shall refer to the accomplishments of Islam as my ownaccomplishments, for I genuinely consider any accomplishment of the Islamicpeople as a personal feat, just as I consider any failure of the Muslim world as apersonal failure.There is something binding about the Muslim world in spite ofthe fact that it is torn by dissension. This may seem strange to you, but it is true. This unique attachment is partly because of a common religionwhich, from theoutset, emphasised the strong ties of one Muslim to another as an essential partof the religion. This thought is cherished by the common association of theMuslim people in a geographical link that stretches from Europe to about the farthest corner of Asia. I am not here to preach Islam to you or to threaten you with its dormant powers; I only want to tell you of the Islam that was a burning light of yesterday, the ember that it is today, and the celestial flame of tomorrow, for that is how I envisage the future of Islam. I must also tell you that, religiously speaking, I am not a devout Muslim. I do not say my prayers regularly; I do not keep all the fasts. I have not yet been on a Pilgrimage to Mecca.Therefore, religiously speaking, I am a poor Muslim. However, my interest is soaked in the political.Prepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 4
  5. 5. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan 2. PERSONALITY OF THE HOLY PROPHET(P.B.U.H) Address To. The International Congress on Seerat Rawalpindi – Pakistan 3 March 1976. ―The purpose of convening this Congress is to promote, throughdiscussion of the life and work of the Prophet, the ideal of Muslim solidarity and greater understanding of his message by Muslimsand non-Muslims alike. In fact, this is not our final goal. Our finalgoal is to bring about unity of mankind. For, as the Qur‘an says it explicitly, the Prophet was sent to be the ―Mercy‖ for the entire universe. I am, therefore, particularly happy to see in this Congress scholars representing various nationalities as well as different faiths. Their participation has made this Congress aproper platform and a joint venture to study anddiscuss Seeraton a truly international level.‖ Bhutto’s View on Kashmir For the purpose of this discourse I do not wish to dwell at lengthon the liberation struggle of the Muslims of Jammu and Kashmir. Let it suffice to say that the enduring injustice which the State of Jammu and Kashmir has had to suffer at the hands of India presents to the world of Islam its greatest challenge. If Islam is to operate in the 20th century as a force of liberation, as a force dedicated to the liquidation of oppression, injustice and tyranny,as a force sworn to uphold the rights and dignities and just causes of suffering humanity, a beginning will have to be made inKashmir. It is here that contemporary Islam faces its greatest trial. India continues its illegal occupation of Jammu and Kashmir inPrepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 5
  6. 6. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistanflagrant violation of its international commitments. The people of Jammu and Kashmir continue to be denied their right of self determination due to Indian intransigence. The Muslims of Jammu and Kashmir continue to suffer under the heels of Indian colonial domination. They continue to be deprived of theirfundamental human right to choose their own destiny. A reign of terror has been let loose in the Valley. Their valiant fighters for freedom fall by the wayside as Indian forces impose their tyranny on unarmed and helpless Muslims. Their leaders rot injails and yet the struggle continues and will continue, if necessary till theseas run dry. Constitution of 1973 In light of the previous experience, the Constitution of 1973 was more Islamic in character than the previous ones.It was aformidable political challenge for the PPP to frame a Constitution true to the aspirations of people and principles of Islam. All political parties favoured a parliamentary form of government while Bhutto personally preferred a presidential form of government.Emphasis was made to establish a real Islamicsystem in all aspects of social life. Keeping this objective in mind, more Islamic provisions were laid down in the Constitution of 1973. The Constitution recognized Islam as the religion of the country and enjoined upon the State to serve the cause of Islam and to bring all existing laws in conformity with Islam. The Islamic Advisory Council was set up to recommend ways and means to bring existing laws of the country in conformity with the Islamic principles. The present constitution by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (1973) provides for the protection and preservation of Islamic Concept of life. ItPrepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 6
  7. 7. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan also attempts to propagate and implement the basic teachings of Islam. Islamic Provisions of 1973 Constitution The following are the Islamic provisions of 1973 constitution based on the principles of Holy Quran and Sunnah. Official Name Pakistan shall be Federal Republic to be known as theIslamic Republic of Pakistan, hereinafter referred to asPakistan. State Religion Islam shall be the state religion of Pakistan. Sovereignty Belongs to Allah Sovereignty over the entire Universe belongs to Almighty Allah and the authority bestowed by him on men is a sacred trust which the people of Pakistan will exercise with the limits prescribed by Quran and Sunnah. Definition of a Muslim ―Muslim‖ means a person who believes in the unity and oneness of Almighty Allah, in the absolute and unqualified finality of the Prohethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him), the last of the prophets, and does not believe in, or recognize as a prophet or religious reformer, any person who claimed or claims to be aPrepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 7
  8. 8. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan prophet, in any sense of the word or of any description whatsoever, after Muhammad (peace be upon him). Definition of Non-Mulim ―Non-Muslim‖ means a person who is not a Muslim and includes a person belonging to the Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist or Parsi community, a person of the Quadiani group or the Lahori group (who call themselves ‗Ahmadis‘ or by any other name), or a Bahai, and a person belonging to any of the scheduled castes. A Muslim to be a President and Prime Minister A person shall not be qualified for election as President unless he is a Muslim of not less than forty-five years of age and is qualified to be elected as member of the National Assembly. Islamic Way of life Steps shall be taken to enable the Muslims ofPakistan, individually and collectively, to order their lives inaccordance with the fundamental principles and basicconcepts of Islam and to provide facilities whereby they maybe enabled to understand the meaning of life according tothe Holy Quran and Sunnah.Prepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 8
  9. 9. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan Promotion of Social Justice and Eradication of Social Evils The state shall take necessary steps for prosecution of social justice and eradication of social evils and shall prevent prostitution, gambling and taking of injurious drugs, printing, publication, circulation and display of obscene literature and advertisements. Teachings of Holy Quran The state shall try to make the teaching of the Holy Quran and Islamiat compulsory, to encourage and facilitate the learningof Arabic language. Strengthen Bond with Muslim World The State shall endeavor to preserve and strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries based on Islamic unity. Council of Islamic Ideology There is a council of Islamic ideology which shall guide thegovernment in respect of Islamic teachings, their implementation and propagation. Its chairman and members are appointed byPresident. Although its advice is not binding on the government yet it is not easy for any government to ignore or over rule its suggestion or opinion regarding any law.Prepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 9
  10. 10. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan Error Free Publication of Quran The government shall endeavor to secure correct and exact printing and publishing of the Holy Quran. Oath to Project and Promote Islamic Ideology The Federal and Provincial Ministers, the Speaker and DeputySpeaker of the National and Provincial Assemblies, the Chairman of the Senate and the Governors and Chief Ministers of the Provinces also take oath to preserve and protect the Islamic Ideology. The Ulama and Bhutto The ulamaand the religious political parties like Jamaat-i-Islamiand JUP were harsh critics of socialism and under the prevailing conditions in the country it was necessary for Bhutto to getsupport of the religious faction of the society. For this purpose, it was essential for him to carry the ulamaalong with him. In orderto appease the ulama, Bhutto replaced ‗Socialism‘ with the phraseof ‗Islamic Socialism‘ and Muwat-i-Muammadi. This change couldnot suit MaulanaMaududi and other religious parties which had condemned this concept during the election campaign and continued its opposition even after Bhutto had taken over as the chief executive of the country. Bhutto did speak for implementation of an economic structure based on socialism, vet he completely discarded communism. What did Bhutto visualize of socialism could become clear only after his government‘s policies took effect.Prepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 10
  11. 11. Bhutto and Islamization in PakistanJamaat-i-Islami believed that Bhutto was inspired by socialism aspracticed in China and would implement his Islamic socialism on the same pattern. The leader of JUP, Maulana Shah Ahmad Nooranialso shared Maududi‘s views and he took the stand against socialism. Among the religious-political parties, it wasonly JUIP which supported Bhutto. Although, the PPP and JUIP were not able to evolve any working alliance during 1970selection, yet Bhutto succeeded in assuring the NAP and JUIP that the PPP was willing to establish a working alliance with them. Like previous regimes who had ruled the country in the name of Islam, Bhutto also claimed that his main objective was to servethe Islamic cause. It is interesting to note orientation and outlooks of all such politicians who were secular and Bhutto was not an exception. He did respect the great saints and Sufisyet his ideas were totally based on Western teachings. Bhutto was determined to bring progress and prosperity in the country throughnew ideas. This did not suit the ulamawhobelieved in traditional means of progress. They feared that Bhutto was really committed to the ideals of secularism and socialism. They thought that he would be able to enforce his policies on thebasis of the popular mandate he had received and the support he enjoyed among the secularist and socialist elements. The ulamabelieved that under such circumstances their religious parties would not be able to influence the masses. So they opposed and criticized his policies. Bhutto, however, continued giving importance to Islam as a dynamic force, a factor in the pace of bringing salvation, enlightenment to the peasants, and ending feudalism, allowing the forces of egalitarianism to spread... Despite the fact that he gave too much importance to Islamic ideals, it could not sten the tide of general feelings prevailing among many that he did not attach any special importance to Islam with especial reference to Pakistan and thatPrepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 11
  12. 12. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan Islam would fare no better there than in the other Muslimcountries.The situation during 70s in Pakistan was quite the samewhich prevailed in undivided Pakistan. Islam was the only factor which bound the four provinces of Pakistan together. The ulamawere of the view that the grievances of different ethnic,linguistic and cultural groups could only be removed through the application of Shariah otherwise these differences between the various parts of the country could lead to a further dismemberment of it. The religious-political parties had only 18 MNAs, but this tiny group of ulamahad a stronger voice in theNational Assembly. The PPP had a very littlerepresentation in the provinces of NWFP and Baluchistan whereas the JUIP wasstrong enough in both these provinces because of the way the seats had beendistributed between different political parties. The NAP and PML (Oayum) inthe NWFP could form the government with the support of minor parties and independent members. Because of the important position of the JUIP in the Baluchistan Assembly, Mufti Mahmud offered a formula for coalition with any of the parties [NAP and PML(Qayum)] which contained two points: 1. The coalescing party would support JUIP in its stand on the process of constitution-making; and 2. The provincial governments would abide by the injunctions ofSharjahto the extent per fitted by the limitations under which they functioned.Prepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 12
  13. 13. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan The Ahmadis Question The Ahmadis had extended their full support to the PPP during 1970s electionand they believed that its victory was mainlybecause of them. This relationship was even condemned by those ulamawho were not active in politics.It was a resolution of the Assembly of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, which on April 24, 1973 declared Ahmadis a non-Muslim community and impose a ban on their preaching in Azad Jammu and Kashmir.A notice by Maulana Abdul Haq, a member of the National Assembly forpresenting a similar resolution as served, which was turned down by the Speaker. Notices of similar nature were rejected by the Provencal Assemblies of Punjab and Sindh. This sort of movesthreatened Ahmadis and in order to get the support of the ruling party, they expressed their confidence in the ‗wisdom of the President‘ along with several others who were ‗nice, gentle, kind hearted and justice loving‘.The Ulamalaunched a full-fledged campaign against Ahmadis not only in Pakistan but also in other Islamic countries. They managed to obtain Fatwas from Saudi Arabia to the effect that Ahmadis should be declared as non-Muslims and the same were circulated throughout the country.The anti-Ahmadi spirit wasrevived by the ulamaand the religious parties among the masses throwing light on the beliefs and activities of the Ahmadis.This increased the tension and a chain of events rendered the situation volatile. Eight religious-political parties namely JUIP, JUP, Jamaat-i-Islami, JAH, KT, APMAI, PDP and PML formed an organization known as the QadiyaniMuhasbah Committee (Committee for Exposition of Qadyanism) which severely criticized the government for ignoring the aspirations of the people. In a joint meeting at Rawalpindi on 3 June, 1974, itPrepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 13
  14. 14. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistanwas demanded that Mirza Bashir Ahmad, leader of the Qadiyani communityshould be arrested, Qadiyanis should be declared non-Muslims, all the organizations of Ahmadisi.e. Furqan Force and Khuddam-ul-Ahmidiyyashould be banned and arms in their possession be confiscated, Qadiyanis should be removed from key positions of the government, press censor should be withdrawn in order to keep the people well informed about anti Ahmadimovement and people arrested during the anti-Ahmadi agitation should be released immediately. The ulamathrough processions, public meetings and demonstrations were able to keep up the tempo of the agitation which resulted in a resolution moved by 37 MNAs on 30 June, 1974 demanding the excommunication of the Ahmadis. It was also suggested in the resolution that the leaders of the Ahmadis should be invited to present their viewpoint in the National Assembly. Subsequently the Ahmadis and the ulamapresented their viewpoints in the National Assembly. The ulamaand their religious organizations ultimately became victorious and succeeded in getting passed the Second Amendment in the 1973 Constitution under which the following new clause was added to the Article 260: A person who does not believe in the absolute and unqualifiedfinality of the Prophet hood of Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) the last of the Prophets or claims to be a Prophet, in any sense of the word or of any description whatsoever, after Muhammad(Peace Be Upon Him), or recognizes such a claimant as a Prophet or a religious reformer, is not a Muslim for the purpose of the Constitution or law.Prepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 14
  15. 15. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan Pakistan’s Relations with the Muslim World During the neutral period, 1947-54, Pakistani leaders heavily relied upon superpowers in order to get financial assistance and resolve the dispute of Kashmir. None of these actors proved helpful in solving the first outstanding problem on Pakistan‘s foreign policy agenda, the dispute with India over Kashmir. Despite the fact that the founding fathers of Pakistan stressed forbrotherly relations with the Muslim states of the world, yet in the first two decades Pakistan did not achieve what the people had aspired for. There are many reasons for this. Perhaps the most significant reason was that Nasser and Sukarno, who were self proclaimed socialists, anti-imperialists and anticolonialists, were opposed to the idea of Pakistan‘s right to lead the Muslim world in the light of its primarily capitalist economic system and pro-Western foreign policy. By joining the Baghdad Pact (1954), entering into a military alliance with the U.S.A (1954), joining the SEATO (1955) and remaining in the British Commonwealth, Pakistan‘s image was doubtful in the eyes of these leaders and Pakistan was considered as a ―camp follower‖ and ―satellite‖ of the West. Most of the Muslims countries considered U.S.A. responsible for imperialism and colonialism in Asia, Africa andLatin America, as well as undermining Arab League, dividing the Arab World and breaking ranks with the Muslim world in the paramount struggle against Israel. So Pakistan was considered by most of the Muslim countries as being either a naive and poor victim or else a willing and unprincipled agent ofthe age-old Western policy of divide and rule. Therefore, Pakistan was considered as unworthy for the leadership of the Muslim world.Prepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 15
  16. 16. Bhutto and Islamization in PakistanSecondly, for the first two decades, the foreign policy of Pakistan was directedtowards the West and no proper attention was paid fee strengthening ties withother countries of the world. Pakistan failed to condemn the British, French and Israel aggression against Egypt during the Suez Crisis of 1956, which wascondemned by India. This did not leave a good impression on the minds of the Arabs about Pakistan.Thirdly, Prime Minister Suhrawardy, by his derogatory remarksabout the weakness of Muslim countries and meaninglessness ofan Islamic bloc irritated the leaders of the Muslim states. He said: Why don‘t we [the Muslim countries) get together rather than he tied to big powers like the United States. My answer to that is zero plus zero plus zero is after all equal to zero. We have,therefore, to go farther afield to get anything which is substantial.Prepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 16
  17. 17. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan The 1974 Lahore Islamic Summit Conference The Second Islamic Summit Conference held in Lahore was athree-day affair that began on February 22, 1974. It was attended by 38 Muslim leaders and prominent governmentalrepresentatives, which included six kings, twelve presidents, sixprime ministers, eight foreign ministers, the head of the PLO, thesecretary General of the Arab League, a delegation of Motamer-alAlam-al-Islami, and the Secretary General of the Rabita-al-Alam-al Islami. Not only was it the biggest gathering of its kind, but also one of the most successful.Bhutto made a particular effort toensure attendance of the distinguished guests by sending special envoys to remind and persuade the leaders to attend the conference. Bhutto was very careful in preparing the agenda for the Lahore Islamic Summit in such a way that it won unanimous approval. The Conference covered three major areas of concern to the Muslim world: First the Summit formally recognized the PLO headed by Chairman Yasser Arafat as the ―sole legitimate representative ofthe Palestinian nation‘‘, and called on all delegates to extend ―full and effective support‖ to the Arabs and Palestinian in their ―struggle for recovering all their occupied lands by all means‖(which implied an endorsement of the use of force if need be).The final declaration asserted that ―no agreement, protocol or understanding which postulate the continuance of Israelioccupation of the holy city of Jerusalem or its transfer to any non- Arab sovereignty ... will be acceptable to the IslamicPrepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 17
  18. 18. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan countries.‖There was also a general consensus to provide all facilities to the PLO in the establishment of offices in all Muslim countries. All the participantsagreed to condemn any or ―all states that provide Israel with military, economic and human assistance‖ and to cut relations with Israel ―in all fields‖. Bhutto while expressing his solidarity with the Arabs declared that ―the armies of Pakistan are the armies of Islam.... We shall enter Jerusalem as brothers-in arms‖. Second the Muslim countries felt need for closer economic cooperation for which economic committees consisting of the experts or five oil rich member-states (Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Algeria and UAE) and three poorer members (Egypt, Pakistan and Senegal) were established to develop ways andmeans to alleviate economic hardship in the poor member-states, which was aggravated by the increases in oil prices.An Islamic Solidarity Fund was also established within the OIC Secretariatby providing an initial capital of $26 million to finance economic, social and cultural projects in the Muslim world. Third, ways and means were discussed as how the Muslim world, itself a ―part of the community of developing countries‖ should associate itself with the cause of the Third World. It wasagreed that a new international economic order could be achieved only through a unified Islamic bloc in cooperation with Third World countries.Bhutto, as Chairman of the Islamic Summit Conference, deliveredan eloquent speech laced with Islamic rhetoric and symbolism atthe concluding session:Prepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 18
  19. 19. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan We are a poor nation. We may not be able to contribute funds to the economic development of the Islamic World but, with Allah as my witness, I declare heretoday that we, the people of Pakistan, shall give our blood for the cause of Islam.— We have been facing many difficulties, but these problems are now being overcome. The people of Pakistan are dedicated to the cause of Islamic solidarity. The people of Pakistan are soldiers of Islam and its armies are the armies of Islam. Whenever any occasion arises, the Islamic world would never find us wanting in any future conflict. Inshallahwe shall enter BaitulMaqdisas brothers in arms. International Congress on Seerat(1976) The International Congress onSeeratwhich travelled to all the important cities of Pakistan in March 1976 was anoccasion of which we can justly feel proud.The visits to Pakistan ofImam of Masjid-i-Nabvi and the Imam of Holy Ka‘bah led prayers in which thecongregations were described as decidedly the biggest ever seen or heard of inthe whole history of Islam. The love of the people of Pakistan forIslam can be matched only by the devotion shown to its cause by their leader.Addresses of Bhutto on International Congress on Seerat ―Why have we held this Seerat Conference in Pakistan? I can tellyou why straightaway without any fear of contradiction. We have held this Conference not for political gain or advantage, but simply because we regard it as our duty. On this matter, in thelast ten days or so eminent scholars have been reading papers and deliberating on the need for such a Conference. I will not wastePrepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 19
  20. 20. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan your time by repeating the obvious essentials of and the need for a Seerat Conference in order to reach logical conclusions on thethoughts of the Prophet and on the scientific approach in the field of Islam. Before the Seerat Conference we have held the Islamic Summit Conference. I repeat that these Conferences and the allied activities have been held in my country because we consider itour duty. Islam is our religion. Islam is the basis for Pakistan. Our Constitution is Islamic in character. The overwhelming majorityof our people are Muslims and, as you have seen, deeply attachedto Islam. If, therefore, anyone seeks personal or political gain out of such activities he is not serving the cause of Islam. nor is he being a true Muslim. Islam should never be exploited for individual gain or for theprotection of vested interests or of the old order. That would be a very great disservice to Islam. Unfortunately, it has been so usedin the past, regretfully even in the short history of Pakistan and in many other Muslim countries. The truth is that Islam has beenopposed by its adversaries and injured by some of its adherents.‖ He added about Pakistan in his speech;―Ladies and Gentlemen, life is in Gods hands and a Muslim must not fear death. I can tell you as the Prime Minister of Pakistan, asthe Chairman of the Pakistan Peoples Party, that I am determinedto make Pakistan into a mighty fortress of Islam. But this can onlybe done if we do not reject technology, if we do not reject modern values, if we have confidence in our own faith, if we do not indulge in hypocrisy, if we know that we have to move forward and onward without compromising our great religion.‖Prepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 20
  21. 21. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan Bhutto And The Politics of Islamic Bomb Bhutto is considered to be one of the architects and major forcebehind Pakistan‘s nuclear energy programme. He reorganized theAtomic Energy Commission and lobbied for increased funding to it as a Minister of Fuel, Power and Natural Resources in Ayub‘s cabinet during l958.He was so concerned about India‘s nuclear processing plant, which could give it nuclear capability that he announced that; ―If India builds the bomb, we will eat grass or leaves even gohungry, but we will get one of our own. We have no alternative.‖ His idea to allocate more resources to establish a Pakistani reprocessing plant as rejected by Ayub.Ayub could have beenconcerned about a prohibitively expensive armsrace with India, a cut-off of all U.S. and Western aid, and averse reaction in the world that could diplomatically isolate Pakistan. Bhutto has interested to see Pakistan go nuclear. In his book entitled The Myth of Independence, Bhutto candidly dealt with the nuclear issue by writing:―All wars of our age have become total wars … and it will have to be assumed that war waged against Pakistan is capable of becoming a total war. It would be dangerous to plan for less and our plans should, therefore, include the nuclear deterrent.‖ Considering the Indian threat as central in his thoughts on the nuclear issue.Bhutto warned: ―If Pakistan restricts or suspends her nuclear programme, it would not only enable India to blackmail Pakistan with herPrepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 21
  22. 22. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistannuclear advantage, but would impose crippling limitations on the development of Pakistan‘s science and technology.‖ Unconcerned with any short-term nuclear threat posed by India, he as more suspicious of India‘s long term intentions. Therefore, he opined; ―Our problem, in its essence, is how to obtain such a weapon in time before the crisis begins. India, whose progress in nuclear technology is sufficient to make her a nuclear power in the near future, can provoke this at a time of her choosing .... Pakistan must therefore embark on a similar programme in order to achieve nuclear parity and for her national security.‖ India‘s explosion of a nuclear device in May, 1974 was alarmingfor Pakistan. Indira Gandhi, in a letter to Bhutto wrote: ―there are no political or foreign policy implications of the nuclear test and that India still adhered to its policy of using atomic energy for peaceful ends.‖ Bhutto, un-persuaded by this palliative, replied: ―It is a question not only of intentions but capabilities. It is well- established that the testing of a nuclear device is not differentfrom the detonation of a nuclear weapon. Given this indisputable fact, how it is possible for our fears to be assuaged by mere assurances, which may in any case be ignored in subsequent years. Governments change, as do nation attitudes.But the acquisition of a capability, which has direct and immediate military consequences, becomes a permanent factor to be reckoned with.‖Prepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 22
  23. 23. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan The explosion of a nuclear device by India had strengthened Bhutto‘s idea of anIslamic Bomb. He could convince his Arab financiers with the argument that ―there was a Christian bomb, Jewish bomb, and now a Hindu bomb, why not an Islamic bomb?‖ Pakistan‘s plans to make an atomic bomb were known to some extent by the various intelligence agencies. But all doubts were cleared when the deposed and imprisoned Bhutto himself wrote about his contribution in bringing Pakistan to the threshold of nuclear capability. To quote him: ―The major portion of the [reprocessing] project had been completed, and we had thoroughly prepared ourselves to show the world that we also knew how to explode a nuclear bomb …. My countrymen wanted me and my government to produce a nuclear bomb.‖ In fact Bhutto wanted the world to know that he was the man who had coined the term ―Islamic bomb‖, and if ever Pakistan exploded a nuclear device, Bhutto could be remembered forhaving fathered it. He referred to it as ―my greatest achievement‖Prepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 23
  24. 24. Bhutto and Islamization in Pakistan References 1) “BHUTTO ZIA AND ISLAM” by Syed MujawarHussain Shah 2) “THOUGHTS ON SOME ASPECTS OF ISLAM” BY Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Former Prime Minister of Pakistan 3) www.bhutto.org 4) www.sixhour.com 5) Constitution of Pakistan-1973Prepared by: UsmanGohar,ArslanElahi and AwaisRasool Page 24

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