WorkbookLesson 33 Eve C. Tina Huang Sarah Yang Per.5 1
Part A• a) Identify the president associated with each designation• b) Key policies of his administration with the motto• c) Importance of the motto 2
1. Square Deal• a) Pres.Theodore Roosevelt• b) 1.Congress passed the Elkins Act 2.The Antiquities Act of 1906 3.The Hepburn Act of 1906 4.The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 5.The Interstate Commerce Commission• c) It aimed at helping middle class citizens and involved attacking plutocracy and bad trusts, and protecting business from the most extreme demands of organized labor. 3
2. Dollar Diplomacy a) Pres. William Howard Taft b) In 1912, Taft sent marines to Nicaragua to help stop a rebellion against the government because it was friendly to American business interests.• c) Dollar Diplomacy increased the actions that America would take to help protect its business interests and investors. 4
3. Modern Republicanism• a) Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower b) 1. Pres. Eisenhower supported Social Security Act 2. Simultaneously, Pres.Eisenhower attempted to direct many new initiatives in state and local governments. Also, he created the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. 3. He also supported government construction of low- income housing. 4. Pres. Eisenhower focused on reducing the federal budget 5. Two major public works projects — the St. Lawrence Seaway and the interstate highway system. 6. The Interstate Highway Act, passed in 1956.• c) President Eisenhowers “Modern Republicanism" brought a sense of security and honor to an uncertain America. 5
4. New Freedom• a) Pres. Woodrow Wilson• b) The key policies of his administration associated with the motto, the Triple Wall of Privilege. His policies included attacks on the tariff, the banks, and the trusts. Example of these policies were the Underwood- Simmons Act of 1913, which reducing tariff rates; Federal Reserve Act, which made the currency more flexible; and the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914, which specifically named certain business tactics illegal and declared strikes legal. c) The motto’s importance was that it showed Wilson’s desire to break up monopolies in order to implement the “New Freedom” for small businesses and individuals so that they could gain more power in American politics. Wilson supported the progressives in the Progressive Era. 6
5. New Deal• Franklin D. Roosevelt• The key policies were the three R’s – relief, recovery, and reform, which sought to help the nation out of the Great Depression. Its concern was to relieve the suffering of the people, help business and industry to recover and reform legislation to solve the economic problem. The New Deal was the relationship between the government and the people to develop and bring the country out of the Great Depression. It sought to restructure American capitalism by using direct federal relief for individuals to revive the economy and reduce unemployment rates. 7
6. Manifest Destiny• a) Pres. James K. Polk• b) The key policies of his administration were to complete the country’s expansion westward to the Pacific Ocean through the acquisition of the Oregon territory, Texas, and parts of Mexico after the Mexican war. He, like other Americans, believed that they had a God-given right to expand American territory and institutions. c) Its importance was that it gave Americans the desire to win over the territories in the west such as Texas, Oregon, and Mexico. By increasing public support for American territorial expansion, America was able to gain more territories during the mid -19th century. 8
7. Rugged Individualism• a) Pres. Herbert Hoover• b) After the stock market crash, Hoover believed that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. c) This philosophy would do little to pull the country out of the Great Depression. 9
8. Great Society• a)Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson• b) Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. c) Programs included Civil Rights Act, “war on poverty”, Voting Rights Act, Medicare, Immigration Act, and Elementary and Secondary Education Act. 10
9. Fair Deal• a)Pres. Harry S. Truman• b) The Fair Deal was used to describe the domestic reform agenda of the Truman Administration, and marked a new stage in the history of Modern liberalism in the United States. It aimed to preserve and extend the New Deal but got considerable congressional opposition. c) The Fair Deals most important proposals were to ensure national welfare and social harmony during the Cold War. 11
10. New Frontier• a) Pres. John F. Kennedy• b) The New Frontier looked for new opportunities in space, medicine, technology and social relations.• c) After John F. Kennedys assassination, many of his proposals for civil rights, poverty programs, medicine and education became law. 12
Part B• a) Source of the quotation• b) When it was used & why was it used• c) Significance 13
1. “A house divided against itselfcannot stand.” • Pres. Abraham Lincoln • Lincoln delivered this famous speech, when accepting the Republican nomination for U.S. Senate from Illinois in June of 1858. In July of that year, he challenged his Democratic opponent, Stephen Douglas, to a series of debates over admitting Kansas into the union as a slave state. Lincoln represented the anti- slavery position and wanted to preserve the union. This speech helped him get the Republican Partys nomination for president in 1860, a 14 race which he won.
2. “The power to tax involves thepower to destroy.” Supreme Court Justice John Marshall, McCulloch v. Maryland • This quote is from a Supreme Court decision written by Chief Justice John Marshall in the early 19th Century. This is the judiciary saying that the legislature cannot use excessive taxation to deprive people of constitutional liberties. The tax made by Maryland on the Bank of United States was declared unconstitutional. • This limited the taxing power of states. 15
3. “It is at the bottom of life we mustbegin, not at the top.” • Booker T. Washington • Washington believed it would be better for African-Americans to seek training in society and gained economic success rather than strive immediately for equal rights. • African-Americans should strengthen their competitiveness in society in order to secure greater rights. 16
4. “Separate educational facilitiesare inherently unequal.” • Chief Justice Earl Warren • In the 1956, Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka decision, Warren stated the unanimous opinion of the court that it was unconstitutional to establish separate public schools for black and white students. The decision overturned the Plessy v. Feguson decision of 1896 which allowed state- sponsored segregation. De jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. This ruling paved the way for integration and the civil rights movement. 17
5. “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.” • Thomas Jefferson, the Declaration of Independence,1776 • Thomas Jefferson first used the phrase in the Declaration of Independence as a rebuttal to the going political theory of the day: the Divine Right of Kings. This quote illustrated the idea of natural rights, a philosophical concept borrowed from the Enlightenment. It also has since been considered a hallmark statement in democratic constitutions and similar human rights instruments. It showed that American standard for judging processed toward 18 equality since 1776.
6. “A war to end all wars.” • Pres. Woodrow Wilson • During World War I, Woodrow Wilson embodied his conviction that Americas entry into the war was necessary to preserve human freedom. He wanted to end war for all time. However, the war had not succeeded in ending war. 19
7. “All we ask is to be left alone.” • Jefferson Davis, the President of Confederate States of America • During the civil war, the confederates searched for the right to leave the union and fought for that right. It failed finally. 20
8. “December 7, 1941—a date thatwill live in infamy.” • Pres. Franklin Roosevelt • This was Roosevelts war message to Congress, when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. • “Let the memories of Pearl Harbor serve as a reminder to all Americans that there has always been evil in the world looking to harm.” 21
9. “I have a dream that my four children will one daylive in a nation where they will not be judged by thecolor of their skin but by the content of theircharacter.” • Dr. Martin Luther King • It sentence was part of Martin Luther Kings speech at the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington. It was also a historic and momentous occasion that still reverberates throughout the world. King was asking that people be judged by who they are and not what they look like. This speech is the major factor in the 22 Passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964.
10. “A law repugnant to theConstitution is void.” • John Marshall, Marbury vs. Madison • In Marbury vs. Madison, John Marshall explained that Congress could not expand or contract the Supreme Courts original jurisdiction as stated in the Constitution. The Supreme Court does not have the authority over presidential appointments. • The decision in Marbury vs. Madison created the concept of "judicial review," which allows the Supreme Court to declare the actions of Congress unconstitutional. 23
11. “To make all laws which shall benecessary and proper for carrying intoexecution the foregoing powers.” • Article One of the United States Constitution, section 8, clause 18 • The clause has been paired with the Commerce Clause to provide the constitutional basis for a wide variety of federal laws • It gave Congress the authority to use implied powers. 24
12. “We … covenant and combineourselves into a civil body politic.”• Mayflower Compact (1620)• The Mayflower Compact was written by the Separatists who felt religious persecution from James VI and I, and was signed on November 11, 1620, by 41 of the ships 101 passengers.• The Mayflower Compact became the first document of self-government in the English colonies. 25
13. “Fifty-four forty or fight.” • James K. Polk’s campaign theme • This quote was used as a campaign slogan in the presidential election of 1844 by Democrat James K. Polk, who was elected. He suggested that the United States might demand all of the Oregon territory to the southern border of Alaska. • “Fifty-four forty or fight” rang out across the land, implying the United States would go to war for what is now much of British Columbia. It left room for compromising with the British later over the land. 26
14. “Free trade and sailors’ rights.”• a) A cry throughout the United States• b) Before the War of 1812, the British started the impressments of American sailors in the Atlantic sea. Both French and British vessels tried to prevent the US from trading with their enemies.• c) It was one of the cause of the War of 1812 with Great Britain. Many American sailors were impressed into the service of the British. The American ships were stopped by the British in order for them to search American merchant ships and reimpress the deserters of the impressments. 27
15. “You shall not crucify mankindupon a cross of gold.”• a) William Jennings Bryan• b) July 9, 1896. Bryan said this “Cross of Gold” speech in Democratic National Convention in Chicago. The farmers started to support the free silver movement to increase inflation for them to raise their prices. They promoted bimetallism, which was the use of both silver and gold as currency at the ratio of 16 to 1. The Populist Party gained support from the farmers because of this position.• c) Due to this speech, Bryan won the Democratic nomination and the Democratic convention adopted a pro-silver program, which led to the support by the Populist Party in 1896 presidential 28 election. But Bryan lost the election.
16. “God made us neighbors. Letjustice make us friends.”• a) Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt• b) It was used to express his Good Neighbor Policy.• c) The Good Neighbor policy led to good diplomatic and economic relations with Latin America. It shifted from the use of military force to the use of economic influence in intervening with the other nations. It eased tensions between the US and its neighbors. Latin America became the most important targets of the new policy of trade reciprocity. 29
17. “And so, my fellow Americans: Ask notwhat your country can do for you, but whatyou can do for your country.”• a) Pres. John F. Kennedy• b)The phrase was part of John F. Kennedy’s January 20, 1961 inaugural address. In the election of 1960, JFK defeated Richard M. Nixon by 0.1 percent of the popular vote.• c) It was one of the most famous political speeches in history. This speech led to the creation of the Peace Corps, which is an American volunteer program run by the US government. It inspired young people to contribute to their country. 30
18. “We must be the great arsenalof democracy.”• a)Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt• b) During World War II , the British army needed more supply from the US and it could not meet the cash-and-carry requirements the US had in the Neutrality Acts. FDR created the Lend-Lease Program in 1940 to lend the weapons to the British to help the war.• c) It brought the US from neutrality to intervention into WWII. Because of the Lend-Lease Act, the US had to make sure that the supplies would actually reach Great Britain. It thrust the US closer to WWII because of the Germans tries to sink American ships using unrestricted submarine warfare. 31
19. “With malice toward none, withcharity for all….”• a) Pres. Abraham Lincoln• b) This phrase was contained in Abraham Lincoln’s 2nd Inaugural address of March 4, 1865. Lincoln won his reelection in 1864 due to several Northern military victories over the Confederates during the Civil War.• c) The Union was on the verge of wining the Civil War. Lincoln wanted the people not to blame those confederates and those who practiced slavery. It started the Reconstruction in the South and united the United States again. 32
20. “It is our policy to stay clear ofpermanent alliances.”• a) Pres. George Washington.• b) Washington’s April 22, 1793 Proclamation of Neutrality. The new French Government, created by the revolution of 1789, went to war with Great Britain and its allies, but Washington didn’t want the US to enter the conflict. So he declared the United State’s neutrality.• c) In order to maintain the newly established United States, Washington kept the US out of the European war. He believed that America shouldn’t get entangled in the internal affairs of other nations, so he issued the Proclamation of 33 Neutrality.
21. “John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it.”• a) Pres. Andrew Jackson• b) Jackson’s 1832 response to the Supreme Court case “Worcester v. Georgia.” Georgia laws attempted to regulate access by US citizens to Cherokee country. John Marshall invalidated those laws. It expanded the rights of the tribes to remain free from the authority of state governments.• c) Although John Marshall had issued this decision, the Supreme Court didn’t have the power to enforce the decision. And President Jackson who disagreed with the decision would not enforce it. 34
22. “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable.”• a) Daniel Webster• b) This was stated by Daniel Webster during January 1830, Webster-Hayne Debate over the issue of the Tariff of Abominations. This quote came from his “Second Reply to Hayne.”John C. Calhoun and Robert Y. Hayne wanted to nullify the 1828 Tariff of Abominations. They believed that the states had the right to nullify the federal laws, because the states made up the federal government. But Webster argued with him by saying that by staying together as a union, liberty would be ensured for all.• c) This quote was support by President Jackson in the Democratic Party, when Jackson said to Calhoun, “Our Federal Union—It must be preserved”. Calhoun answered, “The Union, next to our liberty most dear”. This led to the nullification crisis, because Jackson 35 insisted that nullification was treason.
23. “Millions for defense, but notone cent for tribute.”• a) Robert Goodloe Harper• b)In response to the XYZ Affair. Harper said this in 1798 to John Marshall when Marshall returned from France. Marshall, Pinckney, and Gerry went to France to negotiate with France because French vessels imprisoned American crews and captured American ships.• c) After President Adams heard of the incident, he began the preparation of war. America cut all the trade with French, and became an ally of Britain in the war against France. France agreed to a treaty with the US that established new commercial arrangements. The “Quasi War” ended. 36
24. “My paramount object in thisstruggle is to save the Union.”• a)Pres. Abraham Lincoln• b)This statement is contained in Lincoln’s August 22, 1862 letter to Horace Greeley. The Civil War had already begun.• c) It stated that during this time of Civil War, Lincoln’s primary goal was to save the Union. This showed Lincoln desired to combine the Confederate states and the Union together again as one nation. 37
25. “Peace without victory.”• a) Pres. Woodrow Wilson• b) January 22, 1917. Before WWI was over, Wilson presented this plan for a postwar order in which the US would help maintain peace through a permanent league of nations.• c) This phrase showed Wilson’s desires to end the war peacefully without any winners or losers. But this couldn’t happen because the German started the unrestricted submarine warfare, and also because of the Zimmermann telegram, which led to the 38 US declaration of war in 1917.
26. “Remember the Alamo.”• a) This quote became famous after the Alamo was conquered by the Mexicans. After the Alamo was destroyed• b) American settlers in Texas proclaimed their independence from Mexico in 1836. Santa Anna, the Mexican General, led a large army into Texas. American forces at the Alamo mission in San Antonio was annihilated by Mexican forces.• c) General Sam Houston defeated the Mexican army at the Battle of San Jacinto on April 23, 1836. The troops captured General Santa Anna and Texas became 39
27. " Remember the Maine."• a) A slogan of the Spanish-American war• b). On the evening of February 15,1898. The American battleship MAINE was sunk in Havana Harbor. It was believed at that time the Spanish were responsible• C) The yellow press and American imperialists demanded firm action. "REMEMBER THE MAINE, TO HELL WITH SPAIN!" was the battle cry. On April 11, 1898, Pres. McKinley asked the Congress for permission to go to war with Spain. 40
28. " Speak softly and carry abig stick, you will go far."• a) Roosevelt first used the phrase in a speech at the Minnesota State Fair on September 2, 1901• b) Reference to U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt’s corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: Roosevelt explained his foreign diplomacy with Latin America.• c) Big Stick Diplomacy soon became synonymous with imperialism and aggressiveness, as his policy often took advantage of smaller and weaker nations. Eventually, the phrase “Big Stick” was used in reference to any foreign policy that included diplomacy backed by the possible threat of military force. 41
29. " The ideals and traditions of our nations demandedthat we come to the aid of Greece and Turkey and thatwe put the world on notice that it would be our policy tosupport the cause of freedom, wherever it wasthreatened....."• a) Pres. Harry S. Truman• b) President Truman received word that the British could no longer afford to support the Greek Government, then under attack by Communist rebels.• c) Truman presented Truman Doctrine in 1947. It called for financial aid for countries which were threatened by communism, to prevent further spread of communism. It is significant because it committed the US to the role of fighting and resisting communism worldwide. 42
30. " The only thing we have to fear is fearitself”• a) FDR• b) FDRs first Inaugural Address in 1933.• c) It called for the Americans to not be fearful about the Depression; the strength of our nation and our laws would bring us through. 43
31. " We hold these truths to be self-evident: thatall men and women are created equal; that theywere endowed by their Creator with certainunalienable rights."• a) Elizabeth Cady Stanton• b) Declaration of Sentiments was presented to the first womens rights convention held in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848.• c) The seeds of Women’s Rights Movement were planted at the Seneca Falls Convention, as reflected to the Declaration of Independence. It stated that women has the equal rights as men. 44
32. " The American continents, by the free andindependent condition which they have assumedand maintain, are henceforth not to be consideredas subject for future colonization by any Europeanpowers."• a) Pres. James Monroe• b) Monroe Doctrine ,1823• c) The Western Hemisphere was henceforth closed to further European colonization. 45
33. "And, by virtue of the power and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within these said designed States and parts of States are, and henceforward shall be free."• a)Pres. Abraham Lincoln b) Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863, during the Civil War• C)1. Proclamation freed slaves in Southern territories was controlled by the Union army. 2.The proclamation represented a shift in the war objectives of the North—reuniting the nation was no longer the only goal, gave Northerners a moral justification to continue fighting. 3. In addition, many ex-slaves from Southern territories and free blacks from the North joined the Union army. 4. It also represented a major step toward the ultimate abolition of slavery in the United States and a "new birth of freedom". 46
34. " We the people, in order toform a more perfect Union,....."• a) Gouverneur Morris. b) 1787 Preamble to the Constitution.• c) It adds to interpretations of the Constitution as a whole. To briefly state the purpose for which the document is being written and it does influence the way in which the terms and legal definitions offered up elsewhere in the Constitution might apply. 47
35. " No one can make you feelinferior without your consent."• a) Eleanor Roosevelt b)Because all people are equal, no one can make you feel less than you are unless you agree to allow them to do so.• c) Speech in favor of equal rights for Blacks and women. 48
36. " Surplus wealth is a sacred trust which its possessor is bound to administer in his lifetime for the good of the community."• a) Andrew Carnegie• b) Gospel of Wealth,1889. During the Gilded Age and the Progressive Era.• c) 1.Carnegie stressed the importance of recirculation of money in the society. 2. He suggested that the rich should use their money in a way that could improve the living conditions of the poor and needy. 3. Carnegie believed that the rich should come forward and take the responsibility for charity. 49
37. " The advance of the frontier has meant a steadymovement away from the influence of Europe, a steadygrowth of independence on American lines. And to studythis advance... is to study the really American part of ourhistory." • a) Frederick Jackson Turner b) At the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Turner thesis or Frontier thesis. • c) 1.the beginning of a new stage in American life and that the United States must expand overseas. 2. The impetus for a new wave in the history of United States imperialism. 3. The Westward Expansion helped to created the character of the American nation and its people. Such as, optimism, individualism and dislike of strong government authority. 50
38. "What hath God wrought!"• a) American inventor Samuel F.B. Morse• b) On May 24, 1844, Samuel Morse sends the first telegraph message "What hath God wrought?" from the Supreme Court chamber in the Capitol in Washington, D.C., to the B & O Railroad Depot in Baltimore, Maryland. c) Before the internet and e-mail, before radio and before the telephone, American Morse Telegraph became the first commonly available means of communications that was faster than a person could walk, ride horseback or sail a boat. 51
39. " Government is not the solutionto our problem. Government is theproblem."• a) Pres. Ronald Reagan• b) This phrase was contained in his January 20, 1981, inaugural address. c) This is a philosophy of the conservative Republican party. Reagan was for small government. He believed the reason we have so much problems is because the government is too involved in people’s lives. 52
40. " Women of the world unite! Youhave nothing to lose but yourvacuum cleaner."• a) Betty Friedman• b) This phrase is found in 1963 book The Feminist Mystique.• c) Betty Friedman was one of the important spokes women for the Women’s Rights Movement. 53