Unit 1 Review Period 5

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  • Background on King Charles, the king the puritans hated. The second son of James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark. His father succeeded Queen Elizabeth I and came to the throne of England as King James I in 1603. Charles was created Duke of Albany at his baptism (December 1600) and Duke of York in 1605. With a profound belief that Kings were appointed by God to rule by Divine Right, Charles succeeded as the second Stuart King in 1625. He angrily dismissed his third Parliament in 1629, imprisoned several of his leading opponents, and declared his intention of ruling alone. The eleven-year period of the King's Personal Rule was also described as the "Eleven Year Tyranny". In religion, Charles favoured the elaborate and ritualistic High Anglican form of worship. He appointed William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633. Laud insisted upon strict compliance to the established tenets of the Church and vigorously supported the King's Divine Right. Laud also made extensive use of Star Chamber and the ecclesiastical Court of High Commisson to suppress opposition from Puritans who regarded the High Church Laudian liturgy as dangerously close to Roman Catholicism. The King's marriage to the French Catholic princess Henrietta Maria also caused consternation amongst English Protestants, particularly as she was allowed to practise her religion openly and freely. In some quarters, Henrietta Maria's influence over the King and the royal children was regarded as part of an international Papist conspiracy against the Protestant faith.  
  • This is a community-based society. Everyone shares what they have and help each other.
  • Jurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law . Scholars of jurisprudence, or legal theorists (including legal philosophers and social theorists of law), hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature of law, of legal reasoning, legal systems and of legal institutions. Modern jurisprudence began in the 18th century and was focused on the first principles of the natural law , civil law, and the law of nations
  • Freedom of Religion was not the law in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The Puritans came to America so they could practice their religion as they pleased. However, they did not allow other settlers the same religious freedom. Settlers who did not follow the Puritan ways were not allowed to own land in the colony, and were often sent away.
  • Mercantilists believed the world ’s wealth was sharply limited, and therefore one nation’s gain was automatically another nation’s loss. Each nation’s goal was to export more than it imported. The difference would be made up in gold, silver, in which, would make the nation strong economically and militarily. To achieve their goals, mercantilists believed economic activity should be regulated by the government. Colonies could fit into England’s scheme by providing staple crops, such as tobacco, timber, rice, sugar, and indigo that England would otherwise have been forced to import from other countries.
  • Unit 1 Review Period 5

    1. 1. UNIT 1 REVIEW
    2. 2. UNIT 1 REVIEW <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>In 1607, the first Puritans to come the New World settled in Jamestown. The Puritans, fleeing religious persecution in Britain, wanted to create a “city on a hill” that would be an utopia for the rest of the world. The philosophies, ideas, and values of the Puritans greatly shaped the development of the colonies and would play a leading role in the creation of America in 1775. Politically, the idea of a united, representative government, which later became a staple of the United States, was derived from Puritan belief that God gave us our rights-not King Charles. Economically, the ideals of a community helping each other and not relying on the government- England- originated from the Puritans. This ideal that we can take care of ourselves will be the argument used by Thomas Jefferson as he and the Republicans fight for a state-centered government. Socially, emphasis on church, community, and education was another lasting influence of the Puritans. The political, social, and economic impact of the Puritans not only made them a beckon to the New World, but also led way to the American image. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    3. 4. <ul><li>Document Inference </li></ul><ul><li>It is a map/ layout of a colonial town in New England. </li></ul><ul><li>In the middle of the community was the Church and could monitor the behavior of the members in society. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers lived in towns instead of farmland. </li></ul><ul><li>Towns were built around fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Any member can use the pastures or woodlands because they were one community and believed the right thing to do was share. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools were placed near family farms. </li></ul><ul><li>Houses were placed very closely together. </li></ul><ul><li>Their church became the Congregational Church, a religious system that emphasized local control and independence.  Religion was closely connected with the Puritan political structure, so the congregational system spilled over into their civic institutions, which gave us the famous “New England town meeting”—a form of pure democracy, though the church itself was not democratically organized. </li></ul>Document B (Town- Map Colonial New England)
    4. 5. <ul><li>John Winthrop, Massachusetts Bay Colony ’s governor, demonstrated that their colonization was a covenant made with God. </li></ul><ul><li>The Puritans believed that if they were to work hard they would be successful in this life because they would please God. </li></ul><ul><li>Their church controlled the independence of the Puritans.  Religion was connected with the Puritan political structure which created New England town meetings. </li></ul><ul><li>Puritans were allowed to make their own laws. Free male church members would meet in the meetinghouse to make laws and choose officials for the General Court. </li></ul><ul><li>The Puritans wanted to start a new colony that would be the example of how everyone should live in society. This was known as the “City Upon a Hill”. The first colony was the Massachusetts Bay Colony which eventually became one of the largest populations in North America. </li></ul><ul><li>Puritans believed that education was very important and were to teach their children how to read scripture. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone had to work together to make the colony a peaceful place to live. Men of the family had to make sure that him and his family would live with Puritan values. </li></ul><ul><li>Puritan meeting houses were designed to emphasize the importance of living a non-materialistic lifestyle and giving your whole life up to God. </li></ul>Outside Information
    5. 6. <ul><li>Document Inference </li></ul><ul><li>We will do nothing to offend the church. </li></ul><ul><li>We are bound to advance the gospel to both church members and nonchurch members,including Indians. </li></ul><ul><li>We will shun idleness and not treat anyone oppressively. </li></ul><ul><li>We promise to teach children about God. </li></ul><ul><li>We will not treat harshly those who do not follow the Protestant work ethic. </li></ul>DOCUMENT C
    6. 7. <ul><li>Puritans: </li></ul><ul><li>believed God wanted them to follow the laws of the church and state </li></ul><ul><li>believed that a function of the state was to enforce religious beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>believed in the importance of education: Children had to be educated so that they could the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>believed in the Protestant work ethic. The Protestant ethic is a code of morals based on principles of discipline and individualism. </li></ul><ul><li>believed in the doctrine of original sin </li></ul><ul><li>believed that the power of government should be limited so that man does not abuse that power </li></ul><ul><li>believed, to some degree, in democracy (ultimate power to govern rests with the people) </li></ul>PURITAN INFORMATION
    7. 8. <ul><li>Bible Commonwealth </li></ul><ul><li>Bible Commonwealth is a Christian theocratic political economy such as those of the Puritan colonies of Massachusetts Bay and New Haven, Connecticut. There, laws intended for the common good were based on the Bible and the right to vote was limited to church members. In a Bible commonwealth, civic officials wrote into law their interpretations of Bible commands; the economy subsidized Christian public education, printed materials, and ministers; and official religious and political duties often overlapped. An attempt to establish a Bible commonwealth is represented by the New Haven colony's use of An Abstract of the Lawes of New England (1641)—a code prepared by Massachusetts Bay minister John Cotton—as the basis of its government. </li></ul>OUTSIDE INFORMATION
    8. 9. <ul><li>The doctrine of separation of church and state was established in Rhode Island. </li></ul><ul><li>Religious intolerance in Massachusetts Bay fostered religious toleration elsewhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson were banished from Massachusetts Bay. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of religion was established in Rhode Island. </li></ul>DOCUMENT F
    9. 10. <ul><li>The separation of church and state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established in Massachusetts Bay Colony to ensure the freedom of religion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puritans believed that if they enforced the religion uniformity, there would be a civil war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The puritans escaped the English government, in which the church and state were entwined. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Anglican church was headed by the King </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were persecuted by the Anglican church, because they wanted to purify it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The puritans disliked the Anglican idea of universal church, so they gave freedom of religion to the people in New England </li></ul>OUTSIDE INFORMATION
    10. 11. <ul><li>Document Inference: </li></ul><ul><li>Massachusetts Bay was religiously intolerant. </li></ul><ul><li>Laws of the state should reflect the moral codes of the church. </li></ul>DOCUMENT G
    11. 12. DOCUMENT INFORMATION <ul><li>The Body of Liberties </li></ul><ul><li>Laid the foundations of Massachusetts liberties, for which New Englishmen fought against the Empire in the 1680's and during the American Revolution, and which became a pattern of the United States Constitution. It is remarkable as a code of law, in that it lays out a structure of jurisprudence in terms of liberties rather than restrictions. In this it echoes the Magna Charta, and foreshadows our Bill of Rights .The Body of Liberties states the liberties that the government must abide by. </li></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>Document Inference: </li></ul><ul><li>The power of government should be limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Magistrates and church officials should limit their authority to what will do the people good. </li></ul><ul><li>God limits the power given to man. </li></ul><ul><li>Husbands should have authority over wives. </li></ul><ul><li>Children and servants should have limited liberty and authority </li></ul>DOCUMENT H
    13. 14. <ul><li>The Puritans were persecuted in England, when they moved to New England, they created the government in which its power was limited. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed in giving mortal men no greater power than they were content they should use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Church had less authority in the society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Officers in church shouldn ’t affect the liberty and authority of the people to the point that it ruined the people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People ’s goods were the right that they got from God, so it shouldn’t be taken away by the power of the church </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Puritans influenced the idea of democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They believed that every men acquired the same right as God has given to them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The authority of the government and the church shouldn ’t be greater than the people’s powers. </li></ul></ul>OUTSIDE INFORMATION
    14. 15. <ul><li>With the Bible Commonwealth, the Bodies of Liberties, and the concept of limited power, the Puritans laid the ground work of America ’s Constitution and Bill of Rights. </li></ul>
    15. 17. <ul><li>Document Inference: </li></ul><ul><li>The author of this document, John Winthrop, was the 1st leader of the Puritans who had vision to create a model society, otherwise known as “ a city upon a hill”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ All must work and suffer together as one. The eyes of all people are upon us. We must not deal falsely with our God. If the effort fails, we will be ridiculed by the world” </li></ul><ul><li>They believed they were undertaking God ’s work (covenant) </li></ul><ul><li>They wanted to establish Massachusetts Bay as an example of how to purify the Anglican Church </li></ul><ul><li>“ . . . wee must be knitt together, in this worke, as one man. Wee must entertaine each other in brotherly affection. Wee must be willing to abridge ourselves of our superfluities, for the supply of others’ necessities.” </li></ul><ul><li>emphasized cooperation and community over the individual </li></ul><ul><li>This document illustrates both the religious values and ideas held by the Puritans. </li></ul>DOCUMENT A
    16. 18. <ul><li>The Anglican Church </li></ul><ul><li>The Anglican Church can be used as a outside source due to its effect on the New England colonies. The Angelican Church was corrupt and lead many to move and colonize in America, such as the Puritans, but the Puritans didn’t separate fully from the church but rather, tried to cleanse it believing that it was their mission. </li></ul><ul><li>In document A, we can see how spiritual and religious the Puritans were and how they strongly believed that the were doing God’s work. This was the demand of the Puritans, they wanted a church that focused more on spirituality rather than greed and wanted to achieve this when they colonized in America </li></ul>OUTSIDE INFORMATION
    17. 19. <ul><li>Arabella Covenant </li></ul><ul><li>The passage in which John Whithrop wrote the verse “a city upon a hill”. </li></ul><ul><li>A central element in Puritan social and theological life was the notion of the covenant. All social relationships--between God and man, ministers and congregations, magistrates and members of their community, and men and their families--were envisioned in terms of a covenant or contract which rested on consent and mutual responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Covenants created social stability. </li></ul>OUTSIDE INFORMATION
    18. 20. <ul><li>Document Inference: </li></ul><ul><li>The colonists attack the Pequot ’s Mystic River village. </li></ul><ul><li>It displays the views on the natives and what the colonists thought of them. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mystic River attack was a fearful sight. </li></ul><ul><li>There were horrifying sights and smells. </li></ul><ul><li>The victors gave praise to God for the victory. </li></ul><ul><li>Document D illustrated that the Puritans believed that the Indians were heathens, and that they had a moral obligated to expand and exterminate the savages. </li></ul><ul><li>An example of Manifest Destiny-God has blessed them; they are the “city upon a hill’. </li></ul>DOCUMENT D
    19. 21. <ul><li>The Pequot Wars </li></ul><ul><li>The rival tribe of the Narragansett. They were centered along the Thomas River in present-day Connecticut. As the colonists expanded westward, friction began to develop. Points of tensions included unfair trading, the sale of alcohol, destruction of Pequot crops by colonial cattle and competition over hunting grounds. Further poisoning the relationship was the disdain in which the Indians were held by the colonists ; many felt no qualms about dispossessing or killing those whom they regarded as ungodly savages. </li></ul>OUTSIDE INFORMATION
    20. 22. <ul><li>Document Inference: </li></ul><ul><li>Puritans valued education. </li></ul><ul><li>Public education developed in New England. </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard College was founded to train ministers. </li></ul><ul><li>The township system required those who would form a new town to have a minister. </li></ul><ul><li>Puritans believed that religious beliefs should be transmitted to future generations. </li></ul>DOCUMENT E
    21. 23. OUTSIDE INFORMATION <ul><li>Massachusetts School Law of 1642 </li></ul><ul><li>The Law of 1642 required the parents and masters to make sure that their children knew the principles of religion and the capital laws of common wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>It gave parents and masters the responsibility for the child ’s basic education and literacy. All children should be able to read and write. </li></ul><ul><li>The belief was that if all citizens were able to read and write, they would be able to understand and abide the governing laws of the land. </li></ul><ul><li>Massachusetts School Law of 1647 </li></ul><ul><li>The Law of 1647 required every town that had more than 50 families to hire a teacher and every town of more than 100 families to establish a grammar school. </li></ul><ul><li>The grammar school would help prepare students to attend Harvard College. </li></ul><ul><li>Education soon became more of a social responsibility as teachers were hired to educate young people. </li></ul><ul><li>School became more of a priority. </li></ul>
    22. 24. <ul><li>Harvard College </li></ul><ul><li>When 17000 Puritans migrated to New England by 1620, Harvard College was founded in 1636 to train ministers for the new commonwealth. It was founded by John Harvard, who was the first benefactor. </li></ul><ul><li>Dame Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Dame schools were a type of private elementary schools that were set up in homes of women in the community who had the time to teach students. </li></ul><ul><li>Some colonial women in the 17 th century opened small, private schools in their homes in order to teach reading and catechism to young children because they were motivated by the religious needs of Puritan society. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the Massachusetts School Law of 1642 required children the education to reading and religion, Dame schools were able to fulfill this requirement if parents weren’t able to teach their children at home. </li></ul>OUTSIDE INFORMATION
    23. 25. <ul><li>Document Inference </li></ul><ul><li>The document is Robert Keayne ’s last will and testament made written in 1653. </li></ul><ul><li>In the document, Keayne is talking about the importance of education in his life. It has shaped him in the man that he was. </li></ul><ul><li>He mentions that he did not live “an idle or lazy life.” He worked hard and did not waste his time. </li></ul><ul><li>He has studied to “redeem his time”. </li></ul><ul><li>He believes that education gave him his moral values. </li></ul><ul><li>This shows that Puritans had power over economies in the colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Keayne demonstrates the importance of working and how it is wrong to waste your time not doing anything. </li></ul>DOCUMENT I
    24. 26. <ul><li>Keayne was very interested in the Protestant (Puritan) work ethic. </li></ul><ul><li>The Protestant work ethic was the idea that if a person were to work in this life and was successful, they would be saved. </li></ul><ul><li>Puritans believed that working hard would allow God to forgive them and let them enter his kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Keayne was known as a visible saint. A visible saint is a member of the Puritan Church who was granted entry because they proved that they were chosen from God. </li></ul><ul><li>People believed they were “visible saints” if they were successful in their farming and businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Visible saints were people who worked hard and put their efforts in society. </li></ul><ul><li>Puritan men would get either a job or an apprenticeship because they feared the church would disown them and that God would punish them severely. </li></ul><ul><li>Puritans believed that in order for the society to prosper, they made everyone in society to work hard and work together. </li></ul><ul><li>If a person did not have something to work on, then he was sinning. </li></ul><ul><li>If a person was not busy, then the Puritans believed the person would tempt himself into sin. </li></ul><ul><li>They believed that if a person was not busy, he was doing the works of the devil. </li></ul>Document information
    25. 27. THE NEW ENGLAND WAY <ul><li>The Puritans mixed religion with politics </li></ul><ul><li>They believed in both personal and collective autonomy within each village or settlement. Their faith was known as Congregationalism. That gave them local control over both religious and political matters. The well-known New England town meeting was testimony to their idea of self-government. They recognized no higher authority than the Bible, which was the basis of much of their antipathy to the hierarchical structure of the Roman Catholic church. Along with their congregational approach to community, they believed in individualism to the extent that everyone should be able to interpret the Bible for himself or herself.  That reliance on the Bible had effects on education and literacy for the obvious reason that in order to interpret the Bible, one had to be able to read it. </li></ul><ul><li>Second, while the principles above might suggest that Puritans enjoyed religious freedom, that freedom existed only within very strict limits. Their communal approach to society meant that the community had the right to exercise control over individuals tin order to promote the common interest. Thus rigid enforcement of rules and laws was necessary whenever the community was thought to be threatened from within or without. At the same time, they did not believe in unlimited government, for if man is conceived in original sin, how can he be trusted to exercise unlimited power over others? Although man had a one-on-one relationship with God, those whose interpretation of that relationship or of the Bible strayed beyond the bounds of Puritan orthodoxy could be punished, as Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams discovered. </li></ul>
    26. 28. <ul><li>Education, social conformity, and the high value for religion to the Puritans were main factors influenced by the social development of New England- they developed strong beliefs in God and that He was on their side, created communities in which every citizen was educated in the reading, writing, and asthmatics, and removed anyone who did not conform to their values. </li></ul>CLINCHER
    27. 30. DOCUMENT J <ul><li>Document Inference: </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict arose between religious and profit motives. </li></ul><ul><li>The original Puritan mission was less important to second-generation Puritans in New England. </li></ul><ul><li>The Puritans were losing influence in New England. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic changes were leading to declining church membership. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased wealth disrupted the Puritan community. </li></ul><ul><li>Jeremiads (warnings concerning harmful changes in society) became more frequent. </li></ul>
    28. 31. <ul><li>Profit Motive </li></ul><ul><li>The second and third generation of Puritans began to care less of religious salvation and began to care more about making money. The desire for gain as a motive in economic activity. </li></ul>OUTSIDE INFORMATION
    29. 32. <ul><li>Halfway Covenant </li></ul><ul><li>The Half-Way Covenant was a type of church membership created by New England in 1662. </li></ul><ul><li>It was preached by Reverend Solomon Stoddard because he felt that the people of the English colonies were drifting away from their original religious purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Since full membership in the tax-supported Puritan church required that only people in full membership of the church could have their own children baptized, the Half-Way Covenant allowed those who accepted the Covenant could participate in the Lord’s Supper. </li></ul><ul><li>This meant that they could be baptized in the church, but they couldn’t accept communion or vote. </li></ul>OUTSIDE INFORMATION
    30. 33. OUTSIDE INFORMATION <ul><li>Mercantilism </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning around 1650, British authorities began to more interest in regulating American trade for the benefit of the mother country. </li></ul><ul><li>When the colonies began to prosper, England realized the colonies could provide increased trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain added regulatory policies and caused tensions throughout the colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1650s, England added laws of trade and navigation that became known as the Navigation Acts. This allowed for the colonial trade to be limited with the control of Britain.(1651, 1660,1663, and 1673) </li></ul><ul><li>The Navigation Acts were passed because Britain saw the increased trade the colonies began to prosper. </li></ul><ul><li>The set of laws (Navigation Acts) controlled that all trade between the colonies and Britain. It also allowed for all the goods to be shipped to England and they could collect revenue from taxation. </li></ul>
    31. 34. OUTSIDE INFORMATION <ul><li>Salutary Neglect </li></ul><ul><li>Started in 1607. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain ’s absence in colonial America due to pressing issues in England left the colonies alone for the most part to govern themselves. During this time they flourished and developed a British origin, yet with a distinctly American flavor. It was because of this absence that the colonies became more self sufficient and eventually it led them to a feeling of individuality that they feared losing, thus bringing forth the Declaration of Independence after a series of events.
 </li></ul>
    32. 35. Colonies’ contribution to England’s economy <ul><li>Tobacco in Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Indigo in the Carolinas </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar in Georgia </li></ul>

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