Late 19c Urbanization

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  • 1. Urbanization As Seen Through Late 19c - Early 20c Architecture
  • 2. Characteristics of Urbanization During the Gilded Age
    • Megalopolis.
    • Mass Transit.
    • Magnet for economic and social opportunities.
    • Pronounced class distinctions. - Inner & outer core
    • New frontier of opportunity for women.
    • Squalid living conditions for many.
    • Political machines.
    • Ethnic neighborhoods.
  • 3. New Architectural Style New Use of Space New Class Diversity New Energy New Culture (“Melting Pot”) New Form of Classic “Rugged Individualism” New Levels of Crime, Violence, & Corruption Make a New Start New Symbols of Change & Progress The City as a New “Frontier?”
  • 4. CHICAGO: "The Windy City"
  • 5. William Le Baron Jenney
    • 1832 – 1907
    • “ Father of the Modern Skyscraper”
  • 6. W. Le Baron Jenney: Central Y.M.C.A., Chicago, 1891
  • 7. Louis Sullivan
    • 1856 – 1924
    • The Chicago School of Architecture
    • Form follows function!
  • 8. Louis Sullivan: Bayard Bldg., NYC, 1897
  • 9. Louis Sullivan: Carson, Pirie, Scott Dept. Store, Chicago, 1899
  • 10. D. H. Burnham
    • 1846 – 1912
    • Use of steel as a super structure.
  • 11. DH Burnham: Fisher [Apt.] Bldg, Chicago, 1896
  • 12. D. H. Burnham: Marshall Fields Dept. Store, 1902
  • 13. DH Burnham: Railway Exchange, Chicago, 1904
  • 14. Frank Lloyd Wright
    • 1869 – 1959
    • “ Prairie House” School of Architecture
    • “ Organic Architecture”
    • Function follows form!
  • 15. Frank Lloyd Wright: Allen-Lamb House, 1915
  • 16. Frank Lloyd Wright: Hollyhock House [Los Angeles], 1917
  • 17. Frank Lloyd Wright: “Falling Waters”, 1936
  • 18. Interior of “Falling Waters”
  • 19. F. L. Wright Furniture
  • 20. F. L. Wright Glass Screens Prairie wheat patterns.
  • 21. Frank Lloyd Wright: Susan Lawrence Dana House, Springfield, IL - 1902
  • 22. Frank Lloyd Wright: Johnson Wax Bldg. – Racine, WI, 1936
  • 23. Frank Lloyd Wright: Guggenheim Museum, NYC - 1959
  • 24. NEW YORK CITY: "Gotham"
  • 25. New York City Architectural Style: 1870s-1910s
    • The style was less innovative than in Chicago.
    • NYC was the source of the capital for Chicago.
    • Most major business firms had their headquarters in NYC  their bldgs. became “logos” for their companies.
    • NYC buildings and skyscrapers were taller than in Chicago.
  • 26. Western Union Bldg,. NYC - 1875
  • 27. Manhattan Life Insurance Bldg. NYC - 1893
  • 28. Singer Building NYC - 1902
  • 29. Woolworth Bldg. NYC - 1911
  • 30. Flatiron Building NYC – 1902 D. H. Burnham
  • 31. Grand Central Station, 1913
  • 32. John A. Roebling: The Brooklyn Bridge, 1883
  • 33. John A. Roebling: The Brooklyn Bridge, 1913
  • 34. “ Dumbell “ Tenement
  • 35. “ Dumbell “ Tenement, NYC
  • 36. Jacob Riis: How the Other Half Lived (1890)
  • 37. Tenement Slum Living
  • 38. Lodgers Huddled Together
  • 39. Tenement Slum Living
  • 40. Struggling Immigrant Families
  • 41. Mulberry Street – “Little Italy”
  • 42. St. Patrick’s Cathedral
  • 43. Hester Street – Jewish Section
  • 44. 1900 Rosh Hashanah Greeting Card
  • 45. Pell St. - Chinatown, NYC
  • 46. Urban Growth: 1870 - 1900