Stalin and Churchill signed the charter, but were uneasy about each otherThe Atlantic Charter was created to resolve the conditions in post-war Europe.Although Germany had been defeated, the USA and Britain were still at war with Japan.Stalin's main concern at Potsdam was to obtain economic help for the Soviet Union. Nearly a quarter of Soviet property had been destroyed during the Second World War. This included 31,000 of her factories. Agriculture had also been badly hit and food was being strictly rationed. Joseph Stalin had been told by his advisers that undernourishment of the workforce was causing low-productivity. He believed that the best way to revive the Soviet economy was to obtain massive reparation payments from Germany.
Truman reached an agreement with England and France to merge the three western zones of occupation into a new West German republic.On June 24, 1948, Stalin responded by imposing a tight blockade around the western sectors of Berlin.Truman ordered a massive air-lift (which continued for more than 10 months) to supply the city with food, fuel, and other needed goods.In October 1949, the division of Germany into two nations, the Federal Republic in the west and the Democratic Republic in the east, became official.On April 4, 1949, twelve nations signed an agreement establishing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and declaring that an armed attacked against one member would be considered an attack against all
In September, the Soviet Union successfully exploded its first atomic weapon, years earlier than predicted, which caused shock amongst many Americans.The collapse of Chiang Kai-shek’s nationalist government in China resulted in Chiang going to an offshore island of Formosa (Taiwan).The entire Chinese mainland came under control of a communist government, which Americans believed to be an extension of the Soviet Union.Truman wanted to review the American foreign policy, which resulted in the National Security Council report in 1950.In April 1950, the document argued that the U.S. could no longer rely on other nations to take the initiative in resisting communism.
The bombs that destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki ended the war much earlier and resulted in the nation into a process of reconversion.There were many predictions that there would be Depression unemployment since war production ceased and many returning soldiers flooded the labor market.There was no general economic collapse because government spending dropped: $35 billion of war contracts were canceled within weeks of the Japanese surrender.Increased consumer demand compensated.A $6 billion tax cut pumped additional currency into general speculation.The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944, also known as the GI Bill of Rights, provided economic and educational assistance to veterans, increasing spending.In the summer of 1946, President Truman vetoed an extension of the authority of the wartime Office of Price Administration, eliminating price controls. Reconversion was difficult for millions of women and minorities who entered the workforce.
After the Japanese surrendered, Truman submitted to Congressed a twenty-one point domestic program called the “Fair Deal,” which called for expansion of Social Security benefits, the raising of the legal minimum wage from 40 to 65 cents an hour, a program to ensure full employment through aggressive use of federal spending and investment, a permanent Fair Employment Practices Act, public housing and slum clearance, long-range environmental and public works planning, and government promotion of scientific research.
Congress raised the legal minimum wage from 40 cents to 75 cents an hour.Congress also approved an expansion of the Social Security system, increasing benefits by 75 percent.It also passed the National Housing Act of 1949, which provided for the construction of 810,000 units of low-income housing.Truman made no progress in health insurance or aid to education.He failed to persuade Congress to accept the civil rights legislation which would have made lynching a federal crime, provided federal protection of black voting rights, abolished the poll tax, and established a new Fair Employment Practices Commission to curb discrimination in hiring.
The Election of 1948Truman’s personal unpopularity was due to the belief among much of the electorate that he and his administration were weak and inept.Southern conservatives were angered by Truman’s proposed civil rights bill and walked out to form the States’ Rights Party.The Republicans nominated Governor Thomas E. Dewey of New York.Dewey gained much popularity, and Truman was the only one to believe that he would be successful and win the election.
The Nuclear AgeMany Americans believed that the Nuclear War would be as the result of the rivalry of the Soviet Union.Film Noir movies portrayed the loneliness of individuals in an impersonal world and the looming possibility of vast destruction.Some films and television programs addressed nuclear fear explicitly, such as in The Twilight Zone.Radio Stations regularly tested the emergency broadcast systems.Nuclear power plants began to spring up in many areas of the country, welcome as the source of cheap and unlimited electricity.
Atlantic Charter in 1941 – No territorial changes without consent of the people concerned – Restoration of sovereign rights and self-government – Access to raw materials for all nations – World economic cooperation – Freedom from fear and want – Disarmament of aggressors. Yalta Conference in February 4-11, 1945• Allow the liberated leaders of Europe to form independent, democratically-elected governments• Stalin agrees to enter the war against Japan in exchange for Soviet annexation of the Kurile Islands, half of Sahkilin Islands, and portions of Korea.• United States and Britain will recognize the independence of Outer Mongolia from China, and allow Soviet annexation of Poland.• Stalin demands $20 billion in reparations from Germany. Potsdam Conference in July 26, 1945• Proclamation by the U.S., Great Britain and China, the three main powers then fighting Japan• "Potsdam Declaration" described Japans present perilous condition, gave the terms for her surrender and stated the Allies intentions concerning her postwar status.• It ended with an ultimatum: Japan must immediately agree to unconditionally surrender, or face "prompt and utter destruction.• The United Nations charter drafted at a conference of fifty nations beginning April 25, 1945, in San Francisco.
• Potsdam Conference, July-August 1945• Group photograph of the "Big Three" heads of government at Potsdam, Germany, circa 28 July -- 1 August 1945• .Those present are (from left to right):• British Prime Minister Clement Atlee;• U.S. President Harry S. Truman;• Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin.
Timeline of the Cold War 1940s 1945: February 4-11-- Yalta Conference Cold War Begins 1945: August 6 -- United States first used atomic bomb in war 1945: August 8 -- Russia enters war against Japan 1945: August 14 -- Japanese surrender End of World War II 1946: March -- Winston Churchill delivers "Iron Curtain" Speech 1947: March -- Truman declares active role in Greek Civil War 1947: June -- Marshall Plan is announced 1948: February -- Communist takeover in Czechoslovakia 1948: June 24 -- Berlin Blockade begins 1949: July -- NATO ratified 1949: May 12 -- Berlin Blockade ends 1949: September -- Mao Zedong, a Communist, takes control of China 1949: September -- Soviets explode first atomic bomb
Timeline- cont.• 1950s• 1950: February -- Joe McCarthy begins Communist witch hunt• 1950: June --Korean War begins• 1951: January 12 -- Federal Civil Defense Administration established• 1953: June 19 -- Rosenberg executions• 1953: July -- Korean War ends• 1954: March -- KGB established1954 -- CIA helps overthrow unfriendly regimes in Iran and Guatemala• 1954: July -- Vietnam split at 17th parallel• 1955: May -- Warsaw Pact formed• 1956: October - November -- Rebellion put down in Communist Hungary. Egypt took control of Suez Canal; U.S. refused to help take it back• 1957: October 4 -- Sputnik launched into orbit• 1958: November -- Khrushchev demands withdrawal of troops from Berlin• 1959: January -- Cuba taken over by Fidel Castro• 1959: September -- Khrushchev visits United States; denied access to Disneyland
Timeline- cont.• 1960s• 1960: May -- Soviet Union reveals that U.S. spy plane was shot down over Soviet territory• 1960: November -- John F. Kennedy elected President• 1961: April -- Bay of Pigs invasion• 1961: July -- Kennedy requests 25% spending increase for military• 1961: August 13 -- Berlin border closed• 1961: August 17 -- Construction of Berlin Wall begins1962: -- U.S. involvement in Vietnam increased1962: October -- Cuban Missile Crisis1963: July -- Nuclear Test Ban• Treaty ratified• 1963: November -- President Kennedy assassinated in Dallas, Texas• 1964: August -- Gulf of Tonkin inciden• t1965: April -- U.S. Marines sent to Dominican Republic to fight Communism• 1965: July -- Announcement of dispatching of 150,000 U.S. troops to Vietnam• 1968: January -- North Korea captured U.S.S. Pueblo• 1968: August -- Soviet troops crush Czechoslovakian revolt• 1969: July 20 -- Apollo 11 lands on the moon
Timeline- cont.• 1970s• 1970: April -- President Nixon extends Vietnam War to Cambodia• 1972: July -- SALT I signed• 1973: January -- Cease fire in Vietnam between North Vietnam and United States• 1973: September -- United States helps overthrow Chile government• 1973: October -- Egypt and Syria attack Israel; Egypt requests Soviet aid• 1974: August -- President Nixon resigns• 1975: April 17 -- North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam• 1979: July -- SALT II signed• 1979: November -- Shah of Iran overthrown; Iranian Hostage Crisis
• 1980s• 1983: --President Reagan proposes Strategic Defense Initiative• 1983: October -- U.S. troops overthrow regime in Grenada• 1985: -- Iran-Contra Affair (arms sold to Iran, profits used to support contras in Nicaragua)• 1985: -- Mikhail Gorbachev ascends to power in Soviet Union• 1986: -- Gorbachev ends economic aid to Soviet satellites• 1986: October -- Reagan and Gorbachev resolve to remove all intermediate nuclear missiles from Europe• 1986: November -- Iran-Contra Affair revealed to public• 1987: October -- Reagan and Gorbachev agree to remove all medium and short-range nuclear missiles by signing treaty• 1989: January -- Soviet troops withdraw from Afghanistan• 1989: June -- China puts down protests for democracy; Poland becomes independent• 1989: September -- Hungary becomes independent1989: November -- Berlin Wall falls• 1989: December -- Communist governments fall in Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Rumania; Soviet empire ends
• in a speech in Fulton, Missouri, in 1946, Winston Churchill stated that an Iron Curtain had been spread across Europe separating the democratic from the authoritarian communist states.
• The Containment Doctrine Created by George F. Kennan, a member of the State Department, he felt that the best way to keep Communism out of Europe was to confront the Russians wherever they tried to spread their power.• Truman Doctrine Stated that the U.S would support any nation threatened by Communism• Marshall Plan Introduced by Secretary if State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
After the United States, France, and England announced plans to create a West German Republic out of their German zones, the Soviet Union in June 1948 blocked surface access to Berlin. U.S.A in response instituted an airlift to transport supplies to the city until the Soviets lifted their blockade in May 1949.
• Truman agreed with England and France to merge the three western zones of occupation into a new West German Republic (including the American, British, and French sectors of Berlin.• On June 24, 1948, Stalin responded by imposing a tight blockade around the western sectors of Berlin.• In October 1949, the division of Germany into two nations, the Federal Republic in the west and the Democratic Republic in the east became official.• On April 4, 1949, twelve nations signed an agreement establishing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and declaring that an armed attacked against one member would be considered an attack against all.
• In September 1949, the Soviet Union exploded its first atomic weapon.• The entire Chinese mainland came under control of a communist government, which Americans believed to be an extension of the Soviet Union.• Truman wanted to review American foreign policy, which resulted in the National Security Council report in 1950.• In April 1950, the document argued that the U.S. could no longer rely on other nations to take the initiative in resisting communism.
• The destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ended the war earlier, resulting the nation into reconversion.• There was no general economic collapse-government spending dropped: $35 billion of war contracts were canceled within weeks of Japanese surrender.• Increased consumer demand compensated.• $6 billion tax cut that caused additional currency into general speculation.• Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944: provided economic and educational assistance to veterans, increasing spending.• President Truman vetoed an extension of authority of wartime Office of Price Administration, eliminating price controls.
• After Japanese surrendered, Truman submitted to Congress a twenty-one point domestic program called the “Fair Deal.”• The Fair deal called for expansion of Social Security benefits, the raising of the legal minimum wage from 40 to 65 cents to an hour, a program ensure full employment through aggressive use of federal spending and investment, a permanent Fair Employment Practices Act, public housing and slum clearance, long-range environment and public works planning, and government promotion of scientific research.
• Congress became more hospitable towards Truman’s new deal.• Congress raised the legal minimum wage from 40 cents to 75 cents an hour.• Congress also approved an expansion of the Social Security system, increasing benefits by 75 percent.• Congress also passed the National Housing Act of 1949, which provided for the construction of 810,000 units of low-income housing.• Truman failed to persuade Congress to accept the civil rights legislation and failed to make progress in health insurance or aid to education.
• Truman’s personal unpopularity was due to the belief among much of the electorate that he and his administration were weak and inept.• Southern conservatives were angered by Truman’s proposed civil rights, therefore creating States’ Rights Party.• Republicans nominated Governor Thomas E. Dewey of New York.
• Many Americans believed that the Nuclear War would be as the result of the rivalry of the Soviet Union.• Radio Stations regularly tested the emergency broadcast systems.• Nuclear power plants began to spring up in many areas of the country.
The Korean War 1950-1953• June 25, 1950: communist North Korean armies invaded the 38th parallel into South Korea• Seoul was taken over by North Korea three days later.• President Truman appealed to the United Nations to intervene and was able to win their agreement for assistance to the Rhee government.• The Soviet Union was boycotting the Security Council at the time and was unable to veto the decision.• June 30: U.S. ordered ground forces into Korea under the command General Douglas MacArthur.
• October 19: North Korean capital (Pyongyang) fell to UN forces – the attack alarmed China (a new communist government)• China intervened due to the fear of American movement toward its border (near Yalu River).• November 4: eight divisions of the Chinese army entered the war• Throughout December: American forces lost battle against the Chinese divisions and retreated at almost every juncture• Seoul was continuously regained by UN forces or captured by communist forces – led to a prolonged stalemate.
• Truman feared the war might lead to a new world war and began to seek peace negotiations.• MacArthur publicly opposed his peace efforts. He favored a blockade of the Chinese coast and bombardment of Chinese bases.• April 11, 1951: Truman relieved MacArthur of his command and caused a public outrage.• The Korean stalemate continued and negotiations began in July 1951 but didn’t it didn’t end until 1953.
• The war produced limited American commitment abroad and created only limited mobilization at home.• Office of Defense Mobilization: created to fight inflation by holding down prices and discouraging high union wage demands.• When it failed, Truman ordered the government to seize control and became commander in chief during a nation-wide steel strike in 1952.• The war boosted economic growth due to increased government spending (believed to have saved the country from a near recession).• Truman ordered racial desegregation of the armed forces. The Korean War marked the first time American forces had fought in integrated units.•
• HUAC and Alger Hiss•• House Un-American Activities Committee: created to hold publicized investigations that, under Democratic rule, the government had tolerated communist subversion.• Republicans attacked the Democrats using the issue of communism (Republicans temporarily controlled Congress).• Alger Hiss was accused of being a communist and his civil liberties were violated during the investigation.• Hiss was convicted of perjury and served years in prison by the efforts of Richard M. Nixon.
• Truman created a program to review the loyalty of federal employees.• McCarran Internal Security Act 1950: required all communist organizations to register with the government. Truman vetoed, but Congress easily overrode it.• After the Soviet Union launched a successful atomic bomb, many became suspicious of conspiracy of American atomic secrets being passed on to the Russians. Rosenberg Case: a New York couple (Julius and Ethel Rosenberg), who were part of the Communist Party, claimed to be the masterminds of the conspiracy. They were convicted and sentenced to death.
o Joseph McCarthy- a Republican senator who gained famed by publicly listing and accusing 205 known communists working in the American State Department without solid evidence. He intimidated all but a few people from opposing him.o Factors that contribute to the rise of McCarthyism: o Fears raised by the “fall” of China to Communism o Fears of the Soviet Union’s development of an atomic bomb o Fears raised by Truman’s foreign policy to contain Soviet expansion o Fears raised by suspicious that Soviet spies had infiltrated the government
• Truman’s popularity diminished and he withdrew from being reelected.• Democratic nominee: Governor Adlai E. Stevenson, a beloved figure among liberals and intellectuals yet lacked the strength or will to fight back communism• Republican nominee: General Dwight D. Eisenhower, a military hero, commander of NATO, and president of Columbia University. His running mate was Richard M. Nixon. – Eisenhower attracted support through his pledges to settle the Korean conflict. – Nixon effectively exploited the issue of domestic subversion.• Republicans won by a landslide and gained control on both houses of Congress – ended Democratic rule.