Chapter 27 Cold War Period 3

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  • 1. CHAPTER 27: THE COLD WAR1945 – 1989 [only events until 1953 will be covered]Mireya Carpio, Khristian Decastro, Robyn HarrimanPeriod 3
  • 2. POST-WWII AMERICA
  • 3. THE AMERICAN ECONOMY The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 [AKA GI Bill of Rights] provided economic and educational benefits to WWII veterans Lack of consumer goods and rise in income in WWII led to purchasing goods on impulse, causing rapid inflation Rapid inflation caused labor unrest Veterans began taking back jobs of women and those of racial minority
  • 4. THE FAIR DEAL Proposed by Truman for:  Government provision of atomic research  Fair employment practices and raising minimum wage  Public housing and slum clearance  Environmental and public works programming Shot down my conservatives, being compared to New Deal reform 81st Congress, after Truman’s election  Raised minimum wage, created low-income housing, expanded financial benefits  Failed to aid any other Fair Deal points
  • 5. 1948 ELECTION A new Progressive Party emerged, Henry A. Wallace Republicans headed by Thomas E. Dewey, who had enormous popularity over Truman Southern conservatives left the Democratic Party to create the States’ Rights [or Dixiecrat] Party After 32,000 miles of campaigning, Truman still managed to win the election
  • 6. THE EFFECTS OF THE NUCLEAR AGE Film Noir Radios tested emergency systems, and schools and office buildings constantly practiced air raid drills Fallout shelters were built in both public buildings and private homes A poll in 1948 showed that two-thirds of Americans believed that nuclear technology would eventually be only beneficial Nuclear power plants were rapidly created
  • 7. THE COLD WAR FOR REAL THIS TIME
  • 8. SOVIET IDEOLOGY Accepted by the Soviet Union and its Eastern European states Goal: to spread communism throughout the globe Command economy Having sole control of particular areas of strategic interest
  • 9. AMERICAN IDEOLOGY Accepted by the US and other “Western” Democratic nations Goal: to contain communism and eventually destroy it Capitalist economy Abandoning traditional military alliances and spheres of influence Reestablishing international relations through democratic processes (an international organization)
  • 10. METHODS OF ‘FIGHTING’ THE COLD WAR USA USSR Espionage CIA KGB Nuclear Escalation Arms Race Beating That Space Exploration Communism and Democracy and Proxy War Command Capitalism Economy
  • 11. ORIGINS OF TENSIONS “The Big Three”: FDR, Churchill, Stalin Wartime  Atlantic Charter of 1941  Halting Western front on Germany Post-WWII [Yalta Conference of 1941]  Poland [and eventually all Soviet states] Pro-Western or Pro-Communist?  Result: agreed on balance, but Stalin tended to put Communist gov’t officials in charge without election  Germany: Reconstruction or Reparation?  Result: Four-war division of Germany and of Berlin
  • 12. THE CHINA DILEMMA Mao Zedong’s communist forces vs. Chiang Kai-Shek’s nationalist government American public favored a third force to dominate both of these groups When civil war broke, the US sent money and supplies to Chiang Mao became the victory, establishing China as a Communist nation
  • 13. THE CONTAINMENT POLICY US and its allies to contain further Soviet expansion rather than create an international democratic compromise Stalin attempted to gain control of Turkey and Greece, but his efforts were defeated by the $400 million aid provided by Congress to support the free peoples Foundation for the Truman Doctrine
  • 14. THE MARSHALL PLAN Drafted by Secretary of State George C. Marshall in June 1947  For the welfare of Europeans  To remove dependency on the US  To expand the European market for American goods  To prevent Western European gov’ts from falling into Communism Signed by 16 European nations, rejected by USSR and its satellite states Created the Economic Cooperation Administration, which channeled $12 billion of
  • 15. MOBILIZATION AT HOME Atomic Energy Commission established in 1946, in charge of testing and researching nuclear warfare National Security Act of 1947 enacted, reforming major military and diplomatic institutions, and creating a new Department of Defense Selective Service System revived in 1948 in case of war CIA created to collect information and eventually engage secretly in political and military
  • 16. BERLIN AIRLIFT US, UK, and France agreed to merge the three western zones of German occupation into the West German Republic On June 24, 1948, Stalin placed a blockade on western Berlin, implying that Germany’s split meant that Western controllers should lose its outpost in Soviet Territory Unwilling to risk war, Truman’s airlift sent supplies, food, and 2.5 million tons of other materials to Berlin to keep the 2 million people there alive
  • 17. NATO [National Atlantic Treaty Organization] Consolidated 12 nations on April 4, 1949, stating that any attack on one member was an attack against all members Initially designed as a defense against possible Soviet invasion Influenced the Soviet Union to create their own alliance of Communist nations under the Warsaw Pact of 1955
  • 18. NATO MEMBERS CONSOLIDATED BY 1950
  • 19. NSC-68 [National Security Council report, number 68] UK refused to continue aiding Germany during the Berlin Airlift Report states that the US cannot rely on other nations to contain communism, and must rather take its own leadership Expanded military power, quadrupling the American defense budget
  • 20. 1950-1953THE KOREAN WAR
  • 21. INSTIGATION Both USSR and US sent troops to Korea, unwilling to leave Nation agreed on temporary boundary on 38th parallel USA stated that did not consider South Korea in its “defense perimeter”; North Koreans tempted to invade US able to win UN assistance for South Korea
  • 22. UNSETTLING BOUNDARIES Boundary pushed past the 38th parallel by northern forces, capturing the southern capital of Seoul American forces (under MacArthur) pushed boundary back past 38th parallel, almost reaching the USSR On November 4, 1950, the Chinese sent their own troops in favor of the Communist North Boundary yet again pushed to the south of the 38th parallel
  • 23. RELIEVING MACARTHUR MacArthur resisted Truman’s limits on military discretion, insisting that China should be invaded, or somehow punished MacArthur sent a letter to House Republican leader Joseph W. Martin, stating, “There is no substitute for victory.” Appalled, Truman relieved him of duty on April 11, 1951
  • 24. THE END OF THE KOREAN WAR Opposing forces met in Panmunjom, but never reached a final decision until 1953 Established the permanent boundary between the north and South Like WWII, the war pumped substantial amounts government funds into the economy Mobilization and public support, however, were not as great
  • 25. DOMESTIC FEAR OF COMMUNISM
  • 26. REPUBLICAN DOMINATION HUAC formed to battle Democrats House Un-American Activities Committee performed and publicized investigations to prove that the government would not have tolerated Communist subversion if it was not under Democratic rule HUAC interviewed Hollywood writers and producers “Hollywood Ten”
  • 27. ALGER HISS Whittaker Chambers accused Alger Hiss of the State Department of sending State Department documents to the USSR in 1937 and 1938 Hiss not tried for espionage because of statue of limitations Because of Richard Nixon’s efforts, Hiss was eventually arrested for perjury Hiss was imprisoned for several years.
  • 28. THE FEDERAL LOYALTY PROGRAM 1947 – Truman permits a program to review the loyalty of federal employees 1950 – Truman allows the firing of employees deemed “bad security risks” McCarran Internal Security Act of 1950  Forced al Communist organizations in the US to register with the gov’t FBI directory J. Edgar Hoover investigated and harassed alleged radicals
  • 29. THE ROSENBURG CASE USSR successfully detonated an atomic bomb in 1949; Americans believed that the US gave the USSR atomic research information David Greenglass of the Manhattan Project, admitted to have provided info to USSR agents Admitted that the masterminds were his sister and brother-in-law, ordinary New York couple Ethel and Julius Rosenburg
  • 30. MCCARTHYISM Joseph McCarthy, Wisconsin Republican Senator During a speech in Wheeling, West Virginia, claimed to have a list of 205 known communists working in the State Department Harsh investigations spread to other agencies Publicized investigations, going through federal offices and American embassies