Chapter 27 Cold War Period 3


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Chapter 27 Cold War Period 3

  1. 1. CHAPTER 27: THE COLD WAR1945 – 1989 [only events until 1953 will be covered]Mireya Carpio, Khristian Decastro, Robyn HarrimanPeriod 3
  3. 3. THE AMERICAN ECONOMY The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 [AKA GI Bill of Rights] provided economic and educational benefits to WWII veterans Lack of consumer goods and rise in income in WWII led to purchasing goods on impulse, causing rapid inflation Rapid inflation caused labor unrest Veterans began taking back jobs of women and those of racial minority
  4. 4. THE FAIR DEAL Proposed by Truman for:  Government provision of atomic research  Fair employment practices and raising minimum wage  Public housing and slum clearance  Environmental and public works programming Shot down my conservatives, being compared to New Deal reform 81st Congress, after Truman’s election  Raised minimum wage, created low-income housing, expanded financial benefits  Failed to aid any other Fair Deal points
  5. 5. 1948 ELECTION A new Progressive Party emerged, Henry A. Wallace Republicans headed by Thomas E. Dewey, who had enormous popularity over Truman Southern conservatives left the Democratic Party to create the States’ Rights [or Dixiecrat] Party After 32,000 miles of campaigning, Truman still managed to win the election
  6. 6. THE EFFECTS OF THE NUCLEAR AGE Film Noir Radios tested emergency systems, and schools and office buildings constantly practiced air raid drills Fallout shelters were built in both public buildings and private homes A poll in 1948 showed that two-thirds of Americans believed that nuclear technology would eventually be only beneficial Nuclear power plants were rapidly created
  8. 8. SOVIET IDEOLOGY Accepted by the Soviet Union and its Eastern European states Goal: to spread communism throughout the globe Command economy Having sole control of particular areas of strategic interest
  9. 9. AMERICAN IDEOLOGY Accepted by the US and other “Western” Democratic nations Goal: to contain communism and eventually destroy it Capitalist economy Abandoning traditional military alliances and spheres of influence Reestablishing international relations through democratic processes (an international organization)
  10. 10. METHODS OF ‘FIGHTING’ THE COLD WAR USA USSR Espionage CIA KGB Nuclear Escalation Arms Race Beating That Space Exploration Communism and Democracy and Proxy War Command Capitalism Economy
  11. 11. ORIGINS OF TENSIONS “The Big Three”: FDR, Churchill, Stalin Wartime  Atlantic Charter of 1941  Halting Western front on Germany Post-WWII [Yalta Conference of 1941]  Poland [and eventually all Soviet states] Pro-Western or Pro-Communist?  Result: agreed on balance, but Stalin tended to put Communist gov’t officials in charge without election  Germany: Reconstruction or Reparation?  Result: Four-war division of Germany and of Berlin
  12. 12. THE CHINA DILEMMA Mao Zedong’s communist forces vs. Chiang Kai-Shek’s nationalist government American public favored a third force to dominate both of these groups When civil war broke, the US sent money and supplies to Chiang Mao became the victory, establishing China as a Communist nation
  13. 13. THE CONTAINMENT POLICY US and its allies to contain further Soviet expansion rather than create an international democratic compromise Stalin attempted to gain control of Turkey and Greece, but his efforts were defeated by the $400 million aid provided by Congress to support the free peoples Foundation for the Truman Doctrine
  14. 14. THE MARSHALL PLAN Drafted by Secretary of State George C. Marshall in June 1947  For the welfare of Europeans  To remove dependency on the US  To expand the European market for American goods  To prevent Western European gov’ts from falling into Communism Signed by 16 European nations, rejected by USSR and its satellite states Created the Economic Cooperation Administration, which channeled $12 billion of
  15. 15. MOBILIZATION AT HOME Atomic Energy Commission established in 1946, in charge of testing and researching nuclear warfare National Security Act of 1947 enacted, reforming major military and diplomatic institutions, and creating a new Department of Defense Selective Service System revived in 1948 in case of war CIA created to collect information and eventually engage secretly in political and military
  16. 16. BERLIN AIRLIFT US, UK, and France agreed to merge the three western zones of German occupation into the West German Republic On June 24, 1948, Stalin placed a blockade on western Berlin, implying that Germany’s split meant that Western controllers should lose its outpost in Soviet Territory Unwilling to risk war, Truman’s airlift sent supplies, food, and 2.5 million tons of other materials to Berlin to keep the 2 million people there alive
  17. 17. NATO [National Atlantic Treaty Organization] Consolidated 12 nations on April 4, 1949, stating that any attack on one member was an attack against all members Initially designed as a defense against possible Soviet invasion Influenced the Soviet Union to create their own alliance of Communist nations under the Warsaw Pact of 1955
  19. 19. NSC-68 [National Security Council report, number 68] UK refused to continue aiding Germany during the Berlin Airlift Report states that the US cannot rely on other nations to contain communism, and must rather take its own leadership Expanded military power, quadrupling the American defense budget
  20. 20. 1950-1953THE KOREAN WAR
  21. 21. INSTIGATION Both USSR and US sent troops to Korea, unwilling to leave Nation agreed on temporary boundary on 38th parallel USA stated that did not consider South Korea in its “defense perimeter”; North Koreans tempted to invade US able to win UN assistance for South Korea
  22. 22. UNSETTLING BOUNDARIES Boundary pushed past the 38th parallel by northern forces, capturing the southern capital of Seoul American forces (under MacArthur) pushed boundary back past 38th parallel, almost reaching the USSR On November 4, 1950, the Chinese sent their own troops in favor of the Communist North Boundary yet again pushed to the south of the 38th parallel
  23. 23. RELIEVING MACARTHUR MacArthur resisted Truman’s limits on military discretion, insisting that China should be invaded, or somehow punished MacArthur sent a letter to House Republican leader Joseph W. Martin, stating, “There is no substitute for victory.” Appalled, Truman relieved him of duty on April 11, 1951
  24. 24. THE END OF THE KOREAN WAR Opposing forces met in Panmunjom, but never reached a final decision until 1953 Established the permanent boundary between the north and South Like WWII, the war pumped substantial amounts government funds into the economy Mobilization and public support, however, were not as great
  26. 26. REPUBLICAN DOMINATION HUAC formed to battle Democrats House Un-American Activities Committee performed and publicized investigations to prove that the government would not have tolerated Communist subversion if it was not under Democratic rule HUAC interviewed Hollywood writers and producers “Hollywood Ten”
  27. 27. ALGER HISS Whittaker Chambers accused Alger Hiss of the State Department of sending State Department documents to the USSR in 1937 and 1938 Hiss not tried for espionage because of statue of limitations Because of Richard Nixon’s efforts, Hiss was eventually arrested for perjury Hiss was imprisoned for several years.
  28. 28. THE FEDERAL LOYALTY PROGRAM 1947 – Truman permits a program to review the loyalty of federal employees 1950 – Truman allows the firing of employees deemed “bad security risks” McCarran Internal Security Act of 1950  Forced al Communist organizations in the US to register with the gov’t FBI directory J. Edgar Hoover investigated and harassed alleged radicals
  29. 29. THE ROSENBURG CASE USSR successfully detonated an atomic bomb in 1949; Americans believed that the US gave the USSR atomic research information David Greenglass of the Manhattan Project, admitted to have provided info to USSR agents Admitted that the masterminds were his sister and brother-in-law, ordinary New York couple Ethel and Julius Rosenburg
  30. 30. MCCARTHYISM Joseph McCarthy, Wisconsin Republican Senator During a speech in Wheeling, West Virginia, claimed to have a list of 205 known communists working in the State Department Harsh investigations spread to other agencies Publicized investigations, going through federal offices and American embassies