Andrew Jackson


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  • In Tennessee, Andrew Jackson was hard-pressed to pay his debts in this period. He developed a lifelong hostility to all banks that were not completely backed by gold or silver. This meant, above all, the Second Bank of the United States.
  • To fight back, Biddle decided to shrink the money supply and cause a recession in 1834 in order to force Jackson to accept a re-charter bill. The Bank demanded that old loans be repaid. It made no new loans.
  • was an executive order issued by U.S. President Andrew Jackson in 1836 and carried out by President Martin Van Buren . It required payment for government land to be in gold and silver
  • The Panic of 1837 was a financial crisis in the United States built on a speculative fever . [1] The bubble burst on May 10, 1837 in New York City , when every bank began to accept payment only in specie ( gold and silver coinage ). This was based on the assumption by former president, Andrew Jackson, that government was selling land for state bank notes of questionable value. The Panic was followed by a five-year depression, with the failure of banks and record-high unemployment levels. Some causes include the economic policies of President Andrew Jackson who created the Specie Circular by executive order and also refused to renew the charter of Second Bank of the United States , resulting in the withdrawal of government funds from that bank. Martin Van Buren , who became president in March 1837, five weeks before the Panic engulfed the young republic's economy, was blamed for the Panic. His refusal to involve the government in the economy was said by some to have contributed to the damages and duration of the Panic. Jacksonian Democrats blamed the banks' irresponsibility, both in funding rampant speculation and in introducing paper money inflation. This was caused by banks' issuing excessive paper money (unbacked by bullion reserves), leading to inflation. Others take a different view, blaming a combination of the Second Bank of the United States, Mexican bimetallism (which drove Mexican silver out of Mexican circulation according to Gresham's Law , and into America where it was legal tender), legal tender law, fractional reserve banking, and state government deficit spending, which dramatically increased the money and credit supply, decreased interest rates, and led to erroneous investment decisions before and up to 1837, according to the Austrian Theory of the Business Cycle
  • Andrew Jackson

    1. 1. Andrew Jackson: 1767 - 1845
    2. 2. Essential Question: Champion of the “Common Man”? “ King” Andrew? OR
    3. 3. What were the democratic trends in the 19c?
    4. 4. Voting Requirements in the Early 19c
    5. 5. Voter Turnout: 1820 - 1860
    6. 6. Did Democratization Increase? <ul><li>White male suffrage increased </li></ul><ul><li>Party nominating committees. </li></ul><ul><li>Voters chose their state’s slate of Presidential electors. </li></ul><ul><li>Spoils system. </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Third Parties. </li></ul><ul><li>Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Two-party system returned in the 1832 election: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dem-Reps  Natl. Reps.(1828)  Whigs (1832)  Republicans (1854) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democrats (1828) </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Jackson's Early Life
    8. 8. Jackson’s First Hermitage Residence
    9. 9. First Known Painting of Jackson, 1815
    10. 10. General Jackson During the Seminole Wars
    11. 11. Jackson's First Presidential Run
    12. 12. The “Common Man’s” Presidential Candidate
    13. 13. Jackson’s Opponents in 1824 Henry Clay [KY] John Quincy Adams [MA] John C. Calhoun [SC] William H. Crawford [GA]
    14. 14. Results of the 1824 Election A “ Corrupt Bargain ?”
    15. 15. What were the key issues in 1828?
    16. 16. Rachel Jackson Final Divorce Decree
    17. 17. Jackson in Mourning for His Wife
    18. 18. 1828 Election Results
    19. 19. The New “Jackson Coalition” <ul><li>The Planter Elite in the South </li></ul><ul><li>People on the Frontier </li></ul><ul><li>State Politicians – spoils system </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants in the cities. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Jackson’s Faith in the “Common Man” <ul><li>Intense distrust of Eastern “establishment,” monopolies, & special privilege. </li></ul><ul><li>His heart & soul was with the “plain folk.” </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that the common man was capable of uncommon achievements. </li></ul>
    21. 21. The Reign of “King Mob”
    22. 22. Andrew Jackson as President
    23. 23. The “Peggy Eaton Affair”
    24. 24. The Nullification Issue
    25. 25. The Webster-Hayne Debate Sen. Daniel Webster [MA] Sen. Robert Hayne [SC]
    26. 26. 1830 Webster : Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable. Jackson : Our Federal Union—it must be preserved. Calhoun : The Union, next to our liberty, most dear.
    27. 27. Jackson's Native-American Policy
    28. 28. Indian Removal <ul><li>Jackson’s Goal ? </li></ul><ul><li>1830  Indian Removal Act </li></ul><ul><li>Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831) * “domestic dependent nation” </li></ul><ul><li>Worcester v. GA (1832) </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson: John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it! </li></ul>
    29. 29. The Cherokee Nation After 1820
    30. 30. Indian Removal
    31. 31. Trail of Tears (1838-1839)
    32. 32. Jackson’s Professed “Love” for Native Americans
    33. 33. Renewing the Charter of the 1st National Bank
    34. 34. Jackson’s Use of Federal Power VETO 1830  Maysville Road project in KY [state of his political rival, Henry Clay]
    35. 35. The National Bank Debate Nicholas Biddle President Jackson
    36. 37. Opposition to the 2 nd B.U.S. “ Soft” (paper) $ “ Hard” (specie) $ <ul><li>state bankers felt it restrained their banks from issuing bank notes freely. </li></ul><ul><li>supported rapid economic growth & speculation. </li></ul><ul><li>felt that coin was the only safe currency. </li></ul><ul><li>didn’t like any bank that issued bank notes. </li></ul><ul><li>suspicious of expansion & speculation. </li></ul>
    37. 38. The “Monster” Is Destroyed! <ul><li>1832  Jackson vetoed the extension of the 2 nd National Bank of the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>“ pet banks” ? </li></ul><ul><li>1836  the charter expired. </li></ul><ul><li>1841  the bank went bankrupt! </li></ul>
    38. 39. The Downfall of “Mother Bank”
    39. 40. An 1832 Cartoon: “ King Andrew” ?
    40. 41. 1832 Election Results Main Issue ?
    41. 42. The Specie Circular (1836) <ul><li>“ wildcat banks.” </li></ul><ul><li>buy future federal land only with gold or silver. </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson’s goal ? </li></ul>
    42. 43. Results of the Specie Circular <ul><li>Banknotes lose their value. </li></ul><ul><li>Land sales plummeted. </li></ul><ul><li>Credit not available. </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses began to fail. </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment rose. </li></ul>The Panic of 1837!
    43. 44. The 1836 Election Results Martin Van Buren “ Old Kinderhook” [O. K.]
    44. 45. The Panic of 1837 Spreads Quickly!