The “Age of Limits” to the “Age of Reagan” Luis Reyes Brian Youn Cristian Sanchez A.P. U.S. History, p/3
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Ford Custodianship After Watergate-Gerald Ford-next president Ford later pardoned Nixon for the scandals, which led to his decliningpopularity. Ford unable to lesson or maintain inflation, and he face manyobstacles, such as recession in 1974 and 1975, as well as energy crisis. Henry Kissinger still the secretary of state and helped with thedevelopment of the treaty in the Middle East where Israel promised togive back sections of the Sinai to the Egyptians. 1974-Ford met with Leonid Brezhnev in Siberia for SALT II For the presidential election of 1976, Ford lost to Democratic candidateJimmy Carter.
Human Rights and National Interests Jimmy Carter put large importance in the defense of human rights in foreign countries. Due to his efforts, Panama was able to gain control over the Panama Canal. Egyptian president Anwar Sadat and Israeli prime minister Menachem Besin were invited to attend a conference at Camp David in September of 1978. Sadat and Begin went to the White House on March 26, 1979 to sign an Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty-the Camp David accords. Formal diplomatic relations between the U.S. and China resumed on December 15, 1978 due to the efforts of Carter and Deng Xiaoping. Carter later met with Brezhnev for SALT II, but this faced much opposition from American conservatives.
The Trials of Jimmy Carter During Carter administration-many economic and diplomatic difficulties. Congress rejected much of his legislative proposals, especially those of thetax and welfare systems. During this time, unemployment lessened, but inflation rapidly increased. G. William Miller and Paul Volcker-leaders of the Federal Reserve Board. 1979-substantial fuel shortage due to issues in the Middle East. Ten days after he went to Camp David, Carter gave a television speechknown as the “malaise” speech. Carter then fired multiple officials of his cabinet. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1IlRVy7oZ58
The Year of the Hostages Starting in the 1950s-U.S. gave much support to the Shah of Iran. Shah’s authoritarian style of rule led to much opposition fromIranians by 1979. This resulted in a revolution, and the Shah fled Iran in January of1979. By 1979-necessary for U.S. to end support to Iran. New leader of Iran: Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. November 4-mob terrorized the American embassy in Teheran andtook hostage the diplomats and military personnel that were in theembassy.
Continue These 53 American hostage would only be freed if the Shahreturned to Iran. These American were not freed until over a year had past. December 27, 1979-Invasion of Soviet Union inAfghanistan. As a result of this, Carter imposed laws that would be aneconomic disadvantage for the Soviets, as well as the boycottof the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. SALT II would also be removed from the futureconsideration of the Senate. This contributed to Carter’s declining popularity.
The Sunbelt “Sunbelt”-Kevin Philips (political analyst)-areas of theSoutheast and Southwest, especially California.1964-California-largest population in the nation. Sunbelt received much economic attention. Parts of the South and West-opposed to the expansion andregulations of the government. Sagebush Rebellion-opposition to environmental restrictionsand the amount of landownership by the government. The Suburbs appealed to many conservatives and to manypeople who were looking to live a sable life away from the cities.
Religious Politics During the 1960s-people believed that religious influence in Americawas dwindling. There was still a large religious revival that started in the 1970s. Church of Scientology and the Unification Church of the Reverend SunMyung Moon. Unlike before WWII, Christian evangelicals were highly connected tovarious forms of mass media and culture. Many evangelicals advocated for traditional values and were opposedto modern movements, such as feminism. Jerry Falwell-Moral Majority Pat Robertson-Christian Coalition-1990s. Controversial issues such as Roe v. Wade united many different faiths inopposition.
New Right The New Right was a diverse and powerful movement that occurred inthe 1970’s and 1980’s, which came after the defeat of Republicancandidate Barry Goldwater in the election of 1964; therefore a changewas brought up by conservative communications and fund-raisingorganization, which made conservatives much more organized. Citizens tax revolt, lead by Howard Jarvis, a conservative activist, lead to the development of Proposition 13. Reagan became leader of an affluent group of conservatives. + President of the Screen Actors Guild. + Spokesman for General Motors. Through the help of a group of wealthy conservatives, Reagan became Governor of California. There were many opposing President Carter due to the energy crisis and the year of the hostages. Conservative Republicans were winning greater incentive over liberal Republicans + President Ford decision managed to salvage his position for the Republican Primaries, by dropping his Vice- President Nelson Rockefeller.
The Presidency of Ronald Reagan Reagan success came from: A coalition of neo-conservatives, who pushed for maintenance of westerndemocracy, and a corporate conservatives, who wanted to maintain capitalism,remained united throughout Reagan’s presidency, which helped Reagan maintain unityand strengthen the New Right. He was a great public image on the television, and he retained a positive andenergetic nature, which made him admired among fellow Americans. The “Reaganomics” was an economic system created by the Reagan Administration: + It succeeded in getting congressional approval for a $40 Billion budget reduction in the federal government’s spending. + Led to the deregulation of many federal groups and programs including the: - Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - The Civil Rights Division of the Justice Department - The Department of Transportation + The economy grew substantially. + Unemployment fell 8.2% by 1983 + Inflation fell by 5% + The gross national product grew 3.6% in a year
The Fiscal Crisis Reagan presided over record budget deficit, where the administrationaccumulated the largest amount of debt in the history of the United States. The tax cuts in 1981 were the largest in American history, which increasedthe national deficit. Military spending increased the federal budget than its cuts in domesticspending. To answer to the fiscal crisis, there were cuts in the Food Stamp Program,Medicare, and Medicaid; there was also a reduction in educational programs. Though the deficits continued to increase, the administration’s answer tothe fiscal crisis was further cuts in “discretionary” domestic spending, whichincluded many programs aimed at the poorest Americans.
Reagan and the World Reagan began to oppose Communism, by assisting different nationswith internal affairs. Examples: Honduras, El Salvador, Grenada, and etc. Reagan developed the Strategic Defense Initiative, which were lasersand satellite that provide an effective against possible missile threatsfrom any nations (“Star Wars”). The Cold War grew in intensity, which called for an end to nuclearweapons buildup, which resulted in an agreement between the twosuperpowers to their expansion on atomic arsenal. Crisis in Lebanon increased, and Reagan send American Marines,where there was a bomb in the barracks in Beirut that killed 241 troopsdead, then troops were withdrawn.
A m e r ic a n a nd theW a n in g o f t h e C o ld Wa r
The Fall of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev strived to drastically change Soviet politics byimplementing two initiatives. -The first was called glasnost(openness): which worked to remove therepressive function of Soviet life that had existed for more then half a century. -The second was called perestroika(reform): this worked to rebuild theunstable Soviet economy by implementing capitalism, private ownership, andprofit motive. Gorbachev decided to reduce Soviet influence around the world (mostly inEurope), as it was unable to maintain it because of its unstable economy and in1989 many communist states in Europe overthrew the communist governmentsor forced it to reform. - Not all challenges to overthrow communism succeeded as in Chinamany demonstrators were massacre in Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The Soviet Union already deteriorating received the final blow when a coupdétat occurred but failed because of public opposition, and confusion within themilitary. - Many sections of the Soviet Union declared independence, andGorbachev resigned so the Soviet Union cease to exist with no power.
Reagan and Gorbachev Reagan was dubious of Gorbachev at first but as he ascertainedthat his genuine intention was to strive for reform within the SovietUnion. Gorbachev and Reagan met in Reykjavik, Iceland, in 1986discussed on reducing nuclear arsenals on both sides but, wereunable to reach an agreement because of the SDI program. After both Reagan and Gorbachev visited each others capitalsthey came to an agreement on eliminating the intermediate-rangenuclear forces (INF) from Europe by signing a treaty. - This was the most significant arms control agreement ofthe nuclear age.
The Fading of the Reagan Revolution There were many rumors of illegalities, corruption, and ethical lapses in theEnvironmental Protection, the CIA, the Department of Defense, theDepartment of Labor, the Department of Justice, and the Department ofHousing and Urban Development. On November 1986 the Reagan Administration took a fatal blow when theWhite House admitted that it had sold weapons to the revolutionarygovernment of Iran in exchange for American POW(prisoners of war) Another scandal that followed was that the money gained from theweapons sold was used to fund contras in Nicaragua. The scandals continued for months and the aggressive reports andpublications further exposed the illegal covert activities of the government,the series of scandals became known as the Iran-contra scandal, and thispolitically damaged Reagan for good.
The Bush PresidencyBush like Reagan worked together with Gorbachev cautiously to help reform the SovietUnion, and came to many agreements.Three years after the INF demolishment treaty both sides once again reduced their arms.The Bush administration had a difficult time as they received a debt and a federal deficit. Bush during his campaign promised that he would not make new taxes and that he wouldalso reduce the deficit, these conflicted with each other as he could not reduce the deficitwithout taxes. Bush fell under heavy pressure from Congress and the White House and eventually brokehis pledge of “no new taxes” as he significantly increased taxes as a multiyear “budgetpackage” designed to reduce the deficit. The greatest domestic problem facing the Bush administration was a recession caused bythe grandiose amount of debt left by companies and individuals causing them to go bankrupt.The recession also reached the middle class and put them in constant fear and frustrationbecause of the many problems like rising cost of health care.
The First Gulf WarThrough the events that occurred during 1989-1991 the United States was inthe position of being the only true superpower as the Soviet Union and itsmalignant influence dissipated along with it.The Bush administration choose two initiatives as the superpower, one wasto reduce military strength and in focus on domestic affairs and the other wasto use force to defend its regional and economic interests. The Bush administration took action in 1989 when it attacked Panama(Operation Just Cause), and overthrew the current leader Manuel Noriega.On August 2, 1990 following order from Saddam Hussein, Iraqi forces attackedand annexed Kuwait (oil-rich neighbor), and occupied it for seven months. The Bush administration accepted the responsibilities of leading thecampaign to force Iraq out, and Bush managed to persuade most of the majornations (Soviet Union, most Arab and Islamic States) to help his cause.
Continue… On November 29 the United Nations along with its allies formed 690,000 troops ready to invade Kuwait if Iraq had not left the country by January 15 1991; they didn’t and got bombarded for 6 straight weeks. Iraq suffering more than 100,000 casualties surrendered and accepted the Allies terms causing the Gulf War to end; America suffered 141 fatalities.