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vfi. -~. _ ~~ - -, v . ~e. : ! —

_. ‘_ _, ._A. ...
- Native Americans taught English settlers to
farm land effectively
° Planted corn,  beans,  squash and pumpkins
° Most se...
Food in the forest
was plentiful
° deer

~ - turkey

-hogs
° maple syrup from
maple tree sap
The Ocean also provided

«A sources of food
~* fish (cod,  halibut, 

  swordfish,  flounder)

 2 to whales provided lamp
...
Wood in the forests of New England prompted a huge shipbuilding
industry
° trees were cut down,  sent to saw mills
° Engli...
New England towns were close knit

* meeting houses generally served
as the town

church as well

* wooden Picture Not Ava...
I -.2) / '‘/ <§3'’ “ Jigtl:  lIAAJ‘v' 5 : -.= '

-

Sunday was a clay of rest an d nneclitai-ion

"taken very seriously (n...
4* Puritans sat on hard benches

* In 1600’s,  men on one side women on the other
* The wealthy had assigned,  premium pew...
Town meetings were very loud events

° New Englandlers could speak their minds

° Discussion about roads and fence repair,...
Dealing with the cold was a constant task for settlers in New
England
* built large fires in fireplace (also used for cook...
° used warming pans to warm
bed sheets

- placed heavy drapes around
beds

$aI'n‘in9 

 ~. _
0
Dinner was an
adult event. 
Children would
wait silently

__  around the

table until they
were offered
food.
Puritan families were large,  often 7-8

children

Life expectancy was longer than most in
New England
Men-

- Hunted
- Harvested
° Planted

     

Women
- Prepared food
° Skinned/ cleaned animals
- Made necessities

- Made c...
Laws were harsh in New England

About 15 crimes carried the death penalty,  including
witchcraft

The Salem Witch Trials a...
AVElir. *.(JN’l

new  5: _
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Samuel Parris.  1653- , 
purila ‘nlstei Sa ‘E

   

 w Reverend Samuel
 ”  Parris served as
the pastor in
Salem. 

While d...
° Tituba was

put in charge

of caring for

Parris’ 9 year

old daughter

Elizabeth

(Betty) and

11 year old Picture Not ...
Picture Not Available
Copyright Protected

Betty and Abigail
began playing
voodoo the way
Tituba described. 

In the early...
Shortly thereafter,  other girls in Salem began to
demonstrate similar behaviors.  The town doctor
unable to explain the s...
Fears of Satanic
possession and
witchcraft during the
time period were
intensified when Cotton
Mather,  the well
respected...
- L",  .
“ f, ’ I:  V .  -
9 1 iv ? 
‘ (_ L ' 4 _
 ‘ ‘ ’ ", ;  .  ) |    __ . 
q I -.1‘  V - ( ‘ ‘W ’ r‘, 
|‘ ‘ 1' .  V v‘...
One Salem woman sought

to reverse the “spells” cast
upon the girls and told
Tituba to bake a “witch

cake” containing the...
The congregation
pleaded with the girls
to tell them who was
behind their torment

The girls told them 3
names

- Tituba

...
Tituba,  in order to avoid
becoming a scapegoat claimed
that she had met a tall man
from Boston (presumed to be
the Devil)...
Rebecca Nurse was the next to be accused
and examined for signs of witchcraft at the
“Witch House” of John Corwin,  a loca...
Before the trials of the Salem witches began the judges took the advice of
Cotton Mather to allow “spectral evidence”

Spe...
The first person
accused of witchcraft
who was actually
brought to trial was
Bridget Bishop,  about
age 60.

Bishop was fl...
Despite her
consistent
denials,  she was
found guilty and 

hanged.  ii

 
  

 ul " '

E " rd‘ L51

I.  _ ‘ '  “. 
n he  ...
Rebecca Nurse was , 
the next to be tried.  E

The most 
devastating if‘ A
evidence against t»
her was an incident 3",  ,
...
| A _, 
.- ’ — -

. - * . 
1

I*; .‘i1 "‘*? ¥"f*. i!i: t~? '   ‘ — '  ". ?:r; =;: :‘= :i. 
Nurse was originally found “not...
Anyone who spoke out against the witch trials was also a candidate for
persecution. 

John Proctor,  an outspoken tavern o...
Proctor was
hanged after
pleading with his
accusers to give
him time to make
peace with God, 
but his wife who
was also ac...
Picture Not Available
Copyright Protected

One execution truly began
to tum people around. 

George Burroughs,  the
former...
Many others were convicted and sentenced to death. 

Altogether,  19 people were hanged and Giles Corey
(age 80+),  who re...
fight- C1,‘:  Is.  r-lvdub Cqfilu

__‘_. ..—1:—

         
       

-—¢a. rrs of‘ '¢: :ml'crm‘rc
Concerning evil

SPIRITS

W...
In 1703, the colonial assembly of
Massachusetts in a symbolic act,  gave
amnesty to all those convicted of witchcraft, 
li...
IheAs: §u§§g
Sarah Cloyse

Abigail Hobbs
Deliverance Hobbs
William Hobbs
Thuba

Elizabeth Procter
Bridget Bishop
George Bu...
The Accusers

Elizabeth Booth

Sarah Churchill

Elizabeth Hubbard
Ann Putman
Susanna Sheldon

Mary Walcott
Mary Warren

Ab...
V ‘*5 . : ‘I-'  J/1 in-. ‘. -

In the New England Colonies,  one could be
punished by being placed in for offences
like sw...
Review 4-1_ _
1. What is subsistence farming? 

2. What two activities took place in the meeting house? 
3. What were the ...
Unlike the New    7.
England  7  V 1 
Colonies,  the
Middle Colonies
had very fertile
and rich soil 11

_, A.'z

Becauseth...
The farmers of the
Middle Colonies
had surpluses of
food like wheat, 

barley,  and rye

These crops were
called “cash
cro...
Because so
much grain and
wheat was
exported from
the ivlici clle
C; »oiloriie. s, they
became known
as the
“ Br» ea= cJl....
- 

‘ti. 

.  _1't
_. ..
l
. 

9, Farmers
 "X exported dairy
' products, 
such as butter, 
beef and pork

Goods were
 ship...
Middle colonists
lived very plentiful
lives

Visitors were often
awed by the
comfortable living, 
particularly the
amount ...
Delaiwzire river

Locks

Slilllecl Germziris
mic serilil: -gel in PA. 
iielps-cl tile liliclclle
Colonies Ioecoiiie

El cs...
Tenant farmers in New York

  
 
  

° worked the land and paid
rent

° Patroon system still
remained in NY after British
...
New Englanders who had moved into New York
rallied the Dutch and Germans to stop paying rent

Together they rioted and att...
Homes in the Middle Colonies
were usually bigger than in New
England

Homes were often spread apart
and made in differing ...
_ . l ettlers
 eading

“i I  into the
1‘ back-
country
took what
was known
as the
Great
Wagon

. ',_. :4 "_. 

     

X , ...
'_JnI|   _   '_‘. “i_“‘4r -,  -7 AA- , . i ‘K?  V‘
 ‘:3 R ,   35091-I V. /i=1.CJi0i‘.  we rvecl as an ieii‘iP3‘C"[ij]-3 wg...
Many Scotch-Irish and German
settlers ventured into the
backcountry to settle. 

The back-

country was
the area of Pictur...
Native Americans taught
the settlers a lot about how
to live off the land

how to clear away needed
land for farming

how ...
I
4". »

German
gunsmiths
invented the
famous
lightweight and
accurate weapon, 
the 73:-: rms, IlIai1ia
: T:. i'fle
Many feared
that the
intrusion of
whites onto
Indian land
would inevitably
lead to
fighflng”. 

They were right!
Review 4-2

1. Because the Middle Colonies exported so much grain,  they were
given what nickname? 

2. Compared to New En...
OH Natr'ona! AtIasofthoUniredS! ams     

     

arms of either of the colony's
,  _ .  y_ L,  T founding,  Cecil Ca| vert...
The Climate in the South was warmer and growing seasons
were longer

Virginia farmers began growing tobacco on large plant...
Rice and Indigo
(used as a blue
dye) thrived in
South Carolina
and Georgia

41;
Two types of land existed in the South
* Tidewater Plantations
t Southern Backcountry V

, , , -’

Er- . --

I: -ll—ll: l:...
The Tidewater Plantation

The Tide-
water Plantation
' area of
lowland that
stretched across
coastal plain
° soil was rich...
At harvest time, 
goods were brought
to river bank

Ships were sent to
Europe and West
Indies and returned
with goods from...
° West of the Tidewater was the southem backcountry at the
base of the Appalachian Mountains
° Land was hilly with lots of...
A cotton ptantatnon on lhe '4ISSl. ‘SlpDl Lithograph by Curner 8. Ives
1884, afterw A Walker L»ura'y of Congress

Slavery ...
Slaves did all of the majorjobs on a plantation and showed
white colonists how to grow rice

Slavery made the South prospe...
Slave:  "God bless
you,  massal You

feed and clothe us.  ,

When we are sick
you nurse us,  and
when too old to
work,  yo...
In 1688, the Quakers were the first group to recognize the
immorality of slavery and call for its abolition (end)

They we...
National Archives of the UK
° White slave traders from several different European nations

set up trading posts along the ...
"Afm: nns in 8'' rd ll‘. <.- Slaw:  8-3'l< Wllr1‘"I2 Ap-'ll 30, i? »tS§). " g V

The trip to the Americas.    
known as th...
Most Southemers did not own plantations,  but those who did
created self sufficient homesteads

Slaves,  usually between 2...
- n: .[. o

The reat l; lose was where the p| anter’s family
lived.  It was equipped with a huge dining room, 
parlors,  g...
Plantation owners had
several important duties

* Decided which fields
to plow

* What crops to plant

* When to harvest

...
The wives of plantation owners had several

duties.  They ensured that house slaves kept

up with their work (gardening,  ...
Clfie Soutftenrflacficowmywas

more cémocmtic cmcfye oyé
neatecfeacli otfieras equafi

‘M212 was Ettfifiamiafity
‘Ifieyeojalé cli...
Rewfew 4-3 _ _
1. What IS the Mason-Dixon Line? 
2.

Describe the Tidewater region? 

3. How would planters get their good...
Education was a
crucial part of life in
New England

Puritans in
Massachusetts
wanted to ensure that
their children could
...
In Massachusetts,  all
towns with 50 families
had to hire a

schoolteacher. 

Towns with 100 or
more families had to
set u...
Most school
houses only
had one
room and
teachers
were often
paid with
crops
grown by
parents

School
suppfies
included
fir...
Most schools did not
have books,  so

‘'i ii” :  335::  were used
instead

 
  
   

    
 

.  cg:  _; - . ' M1. ", ;.jf....
In the Middle
Colonies, 
students whose
parents could
afford private
school tuition
could get an
educafion

Most private
sc...
‘in Southern Colonies ,  planters paid for
private tutors or sent their children to
boarding schools in England. 

Sometim...
1636 Harvard College
established originally to train
Puritan ministers in
Massachusetts

1693 The College of William
and M...
--5

H’

II _‘ ""
IL. 

° Many children did not receive
a formal education and learned
crafts as apprentices
° Apprentices...
Girls rarely attended school and were often taught
homemaking skills such as wool spinning, 
embroidery,  sewing,  and kni...
.*"'_. ~,‘ 3 Social Classes of the English Colonies

  Included wealthy planters, 

 ’ Gentry merchants,  ministers, 
 suc...
People also
dressed
according to
their social class

Gentry’s often
wore wigs to
demonstrate

their social
status
y The Enlightenment was a movement that
V I began in the 1700’s in which people tried
’ tO. _LlS§ logic and reason to solv...
Benjamin Franklin
also contributed to the

Enlihtenment

- Born in Boston,  MA
One of 17 children
Left school at age

10

...
At age 17, Franklin ran away to
Philadelphia,  PA

Built a printing business
* printed pamphlets, 
newspapers and almanacs...
In 1740, Franklin
invented the “
” which was more
efficient than all other
stoves

   
 

National Park Service

In 1784, ...
In 1752, Franklin
conducted his most
famous experiment. 
Using a kite,  he
demonstrated that
lightning was a form
of elect...
i-  . . -f i
‘c_' 1 .  ’ '1 . _‘; ’

 :  ~.  -sE1.. .I. . . 
' w 5 *7 V“:  .‘. ‘. A '
l'k' ’ i‘'. ‘''. ' ‘V L‘

l J 3 ‘

T...
In the 1730’s and 40’s
a religious movement
known as the Great
. '-‘. --Iaiieiiiiig began

It affected people from 
all wa...
Jonathan Edwards

Jonathan
Edwards
introduced the
Great Awakening
to the colonies
and preached
throughout New
England

His...
L'i‘. i.Fii". ”ii. ;e. '?é’i“$13.37?3%eJ3‘$§5§l1{7m§§fSZ'E. §i3.‘2'I.2§3,. 'Z‘? .T§§1‘2‘Z. ‘?; ...  George Whitefield was
...
Few decent roads existed in the colonies during
the 1600 and 1700’s. 

It was
muddy in
winter, 
dusty in
summer

Picture N...
Benjamin Franklin was
appointed as Deputy
Postmaster (later as
Postmaster General) and   
sought to improve the mail  V
sy...
Franklin used an odometer to measure postal routes. 

Benjamin Franklin also 

invented an odometer to  ’_ , -., __.   fr,...
As roads improved,  so
did communication

 
 
   
 

Along roads, 
businesses such as
taverns and hotels
sprung up. 

They...
Newspapers were
printed in all but 2
colonies (NJ and DE)

by the mid-1700’s. 

Harvard College had
the first printing
pre...
Trade became an important
part of life in the colonies

Each colony traded with
other colonies for items
they needed or wa...
Picture Not Available
Copyright Protected

Merchants from New
England dominated
trade

They were
nicknamed
“Yankees” meani...
Mérchants°develo|5°ed |1_w'-":9 :52? °
Ives oc ,  our, 

selverel trade roetes and lumber to ‘xfljxvli

In ; |ud| ng the fr...
Culture becomes a major part
of life in cities

° Colonists enjoyed theaters

° singing societies

* Traveling circuses

-...
Most
major
cities
were
seaports

As trade
grew,  so
did cities

Boston
was the
largest
seaport

E
R _
- L. 
J u-I‘
II, 
-_...
Philadelphia was the
largest of all of the colonial
cities
- Philadelphia had
the ONLY hospital in
the colonies, 
* 3,‘lib...
Review 4-4

1. Which colony was first to set up public schools? 
2. How were children in the Middle Colonies educated? 
3. ...
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  1. 1. M pi 3.1’ _= .-‘um’ _£—MJJBl’]1iiJJJJ'J]3IDJ’Y J§UJUJl11lJLJJL3 f
  2. 2. New En land " ‘ ' ’. -‘}_-_A{“3:, ’.' J}: j, .L: .. f‘ ‘. -'. ._. ‘.fi_“ vfi. -~. _ ~~ - -, v . ~e. : ! — _. ‘_ _, ._A. ] (L, _ . .4‘; . -av » -» L ‘ fa _ . 4._ J‘ , ., . V. ‘E, ;. -r. --* su-5,, -3, 2 , v,:5~. '," in § . V . * Y ' ' w 1- U, K T ‘V n‘ T‘. (V ' ‘I. A .5 , ‘ V‘ pf" '- . _ he “-2 I . , ‘:3--; .“. ’:Q; . ‘*2 ~: .J. " 3', 1 -5, « M: 2 - I " . I‘ * Lots of trees E; " and rocks in soil * Not easy to a j; farm Rx * Settlers spent e. t g , lots of time clear V‘ ‘ cutting and *3 moving rocks J «
  3. 3. - Native Americans taught English settlers to farm land effectively ° Planted corn, beans, squash and pumpkins ° Most settlers were subsistence farmers ° Grew enough food to feed family - When they had a §m; p_| _u§, they would ' trade for -2 necessities
  4. 4. Food in the forest was plentiful ° deer ~ - turkey -hogs ° maple syrup from maple tree sap
  5. 5. The Ocean also provided «A sources of food ~* fish (cod, halibut, swordfish, flounder) 2 to whales provided lamp oil and ivory * lobsters and oysters enormous in size compared to today
  6. 6. Wood in the forests of New England prompted a huge shipbuilding industry ° trees were cut down, sent to saw mills ° English official would mark best trees for harvesting, ° tar, pitch, and turpentine could also i be found in forests
  7. 7. New England towns were close knit * meeting houses generally served as the town church as well * wooden Picture Not Available homes Copyright Protected Hnedthe streets, usually 2 stories
  8. 8. I -.2) / '‘/ <§3'’ “ Jigtl: lIAAJ‘v' 5 : -.= ' - Sunday was a clay of rest an d nneclitai-ion "taken very seriously (no games, alcohol, joking, talking) in the morning, the rneeting house he-ll would ring One session was held in the mornint; aficer an hour lunch, the afternoon session was held m _-
  9. 9. 4* Puritans sat on hard benches * In 1600’s, men on one side women on the other * The wealthy had assigned, premium pews * Indians and blacks had to stand in the balcony * Children had a section of their own and were forced to Sit Picture Not Available through the long Copyright Protected services *They were pun- ished severely for making noise
  10. 10. Town meetings were very loud events ° New Englandlers could speak their minds ° Discussion about roads and fence repair, salary of teachers ° This prompted ideas about democracy Picture Not Available Copyright Protected
  11. 11. Dealing with the cold was a constant task for settlers in New England * built large fires in fireplace (also used for cooking) u_ _: r ' “n. A L - T: < — _, ‘jg-”j’* ' '14- : CC I I ‘II I ‘ Z _ . ' I " — o E If :
  12. 12. ° used warming pans to warm bed sheets - placed heavy drapes around beds $aI'n‘in9 ~. _ 0
  13. 13. Dinner was an adult event. Children would wait silently __ around the table until they were offered food.
  14. 14. Puritan families were large, often 7-8 children Life expectancy was longer than most in New England
  15. 15. Men- - Hunted - Harvested ° Planted Women - Prepared food ° Skinned/ cleaned animals - Made necessities - Made candles ° Clothing from wool
  16. 16. Laws were harsh in New England About 15 crimes carried the death penalty, including witchcraft The Salem Witch Trials are an example of the cruel and unjust punishments of New England
  17. 17. AVElir. *.(JN’l new 5: _ ‘-smtr: i. _ I _ - f _, , . ; +'«F'F'+A”L +Jl_| ,‘Hl+«l‘l . _ . ." HT” - , Fitchburg L°w_°" . loucester , A g ' _‘ ’ " it _. ‘. Leom1nste , - ,1 Pittsfield V x‘ ; ”. ‘I , 5-; ./ _ . . " r—V» Northampton‘? A . M3"lb°'”°l-'9“. BQSTO , _-". kiEIEF: l=: j'E: Hll3.fE V, ,¥H°1‘-‘. °k°. .""°'°‘-’5"°', *,‘xic’“'. ‘i“°‘J S. ‘Sawt- ‘ 4 -— ; §pnngfies_11d' Brockton. Attleboro. (CI! -lltECTl(| _|F “HDDE Nantu-: l<et l
  18. 18. Samuel Parris. 1653- , purila ‘nlstei Sa ‘E w Reverend Samuel ” Parris served as the pastor in Salem. While doing business in Barbados, he A & purchased 2 ” "' slaves including ’ "‘ one named Tituba
  19. 19. ° Tituba was put in charge of caring for Parris’ 9 year old daughter Elizabeth (Betty) and 11 year old Picture Not Available niece, Abigail Copyright Protected Williams. ° Tituba told them stories ofvoodoo practices in her native village.
  20. 20. Picture Not Available Copyright Protected Betty and Abigail began playing voodoo the way Tituba described. In the early months of 1692, Betty began demonstrating strange behavior including contortions of pain, hiding under furniture, and fever.
  21. 21. Shortly thereafter, other girls in Salem began to demonstrate similar behaviors. The town doctor unable to explain the symptoms suggested the condition was supernatural in origin.
  22. 22. Fears of Satanic possession and witchcraft during the time period were intensified when Cotton Mather, the well respected pastor of the 2"“ Church of Boston, wrote a book called Memorable Provinces. The book described witchcraft in Boston and was discussed widely throughout the colony of Massachusetts.
  23. 23. - L", . “ f, ’ I: V . - 9 1 iv ? ‘ (_ L ' 4 _ ‘ ‘ ’ ", ; . ) | __ . q I -.1‘ V - ( ‘ ‘W ’ r‘, |‘ ‘ 1' . V v‘ ‘. ' , W" * i . "," “ u J 3-’ .9 “‘ . _’, g _, ‘_ /1 ‘ ' _. A , ',‘-V’. ‘-’ r fr? .4, I , '2’ K. , “ " , l “ "v ' _ l . _‘ " ‘ ‘ ‘Z ‘ “ll . « l I 4‘ is ‘i G‘ . { '! b i’. 1) ‘V , , K / ' ‘ r ~’ ' I / _ I fl‘, ‘K1. / ’ ‘ . ‘ h l / I I (‘Q2 7 ‘ ‘ ‘, , - ~ . »/ ". ~”x_'-' w I’ I 1 " ( ’— ’ O‘? - , _. / I l _. , J 1 -’{/ 4, ‘ “' 5.. :: ‘*'; l’ I‘. ‘l is I (’«‘(‘, /‘I ‘ 2” 1 ‘, _ if »‘-9’; {,. i_, / . ‘§“}, ’./269.; W’ 1.35.‘ : J)i‘, '.7—. i.ll. "r A. 19:. .. . The girls attended a church service where they began screaming and writhing on the floor Other girls in the congregation did the same, horrifying the "if; members
  24. 24. One Salem woman sought to reverse the “spells” cast upon the girls and told Tituba to bake a “witch cake” containing the urine l of Betty Parris and then 1' feed it to a dog. This made Tituba an '- obvious candidate for prosecution as a witch. ' I S" . ._x, _.— _, .~. .= . l . . . ll’ ’ _ __i'. V , , . ‘ l l ‘ ‘ I, l J04
  25. 25. The congregation pleaded with the girls to tell them who was behind their torment The girls told them 3 names - Tituba - Sarah Good ° Sarah Osborne They were all moved to a prison in Boston where Sarah Osborne Thu 'NIlCl| NU A died in chains -’3«357v‘5l<‘? «5°«%%33'F‘n¥t= -«" A P7l0109fBpl'lSrI)Vl5l_Dl'l
  26. 26. Tituba, in order to avoid becoming a scapegoat claimed that she had met a tall man from Boston (presumed to be the Devil) who asked her to “sign his book”. ' She also implicated Osborne and Good claiming that they had practiced witchcraft together including flying through the air on poles. Her confession kept skeptics quiet and led to more intense persecution
  27. 27. Rebecca Nurse was the next to be accused and examined for signs of witchcraft at the “Witch House” of John Corwin, a local magistrate it " J ‘ / ' v~‘. » ‘ ~. : " ‘. “‘t"' l 1' g‘ 1”. » V ‘ {'2 > f . I ‘,1 V ' W_%l"' I ‘ fl, ‘ r. g . .k« .2; -21
  28. 28. Before the trials of the Salem witches began the judges took the advice of Cotton Mather to allow “spectral evidence” Spectral evidence is testimony given that an accused person's spirit or spectral shape appeared to the witness in a dream at the time the accused person's physical body was at another location. _, / The wtch No 3. Lithograph by Geo. H. Walk: -' 8- C0,. 1892 L orzw ol Congess Pn'1lS and Pliotograplxs Division . l‘ '3 ‘r - -‘ “ ‘$1; , — 1; ; .u_ . : ‘ ‘ ‘__ ' h‘ V 9 __ " -. ‘-~. * l ‘ . _/ L» 5 ~ ‘ T l ' "I/ ' K _ __ _, _ ‘[1 __ __—-, ..'~ / , a b_. rt: , 5: l u r ~. _ : ‘ ‘ __ . "A " l :1 ' ~ . ~ r I 5 . / A 1 ‘ 1 4 l ‘ : 1 ,3 _H_ I, V’ V . /
  29. 29. The first person accused of witchcraft who was actually brought to trial was Bridget Bishop, about age 60. Bishop was flamboyant and disliked by many. She had many accusers who suggested that she had done everything from turn into a cat to sleep with the Devil. Picture Not Available Copyright Protected
  30. 30. Despite her consistent denials, she was found guilty and hanged. ii ul " ' E " rd‘ L51 I. _ ‘ ' “. n he 1. . . . III ~ll' . ~._ L’ ‘ , ‘ . . ' M‘. 1’ carnage , . V ‘ _ t I -§, ‘ j , - ‘ I f: ‘ _' ‘1 CO" InUe so “ ' ' ‘ "-‘ “ Al i’! ,6 r A’: ‘I ‘x / /J‘ I
  31. 31. Rebecca Nurse was , the next to be tried. E The most devastating if‘ A evidence against t» her was an incident 3", , in which she . lectured a neighbor j. A whose pig had ' found his way into her garden. The man died a short time after the incident. . f‘ * ‘; ‘ . u
  32. 32. | A _, .- ’ — - . - * . 1 I*; .‘i1 "‘*? ¥"f*. i!i: t~? ' ‘ — ' ". ?:r; =;: :‘= :i. Nurse was originally found “not guilty”, but Chief Justice William Stoughton insisted that the jury reconsider their decision. After a short time, they came back with a verdict of “guiItv” and Nurse was hanged. '= l 9 §'_ . ‘.‘ 4!
  33. 33. Anyone who spoke out against the witch trials was also a candidate for persecution. John Proctor, an outspoken tavern owner who complained about the trials was one such person. He was accused of witchcraft, and one accuser suggested a ghost had told her that Proctor was a serial murderer. Proctor bravely retorted that his accusers were lying and demanded his trial he moved to Boston. .. The witch No 2 Lithograph by Geo. H Walker 8. Co, ‘ 1892 Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Di-. ~islon
  34. 34. Proctor was hanged after pleading with his accusers to give him time to make peace with God, but his wife who was also accused of witchcraft was spared because she was pregnant. Picture Not Available Copyright Protected
  35. 35. Picture Not Available Copyright Protected One execution truly began to tum people around. George Burroughs, the former minister of Salem, was found guilty of witchcraft and sentenced to hang. Moments before his execution, he recited the Lord’s Prayer, which was an impossible task for a witch! The crowd was moved by the act, but Cotton Mather insisted that he had had his day in court and needed to hang.
  36. 36. Many others were convicted and sentenced to death. Altogether, 19 people were hanged and Giles Corey (age 80+), who refused to stand trial, was pressed to death ude a of rocks ‘ W -»}_a_. ,"’%: A p‘. . :5; ~ ' . , F . . 3 $1 Gil_. e's Corey E H, ;. .. »: :-' gg , » . . -. -:5.-. . .934: t. -3:32‘-. *:
  37. 37. fight- C1,‘: Is. r-lvdub Cqfilu __‘_. ..—1:— -—¢a. rrs of‘ '¢: :ml'crm‘rc Concerning evil SPIRITS Wittfrnflt. lsrfallib-3: I-‘E005 of Guilt in lint! ) as am with tlut Crime. ' Cnvxhlcrod uwrdbg inch»: 54: Niflriy, lZI; pczH: h.'*. ', cal the of puny lmmal mm. 5 ~4- ll 1 an nu-I-. .r. amear ‘ ’ca"‘n'. {. nwgtntntgt ml ‘rank nu-as uaor. mm. * n'. 'n~£-. t.. L- . .': :.'‘. r. ; '.s*; ’.; 53:" 15*‘! !! D4 . U f" 5 . ' . rIg)~'naa~l: o'clbu 99¢»: -nr-‘_ f. .'l'-:1.. . IUIC1_hJC‘I§. -difafi I or-'d. '.fi. . . ' . _ "In -4 Increase Mather, father of Cotton mather, wrote a tract called “Cases of Conscience” in which he agued that it would be “better if 10 suspected witches should escape than one innocent person be condemned. ” After reading criticisms of the witch trials, Governor of Massachusetts, William Phips, decided to order that spectral evidence be disallowed. With that, 28 of the last 33 _ accused witches were acquitted. In 1693, Governor Phips released all remaining accused witches from prison.
  38. 38. In 1703, the colonial assembly of Massachusetts in a symbolic act, gave amnesty to all those convicted of witchcraft, living or dead Many of those accused lost Picture Not Available everything, but Copyright Protected some went on to live normal lives after leaving Salem
  39. 39. IheAs: §u§§g Sarah Cloyse Abigail Hobbs Deliverance Hobbs William Hobbs Thuba Elizabeth Procter Bridget Bishop George Burroughs Manhacanwr Martha Corey Mary Esty Sarah Good Elizabeth How George Jacobs Sr. Susanna Martin Rebecca Nurse Alice Parker Ann Pudeator Wilmot Reed Samuel Wardwell Sarah Wilds John Willard Giles Corey 0'1 jailed for witchcraft but not tried a confessed witch a confessed witch jailed for witchcraft but died before trial a confessed witch convicted but saved by her pregnancy hanged hanged hanged hanged hanged hanged hanged hanged hanged H i(A§i''. ll‘) 33 ll TM. ” l L‘), ll»L’)_j hanged hanged hanged v hanged hanged hanged hanged pressed to death 4 (Ti ( )1 D
  40. 40. The Accusers Elizabeth Booth Sarah Churchill Elizabeth Hubbard Ann Putman Susanna Sheldon Mary Walcott Mary Warren Abigail Williams Age 1 8 20 17 12 18 17 20 11
  41. 41. V ‘*5 . : ‘I-' J/1 in-. ‘. - In the New England Colonies, one could be punished by being placed in for offences like swearing or public drunkenness Passersby would often laugh, throw insults, stones, and rotten eggs. One could be placed in. stocks for hours to days if . =—
  42. 42. Review 4-1_ _ 1. What is subsistence farming? 2. What two activities took place in the meeting house? 3. What were the jobs of New England (a) men and (b) women? 4. Explain ways in which New England settlers competed with the cold? 5. What was the name of the slave who taught Reverend Parris daughter and niece about voodoo? 6. In what colony did the Salem Witch Trials take place? 7. What happened to Elizabeth Parris and AbigailWilliams during Sunday church services shortly after being diagnosed with a “witchcraft” related illnesses? 8. How many people were executed during the Salem Witch Trials and by what means? 9. What did the Massachusetts ColonialAssembly do in 1703 relating to the Salem Witch Trials? 10. What form of punishment was used as a means of public humiliation bv New England colonial leaders.
  43. 43. Unlike the New 7. England 7 V 1 Colonies, the Middle Colonies had very fertile and rich soil 11 _, A.'z Becausethe summers were longer, so were the growing seasons 1 W‘ O 50 100 miles E‘ -’ eA'sT JERSEY WE$Tr, riTLAN. Tic ‘.553/§-'7 OCF-‘A N
  44. 44. The farmers of the Middle Colonies had surpluses of food like wheat, barley, and rye These crops were called “cash crops” because they were sold for money around the world
  45. 45. Because so much grain and wheat was exported from the ivlici clle C; »oiloriie. s, they became known as the “ Br» ea= cJl. béi: ; is Coll oil] 93*”
  46. 46. - ‘ti. . _1't _. .. l . 9, Farmers "X exported dairy ' products, such as butter, beef and pork Goods were shipped "Q fithroughout the " ““” colonies as well as Europe rt _ «+—: :J- — " . . 1’ l I [. ' L. ‘ {. ')" ‘t K: ‘ r , i. - ' . ‘. l l
  47. 47. Middle colonists lived very plentiful lives Visitors were often awed by the comfortable living, particularly the amount of food they had available
  48. 48. Delaiwzire river Locks Slilllecl Germziris mic serilil: -gel in PA. iielps-cl tile liliclclle Colonies Ioecoiiie El csriier ‘for IIJEJIJ Lifzi c"iLi ri ii 9 . ':l. lJ£l CfEl'llE3 (clocks, iiiiislteis, lock, glass, peiper, among others) IIJEl£lZ-) tool iiieiltirig easy for settlers Paper
  49. 49. Tenant farmers in New York ° worked the land and paid rent ° Patroon system still remained in NY after British takeover ' ° Tenant farmers felt that rents were too high ° They plowed landlords’ land with own oxen ° They harvested landlords crops before own
  50. 50. New Englanders who had moved into New York rallied the Dutch and Germans to stop paying rent Together they rioted and attacked many manors and marched on New York City There they were stopped by English troops with a single cannon shot Many ended up leaving New York for Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Vermont ‘ till L . if} - , ’ L ' z (.1 _ / / , ..___ ‘ r . «A ‘L, 1 .5 , ‘ ,1 " _, ' ((1 -1 . _ “-. ‘I ‘l I‘ l -= { ‘tr’ ‘ l l I l l 8‘; T, _. ._ ' J“) i ii” l’ _’ ". I". ‘i_ . N_ _l KJ X
  51. 51. Homes in the Middle Colonies were usually bigger than in New England Homes were often spread apart and made in differing styles Swedish settlers introduced the Americas to log cabins, while the Dutch built beautiful brick houses The Germans invented an efficient wood stove that colonists of all nationalities began to use and copy
  52. 52. _ . l ettlers eading “i I into the 1‘ back- country took what was known as the Great Wagon . ',_. :4 "_. X , Road (an rm . if . ».. ..t. _.. ... .. old Iroquois . tram
  53. 53. '_JnI| _ '_‘. “i_“‘4r -, -7 AA- , . i ‘K? V‘ ‘:3 R , 35091-I V. /i=1.CJi0i‘. we rvecl as an ieii‘iP3‘C"[ij]-3 wg, y -to '£lI'-:1‘/ ‘Ell *m_'ro High ‘iilrie ircglig h qr; -gig] (A3 r~l}9J- m. .«. ,£]. . m» an ' u * v :1‘ *9 l _l ye Csirea”: ‘iii/ rzig~on F'(*0:;1i5’_ it was . bl| :lili to raise goor. =ls high an eve grotiricl wrtii-i if) lCiLllI"/ 31.’; irlOOT SO '«s| 'ri~ey ji]»on__qlj; gTj ‘Q 0;‘; -fa’) J __, D,L-J-pg ll _ '1 7' ‘IF I"? 1' _ -. ' l I -_. ‘l ' I E '7 :1“ _ ‘M "' ' ' L-—" [ll rit. [hi ’lrLl' - L . ',s_: iyL Lfll
  54. 54. Many Scotch-Irish and German settlers ventured into the backcountry to settle. The back- country was the area of Picture Not Available C ' htP t td land along opyrig ro ec e the eastern slopes of the Appalachian Mountains.
  55. 55. Native Americans taught the settlers a lot about how to live off the land how to clear away needed land for farming how to make eating utensils and bowls out of wood” How to use pine tree knots as candles How to gather honey and hunt wild animals ’. 'l"“"‘
  56. 56. I 4". » German gunsmiths invented the famous lightweight and accurate weapon, the 73:-: rms, IlIai1ia : T:. i'fle
  57. 57. Many feared that the intrusion of whites onto Indian land would inevitably lead to fighflng”. They were right!
  58. 58. Review 4-2 1. Because the Middle Colonies exported so much grain, they were given what nickname? 2. Compared to New England settlers, describe the lifestyle of Middle Colony settlers? 3. German settlers in Pennsylvania made the area a center for what? 4. Farmers (particularly in New York) who worked the land and paid rent were known as what? 5. What types of homes were commonly built by (a) the Swedes and (b) the Dutch? 6. What was the name of the Iroquois Trail used by many settlers traveling to the backcountry? 7. What means of transportation was most effective for settlers headed to the backcountry? 8. What were some of the ways that Indians taught backcountry settlers to live off the land? 9. What light-weight and accurate weapon was produced by German gunsmiths in the backcountry? 10. Why did backcountry settlers come into conflict with Indians?
  59. 59. OH Natr'ona! AtIasofthoUniredS! ams arms of either of the colony's , _ . y_ L, T founding, Cecil Ca| vert’s on l the Maryland side or the arms l F’°""‘>““"‘“ out to settle border disputes ; _ _ , / between Pennsylvania and 4‘ Mason-Dixon Line I J44 i NJ west T * A, They set up stone markers on ‘’''9'”'‘’ / v the border which had a “P” virginia », 1 : ;I on the Pennsylvania side and "v. _‘T'?3‘. '-g ‘. ‘_,3,‘; ;j—‘l' an “M” on the Maryland "J: —"l’3a7 T‘ » FT? - . v: 1 _ V‘ ', ' . _mfl; ,,; ",_*, } sIde. ... Some had the coat o. l l t of William Penn on the " S C Pennsylvania side. 5‘ L This served also as a division 1' " " f gi ‘ between the Middle and 55-; i‘ . r : Southern Colonies
  60. 60. The Climate in the South was warmer and growing seasons were longer Virginia farmers began growing tobacco on large plantations and rotating crops to preserve soil Farmers in the Carolinas and Georgia followed suit
  61. 61. Rice and Indigo (used as a blue dye) thrived in South Carolina and Georgia 41;
  62. 62. Two types of land existed in the South * Tidewater Plantations t Southern Backcountry V , , , -’ Er- . -- I: -ll—ll: l: u—'
  63. 63. The Tidewater Plantation The Tide- water Plantation ' area of lowland that stretched across coastal plain ° soil was rich ° land was washed by ocean tides ° plantation owners would set up along rivers to get goods to market quickly
  64. 64. At harvest time, goods were brought to river bank Ships were sent to Europe and West Indies and returned with goods from area Southern planters became very used to European luxufies
  65. 65. ° West of the Tidewater was the southem backcountry at the base of the Appalachian Mountains ° Land was hilly with lots of forest ’ '. . Souree unknown . .
  66. 66. A cotton ptantatnon on lhe '4ISSl. ‘SlpDl Lithograph by Curner 8. Ives 1884, afterw A Walker L»ura'y of Congress Slavery became an important institution for southern plantation owners * They were more economically feasible than indentured servants _ * Slaves were a long '~, - term investment * Ownership of slaves also gave planters rights to their children
  67. 67. Slaves did all of the majorjobs on a plantation and showed white colonists how to grow rice Slavery made the South prosperous Of course, slaves were not happy about their lot in life and often rebelled by breaking tools and attacking owners The sugar ln'vrest In Louislana, ,'. ‘Vr'md" _ angmmng n Harpnrs Wes-. l<l', '. Qol. 3n; ‘ 1875 after A. R Waud. Library of“ Cong: -‘ass Pnnts and Photographs Divtsoon r; - . (A ~ I ‘x. , L-‘ - ~ 4 ~. “"» : - ~ . /. ’ 5 ' . ;’_ -Z‘ W : « _- g -_ , r ‘ t _ , ‘ F-»-'4~. ~§« -‘. ’_ v . I; :7.-4‘. ~_“ V ; 5’ ‘_ "__, '
  68. 68. Slave: "God bless you, massal You feed and clothe us. , When we are sick you nurse us, and when too old to work, you provide for usl" Owner: "These poor creatures are a legacy from my ancestors and while a dollar is left me, nothing shall be spared to Increase their comfort and happiness. " Pm-slavery c$noon7a‘4r Public domain. Ijniuy of Congress Prints and Photographs Division ' II Slave codes were passed to deny slaves rights * Slaves were considered property, not human beings * Colonists Vi I rationalized their racist beliefs by arguing that slaves were “better off” and that the introduction of Christianity would “save” them
  69. 69. In 1688, the Quakers were the first group to recognize the immorality of slavery and call for its abolition (end) They were highly critical of New England merchants who made money off of the slave trade Wood cm-gmv '19 from Ems! vcn Hressn ‘ Wanutyg. Nord-Amrer <3, sienna Staci md N: aturv. uno«': r.oas La"-d uod 5-': l"n'e Bl: -vmhnar ln Sclwdmlng. Lftlflzrg 1888 Gan-'-rral Collmctlons. Library of Congm-. <; (28) I ll’ Il’Hl_ -V;
  70. 70. National Archives of the UK ° White slave traders from several different European nations set up trading posts along the African coasts ° They would trade weapons and other goods to African tribal leaders for slaves ° By the 1700's 100.000 slaves from Africa were arriving per year
  71. 71. "Afm: nns in 8'' rd ll‘. <.- Slaw: 8-3'l< Wllr1‘"I2 Ap-'ll 30, i? »tS§). " g V The trip to the Americas. known as the Middle Passage was brutal A Slaves were crammed into ships and bound togetherin I the hull on wooden shelves They were usually allowed onto 53"? ‘= ;.~i"“ I the deck and given meals once ; , , ‘,, m, . ,-. :1, -: .;. ;I~. :1; , gt, I or twice per day , _"_ ; ~;_-‘ 5' '39,. 1» 1 -. » , ' 3' "'1 3"‘ 5‘. p -- :25‘ Some Africans were force fed ”"“’ I I "I and others committed suicide , ‘ by leaping overboard If they didn’t take their own lives, they would often die of disease
  72. 72. Most Southemers did not own plantations, but those who did created self sufficient homesteads Slaves, usually between 20-100 on a plantation, did most of the work _ ~ A few were skilled 7 ; " tradesmen but V: most worked in L- l " r~. the fields e . . T, 5. ' K . k N ‘_ ‘ . ' ! * —
  73. 73. - n: .[. o The reat l; lose was where the p| anter’s family lived. It was equipped with a huge dining room, parlors, guest bedrooms and sometimes a ballroom.
  74. 74. Plantation owners had several important duties * Decided which fields to plow * What crops to plant * When to harvest * When to take goods to market * How to use profits (usually used for more land or slaves)
  75. 75. The wives of plantation owners had several duties. They ensured that house slaves kept up with their work (gardening, milking cows, collecting eggs, etc) lfa plantation owner died, their wife would take over his important jobs as well
  76. 76. Clfie Soutftenrflacficowmywas more cémocmtic cmcfye oyé neatecfeacli otfieras equafi ‘M212 was Ettfifiamiafity ‘Ifieyeojalé cliessecfsinyafy Wbstsettlécfin the Sfienancflyaft Vafiyin tfie weswntyans of Miyfiinf 1/iigim'a, ancftfie Cam linas
  77. 77. Rewfew 4-3 _ _ 1. What IS the Mason-Dixon Line? 2. Describe the Tidewater region? 3. How would planters get their goods to market on a Tidewater Plantation? 4. In which Southem Region did most southemers live? 5. Laws that controlled slave behavior and denied them rights were referred to as what? 6. Define racism. 7. The route taken from Africa to the Americas by slave ships was referred to as what? 8. List three duties of a planter? 9. Whose job was it to ensure that daily household tasks were done on a plantation? 10. How did people and customs in the Southern Backcountry differ from those in the Tidewater?
  78. 78. Education was a crucial part of life in New England Puritans in Massachusetts wanted to ensure that their children could read the Bible and the Massachusetts Assembly passed a law in 1647 requiring parents teach children to
  79. 79. In Massachusetts, all towns with 50 families had to hire a schoolteacher. Towns with 100 or more families had to set up a grammar school that prepared boys for college Massachusetts, therefore, set up the first public schools (schools supported by tax dollars).
  80. 80. Most school houses only had one room and teachers were often paid with crops grown by parents School suppfies included firewood for the stove Picture Not Available Copyright Protected
  81. 81. Most schools did not have books, so ‘'i ii” : 335:: were used instead . cg: _; - . ' M1. ", ;.jf. ..' . ' » tr: ‘ ' -3 . T I! _V_B_z-fr-ill» Ha sf-Anhwlc-I; .;')uJk. lnnu _ :11: _ ' nHI"xv; '. -' . x_ 3: 1 _ . wl. '1>m‘upm)C1.iusoi-o x 1'. .'1', .''wvx ': .. A - ihdz ' : _}C_‘, '‘ III IE1-“. ‘i; rvar--. l‘ 1) -~12:-‘. '-x , 5 v fin: “’_"* . :u. -:_>. ¢:. n. "f. hrH u'_v(. i.‘*<. ltA. !’ " ". -—— ' ‘A ‘, Hillel‘. ‘}lJ'-rim! -11- “' ‘lfl vx n. li. llmmrl bl? iliv ilw ~— '1,‘ N u'| (' fly Kinsdcp Il| v>| ln‘_ ‘ " . ‘ Willb-: dun--ga}Lu: h,. u;l Hm ' 'l ll. v - ' r('-hvru 1.. -I). ._ym. r Hornbooks were wooden boards with lessons on them _~>, ‘ ahiiv 1d, : : ‘ qivrmnnr “- Tn I'£nlTq_-Max'--{? ir1(; i'rllor-ni . . lrlblrl I; u , “ *7" fl-if v_-. n|. ’l nix. ' - l-‘:11!Inlir‘mln'li‘nIpl1lFr?1. .1 a‘. nllvcrn«. l.~mn I-', vnl. ./ .*: .-/ .2 A thin layer of transparent horn kept the boards clean . '11‘-1.4:‘. -a / tun-4¢. Vr| (. / . a- . y ---. i . .n_ ‘ . ... .‘, .‘
  82. 82. In the Middle Colonies, students whose parents could afford private school tuition could get an educafion Most private schools were set up by churches and families » 's$‘if, 'l . , {- s ‘ 1 ‘ Q. x ” 5. ‘I Q I l 9'
  83. 83. ‘in Southern Colonies , planters paid for private tutors or sent their children to boarding schools in England. Sometimes schools were set up in tobacco sheds and students from surrounding areas would attend.
  84. 84. 1636 Harvard College established originally to train Puritan ministers in Massachusetts 1693 The College of William and Mary was established to train Anglican ministers in Virginia In 1701 Yale College was established as a collegiate school for men in Connecticut ‘I! ’ -s—_. ,.—. ..}_. ;.. ... ‘_. -gum, . II I’ A V I ll"! Hlllllll ‘J . « 1 aw in iliaiy l — 1-
  85. 85. --5 H’ II _‘ "" IL. ° Many children did not receive a formal education and learned crafts as apprentices ° Apprentices would live in the craftsman's home and work for free until they mastered their trade and could start a business of their own
  86. 86. Girls rarely attended school and were often taught homemaking skills such as wool spinning, embroidery, sewing, and knitting. Some took apprenticeships as cooks, housemaids, and seamstresses. Some even learned trades from male members of their family.
  87. 87. .*"'_. ~,‘ 3 Social Classes of the English Colonies Included wealthy planters, ’ Gentry merchants, ministers, successful lawyers, and royal officials iii‘) Ki )" 1, A 9:. Middle Class Included craftsworkers and ‘ tradespeople / ‘<7 ? je T/ ‘4. F1‘ . { / Included farmhands, '-°WerC'aSS indentured servants, and slaves
  88. 88. People also dressed according to their social class Gentry’s often wore wigs to demonstrate their social status
  89. 89. y The Enlightenment was a movement that V I began in the 1700’s in which people tried ’ tO. _LlS§ logic and reason to solve ll ’ proble‘m’s and discover how the world Isaac Newton (gravity) and others tried to develop eories explaining natural and philosophical henomenon . .-. «I : .‘.
  90. 90. Benjamin Franklin also contributed to the Enlihtenment - Born in Boston, MA One of 17 children Left school at age 10 Became apprentice in father’s candle shop Age 12, apprenticed as a printer in his brother's shop Spent spare time reading and learning Bemamin Franklin. Photograph of portrait painting. Martin, David. artist. 1767. Pnnts 8. Photographs Division
  91. 91. At age 17, Franklin ran away to Philadelphia, PA Built a printing business * printed pamphlets, newspapers and almanacs * most famous was Poor Richard’s Almanac ‘God helps them that help themselves. ‘Early to bed and early to rise, Makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise ‘Never leave that till to-morrow which you can do to-day -He that goes a borrowing goes a sorrowing ‘A penny saved is a penny up (J1. -g"“t_ i . ... _.-. —_. ~_. .. _A_ _, _ 4 A 4. 1. I (~ . . .4./ r . ' : - . ~ i : - I __ _‘ 4 '7 it '. ,1., 1 l i. - l shill. i 4 . , ‘ ‘L I » '4. ‘ V, “ '1. I , , 4 i I *‘ -. - i 7‘ . _, ‘ in -0.. . -. . I ' ‘ . ‘-A-_ 3;. -u. .'u - '7>_i'l‘ it ' , i- ii ~ ‘ I i‘. ,J7I: r}; 'iLj; .' ii I - ’ r ' '7' . I ‘I . I T‘ . l I. _ _ Poor Richard. ‘I739 An Almanack for the Yea’ of Christ 1739 Pl'lI'3de| phIfl'. Pr mad and Sold by B. Franklin. 1738 Rare Book 8- Speci. =.‘ Collections Division
  92. 92. In 1740, Franklin invented the “ ” which was more efficient than all other stoves National Park Service In 1784, Franklin invented Franklin created the in p 1761. It used glasses that were blown , . in the proper size and thickness A which created the proper pitch _ a _, without having to be filled with water.
  93. 93. In 1752, Franklin conducted his most famous experiment. Using a kite, he demonstrated that lightning was a form of electricity by flying a kite during a lightning storm. As a result of this knowledge, he invented the lightning rod to protect building from lightning strikes . '- I 4‘ -. i I. ‘ . I i . . 4 - ‘ u- I . rt_, f‘v ‘ I , ‘(aw -i
  94. 94. i- . . -f i ‘c_' 1 . ’ '1 . _‘; ’ : ~. -sE1.. .I. . . ' w 5 *7 V“: .‘. ‘. A ' l'k' ’ i‘'. ‘''. ' ‘V L‘ l J 3 ‘ T *1‘-i’, ." . ‘ ', 4 Franklin was also famous ' for being a great public servant . I i’ i_ ° got Philadelphia to pave " roads with cobblestone * started police force . " started fire department * started public library _ g * established the University of Pennsylvania Also contributed greatly ‘. :1‘ L as a founding father!
  95. 95. In the 1730’s and 40’s a religious movement known as the Great . '-‘. --Iaiieiiiiig began It affected people from all walks oflife and ' ‘; A reinvigorated people’s :1 1 11" religious faith A ' Religion in the colonies had weakened and many desired a stronger faith
  96. 96. Jonathan Edwards Jonathan Edwards introduced the Great Awakening to the colonies and preached throughout New England His sermons warned of God’s anger and of the torments of Hell for all sinners
  97. 97. L'i‘. i.Fii". ”ii. ;e. '?é’i“$13.37?3%eJ3‘$§5§l1{7m§§fSZ'E. §i3.‘2'I.2§3,. 'Z‘? .T§§1‘2‘Z. ‘?; ... George Whitefield was '"5“'”“°" /1 an English minister ‘ I V who gave sermons . from MA to GA 7. ; 1 He drew huge crowds , 3, and was a 1,. mesmerizing speaker As a result of the Great Awakening, many people formed new faiths which caused great controversy in the colonies / . Georgelwhitefield
  98. 98. Few decent roads existed in the colonies during the 1600 and 1700’s. It was muddy in winter, dusty in summer Picture Not Available Copyright Protected Few bridges and colonists took small ferries across rivers and streams
  99. 99. Benjamin Franklin was appointed as Deputy Postmaster (later as Postmaster General) and sought to improve the mail V system He created a system of relay stations where mail carriers could exchange tired horses and deliver mail quickly. Before Franklins system, a letter from Boston, MA to Williamsburg, VA would take 1 month to deliver
  100. 100. Franklin used an odometer to measure postal routes. Benjamin Franklin also invented an odometer to ’_ , -., __. fr, help travelers know how far _, they were from their . ,-; _.‘}” , ¥ffi_‘_’t1;‘ "*? "{i. ,., ‘i; ?«§i _ destinations %‘; ’~‘t7'1.; ,. "’ Franklin had milestones F"3”k”“’$ Odometer placed along roads between ; ._‘ Imp i'. 'wv. w.s2 1' net no. -.i. 'essqr; ‘c iv in. ‘ pg Philadelphia and Boston He used his odometer to set the markers which would tell travelers how far they F A _ were from a city (e. g. “70 ’ miles from Boston”) I 8 . Mile Ma‘rkers ,
  101. 101. As roads improved, so did communication Along roads, businesses such as taverns and hotels sprung up. They became great places for people to exchange gossip and stories
  102. 102. Newspapers were printed in all but 2 colonies (NJ and DE) by the mid-1700’s. Harvard College had the first printing press in the colonies in 1639. Shortly after, most major cities had printing presses
  103. 103. Trade became an important part of life in the colonies Each colony traded with other colonies for items they needed or wanted in exchange for items they produced For example, Southerners sold tobacco to New Englanders, and New Englanders sold cod fish to Southerners
  104. 104. Picture Not Available Copyright Protected Merchants from New England dominated trade They were nicknamed “Yankees” meaning they were clever and hard working Yankees were known to be great businessmen IQ:
  105. 105. Mérchants°develo|5°ed |1_w'-":9 :52? ° Ives oc , our, selverel trade roetes and lumber to ‘xfljxvli In ; |ud| ng the fr121’rJ: :LJ‘J‘- r West Indies “"; ',23 ‘°''; ’§"L', ROl, ,, 7’ %’ (picked up Nev-'Yori-‘I ‘ -“°"° NORTI. =T. .;. .m. ... .;. .. . V q°‘w‘m$<3,l»asses t6 M AMERICA _ ’ " ake Wm . Chavk. -slondr *6‘) 2nd Legfrum, iron, -2 ‘'75 5‘; .. °? ° 3? ’ “ ULW gcunpczswder, guns cloth, ’ ‘$46 ‘ Qt-‘~, f;, .‘ tools to West Africa Sf 9 ‘ ° 1 ; _ _ ' R96 _ 20:4 "“ I I '/ )// es . . 60°’? -. e I Am I C A E ‘be e 3"‘ Leg- §. ‘1;a%/ /es to West on sou'm Indies (with°i§mfits: AMERICA they bought more molasses
  106. 106. Culture becomes a major part of life in cities ° Colonists enjoyed theaters ° singing societies * Traveling circuses - horse races Picture Not Available Copyright Protected
  107. 107. Most major cities were seaports As trade grew, so did cities Boston was the largest seaport E R _ - L. J u-I‘ II, -_. ' I I I ‘I l . II=1 . J‘ . . P. -'——"a_. . __- r_ ' . _ . , . _.. -‘"_ __l
  108. 108. Philadelphia was the largest of all of the colonial cities - Philadelphia had the ONLY hospital in the colonies, * 3,‘libraries - 3 newspapers (1 in German) A
  109. 109. Review 4-4 1. Which colony was first to set up public schools? 2. How were children in the Middle Colonies educated? 3. Southern planters would usually educate their children by hiring 4. Explain how an apprenticeship would work? 5. Wealthy planters, merchants and ministers usually belonged to which social class? 6. What was the Enlightenment? 7. List three inventions made by Benjamin Franklin. 8. List 3 improvements made in the city of Philadelphia as a result of Benjamin Franklins influence? 9. Who were the two most famous leaders of the Great Awakening? 10. In what ways did Benjamin Franklin improve the postal system? 11. What group of people were referred to as “Yankees”? 12.Detail the 1*‘ leg of the Triangular Trade Route. 13. Detail the 2"“ leg of the Triangular Trade Route. 14. Detail the 3"‘ leg of the Triangular Trade Route. 15. Most major cities served as what?

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