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  • 1. Chapter Three American History . The 13 English Colonies
  • 2. Library of Congress The Puritans, unlike Public domain image the Pilgrims (Separatists), hoped to reform the Church of England by insisting on simpler services. They were not initially unpopular • well-educated • wealthy • some were members of Parliament
  • 3. King Charles I Although King James I was no fan of Puritans, his son and successor, King Charles I, hated them Began to expel them from universities, took away business Anthony van Dyck. Charles I. Canvas, relined, charters public domain image
  • 4. The Puritans decided to leave in 1629 when it became apparent that things were only going to get worse. They received a Charter from King Charles I to form the Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • 5. John Winthrop Born to a wealthy family in 1588 • Married 3 times • Mary Worth (10 years, 6 kids) • Thomasine Clopton (1 year) • Margaret Tyndal, (30 years… several children) Became a Puritan in his early 30’s John Winthrop, based on the painting by Van Dyke. Library of Congress
  • 6. What were the beliefs of Puritans? hree basic beliefs set them apart: . believed that man should be in the world but not of the world . believed that man has a duty to use all of the talents and abilities that God gave him . Believed that nations that were holy reaped God’s benefits, whereas nations that were not would suffer God’s wrath!
  • 7. 1629 Charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Courtesy of the Massachusetts Archives. • The Puritans were very lucky when they received their charter- It did not name a place for company meetings • This meant settlers could set up a colony without being governed from England (only English colony to do so)
  • 8. he Massachusetts Bay ompany realized quickly that ohn Winthrop would be a reat leader Famous evangelical puritan John Eliot preaching to e began recruiting for the the Indians. Wood engraving In Ballou's Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion, April 12, 1856. oyage giving the following easons 1. To bring Christianity to the New World 2. To escape God's judgment that was coming upon the corrupt churches of Europe 3. To help solve the problems of overpopulation and poverty in England 4. To obey God’s command to be fruitful and multiply
  • 9. In 1629, Winthrop set sail with about 400 others when they arrived, many were already malnourished •some refused to get off the ship when they saw the wilderness
  • 10. Winthrop led his people in creating a “City Upon a Hill” City Despite tragedies, including the drowning of his son, he was rowning uccessful successful He was a great example for his followers or Worked with settlers, side by side
  • 11. Winthrop’s leadership helped the MA Bay colony grow • 1629-1640 20,000 people migrated from England (referred to as the Great Migration) • Many came for economic rather than religious reasons • Younger sons who would not gain inheritance came in droves for land to begin business
  • 12. Massachusetts Bay Charter originally only granted shareholders right to vote This was resented by many settlers Puritans changed law allowing male church goers to vote for a governor Later they were allowed to vote for representatives to a General Court 1629 Seal of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Courtesy of the Massachusetts Archives.
  • 13. homas Hooker was not entirely leased with the new government any Puritans believed that the ower of the governor should be reat and people’s limited Puritan named John Cotton aid, “If the people shall be the overnors, who shall be the overned?” ooker believed strongly in a ore representative government
  • 14. Because of his Puritan beliefs and popularity with the masses, Hooker became unpopular with Archbishop William Laud Laud reported him to the High Commission Hooker escaped to the Netherlands and later to Archbishop William Laud the Massachusetts Bay By Sir Anthony Van Dyck Colony Date: (circa 1636) National Portrait Gallery Public domain image
  • 15. quot;Hooker's Company reach the Connecticutquot; In Massachusetts, Hooker This image was published in: Samuel Adams Drake, History of Middlesex County, Massachusetts (1880, vol. 1). Copyright was and Winthrop disagreed claimed by: Estes & Lauriat, 1879 (publishers). about the role of government Hooker argued that the power of the government rested upon the “the free consent of the people” The rivalry became so bad that he and 100 others moved and settled near the Connecticut River calling their new town Hartford
  • 16. he settlers of Connecticut wrote a plan f government: he Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
  • 17. he Fundamental Orders f Connecticut (1639) reated a government ifferent from assachusetts . All men who owned land could vote (no church attendance requirement) . power of governor was limited emphasizing a more representative government In 1662 Connecticut became its own, independent colony
  • 18. here were more dissenters in the Massachusetts ay Colony - Roger Williams was one of the most amous Lived as a member of 4 faiths throughout his life 3. Anglican 4. Separatist 5. Baptist (founder) 6. Seeker Williams was well educated Education was provided by Sir Edmund Coke- hoped Williams would become a lawyer Instead, Williams chose the clergy Courtesy of Roger Williams University Archives
  • 19. illiams left England for Massachusetts in 1631 • believed that England was too oppressive • hoped New England would be different Upon his arrival with his wife, he refused an invitation to take a position as a pastor of a Puritan church, as he was a Separatist He instead decided to join a church in Salem
  • 20. illiams real troubles egan when he spoke ublicly about the eparation of church nd state pecifically he argued hat the first table of the 0 Commandments first 4 Commandments) ould not be part of civil aw… they existed only n the realm of religion
  • 21. } I. Tho u shalt have no o the r go ds 1st Table be fo re me . II. Tho u shalt no t make unto the e any Cannot be part of grave n image . secular law III. Tho u shalt no t take the name o f the LORD thy Go d in vain. Only deals with religious issues IV. Re me mbe r the sabbath day, to ke e p it ho ly. } V. Ho no ur thy fathe r and thy mo the r. 2nd Table VI. Thou shalt not kill (murder) Can be prosecuted VII. Thou shalt not commit adultery. in secular courts VIII. Thou shalt not steal. Deals with issues of IX. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. moral conduct X. Thou shalt not covet any thing that is thy neighbour's.
  • 22. Under pressure from Boston, From A History of the United the Salem church decided States © 1920. not to give Williams a Public domain image position as their pastor Williams moved his family to Plymouth and served as an assistant pastor While there he became acquainted with the local Indians and studied their language, religion, and government He spoke out against forcing conversion upon the Indians, pointing out that Christ himself only persuaded others, and forced no one to follow him
  • 23. gain, Williams found himself in rouble • returned to Salem n Salem, he criticized the right f the King to charter lands that ere not his. Luckily, John otton suggested that Williams ot be punished, but be made ware of his sin e continued his troubles by uggesting that women be veiled n church. Puritans disliked the otion, but Williams became ore popular with women
  • 24. The next controversy came when a young man cut the cross out of the English flag • Williams once said that a “papist” [Catholic] symbol had no place on the English flag • Williams was blamed for inspiring the event with “zealous preaching for reformation” St George's Cross flag
  • 25. Again Williams found himself in trouble with the Puritans when he suggested that oaths sworn to God were wrong The Puritans instituted a law requiring all males 16 years and older to take an oath as elected officials. The oath ended with “so help me God.” Williams argued that the state would be requiring “wicked men” to take the Lord’s name in vain if they were insincere
  • 26. Finally, the Puritans had had enough Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, but was ill when his sentence was handed down The court decided he could leave in the spring, BUT would need to remain silent and not have any meetings in his home Of course, Williams continued to preach As a result, the court ordered his arrest William received word and fled into the forest in knee deep snow
  • 27. Luckily for Williams, he was rescued by Narragansett Indians who sheltered him for the winter Many settlers followed and helped establish a new colony that was tolerant of religious differences
  • 28. illiams had 3 bjectives for his olony: . lowering of class barriers . guaranteeing religious liberties, including freedom of worship . preserving liberty through majority rule Courtesy of Roger Williams University Archives
  • 29. Williams negotiated the sale of land from the Narragansett Indians In 1644, Williams obtained a charter for Providence Plantations, later joined by other towns, creating The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Rhode Island became a safe-haven for many persecuted people including Jews, Quakers, and Catholics.
  • 30. In 1656, Jews began arriving in Rhode Island and were greeted by Williams in Hebrew • Convinced that they would be tolerated, they built the first synagogue in the Americas in Newport • Also felt comfortable enough to use their Hebrew names
  • 31. • Quakers began arriving around the same time. The Massachusetts colony demanded that Williams expel them. He refused! • MA imposed a death penalty for Quakers who ventured into MA in 1658 • Rescinded in 1661 because it gained sympathy for Quakers
  • 32. As a result of Rhode Island’s tolerance, they gained the nicknames “Rogues Island” and Island the “Sewer of New England” England
  • 33. Anne Hutchinson Settled in Boston in 1634 • Highly intelligent • extremely religious • mother of 14 Hutchinson began holding Bible meetings in her home after church services and often criticized the teachings of Puritan ministers Puritan leaders thought Bible interpretation was a role for ministers only… and definitely not the role of a woman! Source unknown
  • 34. Hutchinson's in-home sermons attracted many people, including ministers and magistrates She stressed the individual's intuition and conscience as a way to follow God, not the rules of the church Her opponents accused her of antinomianism--the view that God's grace has freed the Christian from the need to observe rules of the church… and that one’s conscience was the best guide to morality.
  • 35. Hutchison was put on trial for “traducing (betraying) the ministersquot; She did quite well during her trail until the end when she suggested that God Himself had spoken to her. The court concluded that Hutchinson was “Deluded by the Devil”
  • 36. In 1638, Hutchinson was both banished from Massachusetts and excommunicated from the church She and her family moved to Portsmouth, Rhode Island and established the town Upon her husband’s death in RI, she moved her family to Long Island, NY
  • 37. Hutchinson moved to NY at a time when the Dutch were mistreating the Indians he She and 5 of her children were massacred by Indians y • One child (Susanna) was spared and raised by Indians for several years and did not want to return to European communities when rescued
  • 38. Settlers began to spread out across New England Some settled north of Boston along the coast The King made this a new colony (New Hampshire) to enhance trade and fishing. It was originally founded by John Mason and Sir Ferdinando Gorges around 1622 but did not become a colony until 1680.
  • 39. As settlers moved in, they had little regard for Indian rights They argued that Indians wasted the land and did not deserve it Instead, the Puritans did not understand the customs if native Americans
  • 40. In 1637, the English accused the Pequots of murdering 2 white traders in the Connecticut Valley In retaliation, they attacked a Pequot town killing 400 unarmed men, women, and child- ren The war that resulted saw most of the Pequot pop -ulation killed and left the rich CT Valley land open for settlement
  • 41. In 1675, a Wampanoag chief named Metacom (also known as King Philip) stood up against the English and what began was known as King Engraving from the Philip’s War Library of Congress which lasted for Metacom (King Philip) 15 months
  • 42. Early American conflict. Public domain image •King Philip and his men burned settlers homes •He was tracked down and killed •His family and 1,000 other Indians were sold into slavery and shipped to the West Indies •Others died of starvation after being forced from their homes
  • 43. Review 3-1 1. What is the difference between a Puritan and a Separatist? 1. What were the 3 basic principles of the Puritans? 2. What Puritan served as the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony? 3. The period of time from 1629-1640 when 20,000 people journeyed from England to Massachusetts was referred to as what? 4. What was the criteria for voting in Puritan Massachusetts? 5. What is a theocracy? 6. Who founded Connecticut and helped create the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut? 7. What were the four religious faiths to which Roger Williams belonged during his lifetime? 8. What was Roger Williams belief about the 10 Commandments as it related to secular law? 9. Why did Roger Williams believe that swearing oaths to God was wrong? 10. What colony was founded by Roger Williams? 11. What were the 3 objectives of Williams’ colony? 12. How did Anne Hutchinson get herself into trouble in Massachusetts 13. Anne Hutchinson’s belief that God's grace has freed the Christian from the need to observe rules of the church was known as what? 14. What claim during her trial got Hutchinson into the most trouble? 15. What Wampanoag chief fought against English settlers who he believed had invaded his land?
  • 44. Dutch Rule Like the French, the Dutch felt a need to encourage farming to build colony of New Netherland To encourage farming, the Dutch gave huge land grants to wealthy people Owners of the estates were called patroons
  • 45. In return for land, patroons had to settle at least 50 farm families Patroons had awesome power • they could charge as much rent as they wanted • they could punish settlers in their own courts
  • 46. The Patroon System was incredibly unsuccessful Few farmers wanted to live under harsh conditions New Netherland remained small Most of the settlers of New Netherland lived in New Amsterdam, a great trading center People came from many parts of Europe and belonged to several different faiths
  • 47. New Netherland was owned by the Dutch West India Company Company leaders believed that the colony needed strict leadership to gain greater profits A very harsh man named Peter Stuyvesant Peter Stuyvesant was made governor
  • 48. • Peter Stuyvesant lost his leg during a battle with the Spanish • He often decorated his peg leg with silver nails and earned the nickname “Old Silver Nails” or “Old Silver Leg”. • Stuyvesant was a hated dictator who punished lawbreakers with heavy fines and public floggings. • Settlers demanded a representative government, but he argued that his authority came from, “God and the West India Company, not from the pleasure of a few ignorant subjects.”
  • 49. Map of the New Netherland and New England (1685?) Public domain image War in Europe erupted between England and the Netherlands Those who wanted the land between New England and Virginia urged Charles II to attack New Netherland
  • 50. • Charles II complied and decided to attack • The English demanded that the Dutch surrender • Stuyvesant vowed to fight, but had few weapons and little gun powder • Settlers also refused to support him • Stuyvesant had no choice but to surrender
  • 51. • King Charles gave Sir Godfrey Kneller Bt. the newly acquired 1684. Public domain image land to his brother, the Duke of York • New Netherland was renamed New York • The Duke of York also ruled harshly until settlers from New England demanded a representative The Duke of York government (later King James II of England)
  • 52. New York was Sir George Carteret Baron John Berkeley too big to govern, According to the Duke of York, so he gave a part of the land to two of his friends, Baron John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret They set up the proprietary colony of New Jersey
  • 53. A proprietary colony is a land grant given by the king in exchange for an annual payment The proprietors could divide land, charge rent, make laws, BUT had to respect the rights of the settlers NJ attracted people from all across Europe After being divided into East and West Jersey, It became a single colony in 1702
  • 54. Pennsylvania was another colony in which religious freedom played a major role William Penn William Penn, a Quaker, founded the colony William was the son of a very well respected English Navy Admiral. Because his father was often absent from his life, he became interested in Library of Congress, American Memories site, religion due his mother’s Historical Society of Pennsylvania influence
  • 55. or a short time, Penn orked as an assistant to his ather is father sent him with a essage to King Charles II hen he arrived at the alace, the two men sat and alked for over a half an hour his began a relationship hat would be of great King Charles II mportance to Penn in the uture
  • 56. As a young man, Penn began following the teachings the Quakers, or the Society of Friends, founded by George Fox in 1647 Quakers believed that individual conscience, NOT the Bible, was the ultimate authority on George Fox morality
  • 57. Quakers believed in the absolute equality of all people in God’s eyes • men/women • noble/commoner • Christian/non-Christian They did not believe in having a clergy Basic Quaker lifetime pursuits: Instead, they held meetings in which participants truth, equality, meditated silently and spoke peace, simplicity only when the spirit moved and community. them
  • 58. The Quakers were also pacifists who spoke out against war and refused to pay taxes to the Church of England Quakers were hated and persecuted in England They were arrested, fined, and even hanged
  • 59. After Penn joined the Quakers, his father disowned him In 1670. Penn was thrown in jail along with many other Quakers after protesting the Conventicle Act which sought to punish those who belonged to dissenting religious faiths (particularly Quakers). But after being arrested, the Quakers were not charged with a specific crime When he demanded to know what offense he had committed, he did not get a straight answer After a clever and witty performance at his trial, he was found NOT GUILTY!
  • 60. Convinced that Quakers needed to leave England, Penn approached Charles II for a charter, which he granted Penn wanted to name the area he was chartered “Sylvania” (meaning “woodlands”) but Charles II insisted it be named “Pennsylvania” (Penn’s Woodlands) to honor his father William Penn
  • 61. Penn drew up a Frame of Government which ensured private property, free enterprise, free press, trial by jury, and religious toleration It also set up a governors office and a council of advisors to make laws. Eventually, the assembly won the exclusive right to make laws Male, Christian, property owners or tax payers could vote
  • 62. • Penn made treaties with the local Indians and impressed them with his courage • He also won favor with them by learning their language and outrunning their braves in sprinting competitions • He also believed that Indians should be treated fairly and paid for their land •Settlers in Pennsylvania enjoyed a great relationship with the Indians because of this mutual respect
  • 63. Penn also recruited new immigrants to his colony sending out pamphlets across Europe People from every corner of Europe came, including the famous “Pennsylvania Dutch”, who were in fact German Deutsch) not Dutch!
  • 64. Penn worked hard to create a tolerant and peaceful colony • He welcomed Jews and Quakers to his colony, although English officials eventually forced Penn to turn Jews away Penn referred to his colony as a “holy experiment”. • some suggest that he also became an opponent of slavery, although he had owned and traded slaves
  • 65. enn searched for a capital that was “high, dry, and ealthy” e found an area that was suitable and called it Philadelphia (brotherly love) hiladelphia
  • 66. Because Pennsylvania had no outlet to the Atlantic Ocean, Penn asked the Duke of York Public domain image for land along the Delaware River The Duke gave him what was known as the Lower Counties The settlers in the Lower Counties had governed William Penn themselves and did not want to be part of PA
  • 67. In 1701, the Lower Counties broke away from Pennsylvania and formed the colony of Delaware
  • 68. Review 3-2 What was the Patroon System? 1. 1. Why was the Patroon System unsuccessful? 2. Who served as the governor of New Netherland during its final years as a Dutch colony? 3. Why did the English capture New Netherland so easily? 4. (a) Who took over as the leader of New Netherland after the English victory and (b) what was it renamed? 5. Why was New Jersey called a proprietary colony? 6. What are four major beliefs/practices of the Quakers? 7. What document, written by William Penn, ensured private property, free enterprise, free press, trial by jury, and religious toleration? 8. How did William Penn win the respect and build a rapport with the Native Americans? 9. What colony was formed from an area known as the Lower Counties, in 1701?
  • 69. From Justin Winsor, ed., Narrative and Critical In 1632, Sir George Calvert History of America: English Explorations and asked Charles I for a land Settlements in North America 1497-1689, Vol. III (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin grant in the Americas & Company, 1884), 518. He received one, despite his unpopularity in England for converting to Catholicism. He decided to establish his colony as a place where Catholics could practice freely. He named his colony Maryland for Queen Sir Henrietta Marie, wife of George Calvert King Charles I.
  • 70. He named his colony Queen Henrietta Marie Maryland for Queen The work of art depicted in this Henrietta Marie, wife image and the reproduction thereof are in the of King Charles I. public domain worldwide. The reproduction is part of a collection of reproductions She was the younger compiled by The Yorck Project. The entire collection is sister of the King of copyrighted by The Yorck Project and licensed under the France. Queen GNU Free Documentation Henrietta Marie was License a Catholic which caused King Charles I to be more tolerant of English Catholics known as “Recusants”.
  • 71. Lord Baltimore Sir George Calvert died before he received his charter, so his son, Cecil Calvert , Lord Baltimore, took it over In 1633, Lord Baltimore sent 200 Colonists to Cecil Calvert, from MD State Archives Online Painted 1910. This image Maryland is in the public domain in the United States
  • 72. Maryland was a “land of plenty” and the settlers aryland were very pleased ere The soil was rich for tobacco planting and the he Chesapeake Bay was filled with seafood hesapeake The settlers named their first town St. Mary’s he
  • 73. • Lord Baltimore never visited his colony, but planned it out well • He appointed a governor (his brother) and council of advisors
  • 74. He offered 100 acres to anyone who brought a healthy male servant to Maryland 50 acres for every woman and child Settlers bringing 5 servants were entitled to 1,000 acres of land
  • 75. Maryland State Archives Women also settled land in MD Margaret and Mary Brent arrived in MD in 1638 and brought 9 servants. Each sister received 1,000 acres Margaret Brent was very active in politics and took charge of the governor’s estate upon his death
  • 76. • Brent also helped put down a rebellion by a man named William Claiborne. • She became so powerful that she asked for a position in the assembly, but was denied
  • 77. n order to help Maryland grow, Lord Baltimore welcomed protestants into his olony ater, he feared that Protestants would try to oppress Catholics as they did in ngland n 1649, the assembly of Maryland passed the Act of Toleration (AKA: aryland Toleration Act) which provided religious freedom to all Christians this did not extend to Jews) “Be it therefore enacted that noe person or persons whatsoever within this province. . .professing to believe in Jesus Christ, shall henceforth be in any waies troubled, molested or discountenanced for or in respect of his or her religion or in the free exercise thereof within this province nor in anything compelled to the belief or exercise of any other religion against his or her consent.quot; Broadside on the Maryland Toleration Act. Library of Congress
  • 78. • Fighting broke out in Virginia between English settlers and Indians over land. In 1640, the settlers and Indians agreed to divide land, but the treaty was ignored • The governor was urged to deal with Indians who were attacking settle- ments but he Refused • Many believed that he feared his fur trade profits would be damaged
  • 79. Bacon’s Rebellion In 1676, Nathaniel quot;[Nathaniel Bacon, three- quarter length portrait, seated, Bacon organizes facing right] Engraving by T. Chambars after a painting by Seipse. created/published men and women [between 1760 and 1800].quot; Library of Congress on the frontier to fight the Indians He is very brutal in his treatment of the Indians and becomes a fierce enemy of Virginia Governor William Berkeley Nathaniel Bacon
  • 80. Bacon led several raids on friendly Indian tribes Berkeley tried to arrest him but he fled Bacon had become very popular throughout Virginia and was elected to the House of Burgesses irginia Source unknown
  • 81. Source: National Park Service When he arrived at the House of Burgesses, he was captured and forced to apologize for defying Governor Berkeley orced He was immediately pardoned During a heated debate about Indians at the House of Burgesses, Bacon stormed out of the chamber, gathered his forces, and acon surrounded the statehouse urrounded
  • 82. quot;Governor Bacon demanded erkeley (facing) rushing out to again a commission confront athaniel Bacon.quot; Public domain as General of the image militia Again Berkeley denied his request and dared him to shoot him Bacon took over Jamestown and Berkeley was eventually forced to flee
  • 83. Bacon issued a “Declaration of the People” which stated that Berkeley was corrupt Berkeley eventually recaptured Jamestown after secretly getting people loyal to him to infiltrate Bacon’s troops Bacon died in the same year from the “Bloodie Flux“ (dysentery) and quot;Lousey Diseasequot; (body lice). In the end, 23 of bacon’s followers were hanged, but problems with the Indians were not resolved
  • 84. The Carolinas were named after King Charles II and given to 8 proprietors They promised others settling in the Carolinas serf and slaves for a price Although many were interested in buying land, few were willing to be slaves or serfs Eventually, they set up a government like Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not VA and MD allowed. Carolina Colony grants of 1663 and 1665 © 2004 Matthew Trump
  • 85. In the northern part of the Carolinas, poor tobacco farmers from VA populated the area
  • 86. Settlers in the southern part of the Carolinas tried to raise grapes, oranges, lemons and silkworms unsuccessfully The swamp land of the area made rice growing very easy and it became an instant cash crop for the colony
  • 87. Settlers in southern Carolina tried to enslave Indians unsuccessfully By the year 1700, the majority of people coming in to the Carolinas were African Slaves taken This image (or against their will other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. Economic differences in the 2 areas led to the division of North and South Carolina in 1712.
  • 88. eorgia, named after King King George II eorge II, was the last of the 3 colonies to be settled. ames Oglethorpe settled the rea as a penal colony for hose who had been put in rison for an inability to pay ebts. These people were alled “debtors”. n order to promote his ause, he took a large group f men from the House of ommons to tour the onditions of a local prison. George II of Great Britain, 18th century painting. he conditions were awful. Public domain image
  • 89. “Land to feed the poor” Source: National Park Service He hoped settlers would follow him in large numbers. He even offered to pay for the debtors travel to the Americas In 1733, the first 120 settlers reached Georgia. The first colony they built James Oglethorpe was Savannah.
  • 90. No more than 50 acres No Slavery No selling of rum
  • 91. Georgia grew slowly because of rules Many settlers moved north to settle in areas where they could buy more land and own slaves Oglethorpe eased rules and Georgia grew
  • 92. Georgia was strategically important to King George II The Spanish were a constant rival to the British and GA stood as a neighbor to Florida
  • 93. Oglethorpe led forces against the Spanish. The Spanish invaded Georgia and they were repelled by Oglethorpe's men and the Creek Indians Oglethorpe was eventually accused of mismanagement and recalled to England James Oglethorpe, detail from a painting at the Georgia State Capitol. Photograph by J. Williams (Sept. 17, 2003).
  • 94. Mary Musgrove (mother was Creek, father was English) helped the English with their relations with the Creeks
  • 95. She translated for Source unknown the English and gave them important information about Spanish troop movements. Musgrove is credited with helping the colony of Georgia grow peacefully
  • 96. Wrap up Middle Co lo nie s e w England Co lo nie s: New York Massachusetts Delaware Connecticut New Jersey Rhode Island Pennsylvania New Hampshire So uthe rn Co lo nie s Virginia Maryland North Carolina South Carolina Georgia
  • 97. Review 3-3 1. Lord Baltimore and his father decided to set up a colony in Maryland for members of what religious faith? 1. What law was passed in the Maryland colony to provide religious freedom for all Christians ? 2. Why did Nathaniel Bacon lead his infamous “Bacon’s Rebellion” in 1676? 3. What female leader asked for a position in the Maryland Assembly? 4. What was the major crop produced in (a) northern Carolina and in (b) southern Carolina? 5. What led to the division of the Carolinas into North and South Carolina in 1712? 6. James Oglethorpe set up a colony for what group of people in 1733? 7. Why did Georgia initially grow very slowly? 8. Why was Georgia considered such an important colony to the English? 9. What half Native American, half English woman helped relations between the settlers in Georgia and the Creek Indians? • Bonus: List the 13 Original Colonies
  • 98. King Charles I In 1649, Charles I was overthrown and executed by the Parliament during the English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell was offered the throne, but refused the title. Cromwell’s Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel reign saw Cooper. Public domain image divisions between the Army and Anthony van Dyck. nobles which Equestrian portrait of Charles I with caused much Seignior de St. Antoine. 1633, oil on canvas. strife in Buckingham Palace, Royal Collection, UK. government Oliver Cromwell Public domain image
  • 99. Less than 2 years after Cromwell’s death, King Charles II (son of Charles I) was asked to take the throne. At the Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 Cromwell's hearse was destroyed. His body was exhumed, the head severed and the corpse cast into a pit under the gallows.
  • 100. With a King on the throne again, England refocused on the colonies Many in England believed that the colonies existed solely to benefit ngland As a result, mercantilism (the theory that nations become stronger y building gold supply and expanding trade) is emphasized :Claude Lorrain, 1638 Public domain image
  • 101. Mercantilists believed that nations should export (goods sent to markets outside a country) more than they import (goods brought into a country). The Port of New York: birds eye view from the battery, looking South Published by Currier & Ives, c1872. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division
  • 102. The Navigation Laws were passed in 1660’s to make England richer and more powerful.
  • 103. The Navigation Laws - Examples: • Only ships made in England or colonies were allowed to carry goods to and from colonies. • Sailors had to be from colonies or England (served as way to ensure that England had a force of sailors during wartime) • All ships from Europe carrying goods to America had to stop to pay taxes on goods in England
  • 104. Another law restricted some goods from the colonies from being exported to any nation other than England. These goods, including tobacco, cotton, and sugar were referred to as “enumerated articles”.
  • 105. The Navigation Laws also had benefits for colonies • encouraged colonists to build own ships • had certain market for goods in England • received protection from English Navy The quot;Dunderberg,quot; the greatest man- of-war in the world, as she now appears in William H. Webb's ship- yard.
  • 106. Many colonists resented the Navigation Laws Thought they favored erchants merchants Began to smuggle goods from West Indies oods and Europe nd European ships began sailing into egan American ports, defying merican aw. law. This enraged English and they began to nd enforce Navigation nforce Laws with more fervor. aws Goélette américaine Californian, réplique de 1984 du cotre C.W. Lawrence de 1847.
  • 107. Sir Godfrey Kneller Bt. 1684 King James II took (Public domain) the throne of England in 1685 after Charles II (his brother) died. He immediately tried to deal with smuggling in the colonies, particularly MA and RI King James II
  • 108. In 1686, James II Sir Edmund Andros combined colonies from MA to NJ creating the Dominion of New England He dismissed all of the assembles and made an anti- Puritan named Sir Edmund Andros governor of the area Public domain image
  • 109. In 1688, Parliament overthrew King James ho escaped to France This became known as the Glorious evolution Parliament invited King William and Queen ary of the Netherlands to take the throne
  • 110. William and William III Mary II (of Orange) Queen Mary II, Mary did after a painting by William Wissing Public away with the domain image Dominion of New England and restored the assemblies They also signed the English Bill of Rights
  • 111. The English Bill of Rights guarantied several things including: • Trial by jury • Protection from cruel and unusual punishment • Ensured that the King could not raise taxes or an army without Parliament’s approval • Colonists, being English subjects, were protected by the Bill Also, it granted freedom of religious worship to all Christians, except Catholics, and persons denying the Trinity (Jews, etc.).
  • 112. Governor- Each colony had a governor. The governor enforced laws. Council of Advisors- advisors made recommendations to the governor about ruling. Legislature- group of officials who make laws
  • 113. Legislatures in most colonies had 2 houses (bicameral) Upper house was usually the governors advisors Lower house was elected assembly
  • 114. In some colonies, only protestants could vote Most local elections were governed by local authorities
  • 115. ew whites enjoyed rights discussed lack people and Native Americans had irtually no rights
  • 116. • Women were forced to rely on men for their livelihood by marrying young • Married women were forbidden from signing contracts without the consent of their husbands or starting businesses • Unmarried and widowed women often had more rights than married women
  • 117. • Many people could not afford the voyage from Europe to the Americas • Passage was often paid by those who wanted these people to serve as “indentured servants” servants • Indentured servants agreed to give 4-7 years of service in return for the price of passage and “freedom dues”
  • 118. Indentured servants could expect a set of clothes, tools, and 50 acres of land upon completion of their term of service. Women often shortened their service by marrying Most indentured servants became craftsman
  • 119. Review 3-4 1. Define mercantilism? 1. Give some examples of the Navigation Laws and define their purpose? 2. How were the Navigation Laws a benefit to colonists? 3. What was the Dominion of New England and why was it established? 4. What was the Glorious Revolution? 5. What was the English Bill of Rights? 6. What was the role of a (a) colonial governor, (b) his council of advisors (c) and a colonial legislature? 7. What was the criteria for voting in ALL 13 colonies? 8. How did marriage lessen the rights of colonial women? 9. What (a) was an indentured servant and (b) why would people become indentured servants?