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1 1 ict & tourism_introduction
 

1 1 ict & tourism_introduction

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    1 1 ict & tourism_introduction 1 1 ict & tourism_introduction Presentation Transcript

    • IInformation andnformation and CCommunicationommunication TTechnologiesechnologies inin TourismTourism
    • 2 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism ICT in TourismICT in Tourism ObjectiveObjective Gain insight into the tourism domain as one ofGain insight into the tourism domain as one of the most important application fields of ICTthe most important application fields of ICT GetGet anan understandingunderstanding ofof thethe strongstrong needneed forfor thethe applicationapplication of ICT in tourismof ICT in tourism Give an overview of different ICT applicationsGive an overview of different ICT applications along the tourism value chainalong the tourism value chain Gain experience in typical usage scenarios ofGain experience in typical usage scenarios of modern information and communicationmodern information and communication technologiestechnologies
    • 3 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism AgendaAgenda Mobile services & ambient intelligence3.6 Social Media & Web 2.03.0 Online auctions in tourism3.7 Dynamic packaging3.5 Recommender systems3.4 Software agents3.3 Interoperability and semantic web3.2 Website optimisation3.1 Trends and future applications3. Tourism management and eTourism2.5 Destination organisations and eTourism2.4 Intermediaries and eTourism2.3 Tourism suppliers and eTourism2.2 Tourism stakeholders and interfaces2.1 ICT usage in tourism – overview and case studies2. eTourism – ICT usage in tourism1.2 Tourism as information business1.1 ICT and tourism – introduction1.
    • 4 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism AgendaAgenda Mobile services & ambient intelligence3.6 Social Media & Web 2.03.0 Online auctions in tourism3.7 Dynamic packaging3.5 Recommender systems3.4 Software agents3.3 Interoperability and semantic web3.2 Website optimisation3.1 Trends and future applications3. Tourism management and eTourism2.5 Destination organisations and eTourism2.4 Intermediaries and eTourism2.3 Tourism suppliers and eTourism2.2 Tourism stakeholders and interfaces2.1 ICT usage in tourism – overview and case studies2. eTourism – ICT usage in tourism1.2 Tourism as information business1.1 ICT and tourism – introduction1.
    • 5 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism 1.1 Tourism as1.1 Tourism as informationinformation businessbusiness Definition of tourismDefinition of tourism characteristics, facts, market structure andcharacteristics, facts, market structure and trendstrends Tourism as an informationTourism as an information--based industrybased industry role of information within tourism, informationrole of information within tourism, information needs and information flowneeds and information flow
    • 6 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism 1.1 Tourism as1.1 Tourism as informationinformation businessbusiness Definition of tourismDefinition of tourism characteristics, facts, market structure andcharacteristics, facts, market structure and trendstrends Tourism as an informationTourism as an information--based industrybased industry role of information within tourism, informationrole of information within tourism, information needs and information flowneeds and information flow
    • 7 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism Characteristics of tourismCharacteristics of tourism TourismTourism placesplaces:: attractionsattractions areare assumedassumed toto bebe uniqueunique,, differentdifferent fromfrom everydayeveryday environmentenvironment LeisureLeisure activitiesactivities presupposepresuppose theirtheir oppositeopposite i.e.i.e. existenceexistence ofof regulatedregulated andand organizedorganized workwork ForFor touriststourists visitedvisited placesplaces areare ““freefree”” ofof workwork ServicesServices free consumerfree consumer fromfrom dailydaily burdensburdens AA differentdifferent time frametime frame
    • 8 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism Definition of tourismDefinition of tourism TourismTourism TourismTourism includesincludes allall activitiesactivities ofof personspersons visitingvisiting placesplaces outsideoutside theirtheir usualusual environmentenvironment (WTO)(WTO) TourismTourism industryindustry Conglomerate of individuals and organizationsConglomerate of individuals and organizations involved ininvolved in productionproduction,, distributiondistribution andand consumptionconsumption of tourism productsof tourism products UmbrellaUmbrella industry containing a set of interrelatedindustry containing a set of interrelated businessesbusinesses involving travel companies, accommodationinvolving travel companies, accommodation facilities, catering enterprises, tour operators,facilities, catering enterprises, tour operators, travel agents, providers of recreation and leisuretravel agents, providers of recreation and leisure facilitiesfacilities
    • 9 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism Definition of tourismDefinition of tourism Traveler Outside usual environment For less than 12 consecutive month Purpose of trip other than an activity remunerated from within the place visited With overnight OtherTravelers Visitor Same-day Visitor Tourist Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Tourism (Werthner/Klein 1999)
    • 10 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism Definition of tourismDefinition of tourism Types of tourismTypes of tourism DistanceDistance: long/short: long/short--haulhaul DestinationDestination: domestic/foreign: domestic/foreign LengthLength: short, weekend, holiday, long: short, weekend, holiday, long--termterm Number of participantsNumber of participants: group/single: group/single Organization formOrganization form: packaged tour/individualized: packaged tour/individualized Dominant activityDominant activity: leisure/business: leisure/business
    • 11 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism Definition of tourismDefinition of tourism Main travel motivesMain travel motives PhysicalPhysical: recreation, relaxing, fitness, wellness: recreation, relaxing, fitness, wellness…… PsychologicalPsychological: diversion, easing day to day: diversion, easing day to day burden, adventure, self fulfillment/burden, adventure, self fulfillment/-- developmentdevelopment…… InterpersonalInterpersonal: group experience, socializing: group experience, socializing…… CulturalCultural: education, experience with other: education, experience with other societies, culturessocieties, cultures…… SocioSocio--psychologicalpsychological: status, prestige: status, prestige……
    • 12 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism TheThe tourismtourism marketmarket
    • 13 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism TheThe tourismtourism marketmarket
    • 14 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism TheThe tourismtourism marketmarket
    • 15 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism TheThe tourismtourism marketmarket Source: Statistik Austria
    • 16 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism TheThe tourismtourism marketmarket
    • 17 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism TheThe tourismtourism marketmarket OutboundOutbound traveltravel
    • 18 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism TheThe tourismtourism marketmarket GrossGross DomesticDomestic ProductProduct
    • 19 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism TheThe tourismtourism marketmarket EmploymentEmployment
    • 20 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism TheThe tourismtourism marketmarket % of consumption% of consumption
    • 21 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism TheThe tourismtourism marketmarket TrendTrend
    • 22 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism StructureStructure ofof thethe tourismtourism marketmarket (Werthner/Klein 1999)
    • 23 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism StructureStructure ofof thethe tourismtourism marketmarket Value chain of the tourism industryValue chain of the tourism industry The value chain of each organization isThe value chain of each organization is incorporated within a greater value systemincorporated within a greater value system (including those of suppliers, distributors and(including those of suppliers, distributors and retailers, etc.)retailers, etc.) In order to work efficiently and to deliverIn order to work efficiently and to deliver seamless products, the value chain of all actorsseamless products, the value chain of all actors must be coordinatedmust be coordinated If any partner fails to deliver appropriate valuesIf any partner fails to deliver appropriate values the entire chain can collapsethe entire chain can collapse if the water supplier of a hotel fails to deliver waterif the water supplier of a hotel fails to deliver water if the tour operator goes into liquidationif the tour operator goes into liquidation Tourism market is characterized byTourism market is characterized by long valuelong value chainschains
    • 24 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism StructureStructure ofof thethe tourismtourism marketmarket (Werthner/Klein 1999)
    • 25 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism 1.1 Tourism as1.1 Tourism as informationinformation businessbusiness Definition of tourismDefinition of tourism characteristics, facts, market structure andcharacteristics, facts, market structure and trendstrends Tourism as an informationTourism as an information--based industrybased industry role of information within tourism, informationrole of information within tourism, information needs and information flowneeds and information flow
    • 26 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism TourismTourism productsproducts asas servicesservices Consumption of tourismConsumption of tourism servicesservices isis anan interactiveinteractive andand nonnon--predictablepredictable processprocess betweenbetween suppliersupplier andand consumerconsumer UncertaintyUncertainty ForFor supplierssuppliers concerningconcerning thethe behaviourbehaviour ofof thethe consumersconsumers duringduring serviceservice consumptionconsumption ForFor consumersconsumers concerningconcerning thethe qualityquality ofof thethe offeredoffered servicesservices TourismTourism servicesservices areare experienceexperience oror confidenceconfidence goodsgoods
    • 27 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism ExperienceExperience oror confidenceconfidence goodsgoods ExperienceExperience andand confidenceconfidence characteristicscharacteristics areare typicaltypical forfor tourismtourism servicesservices InformationInformation cancan createcreate searchsearch characteristicscharacteristics andand reducereduce uncertaintyuncertainty (Schertler 1994) Time of evaluation before purchase after purchase search characteristics experience characteristics experience or confidence characteristics confidence characteristics possible not possible Evaluation of service characteristics
    • 28 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism Complexity of the tourism productComplexity of the tourism product The tourism product is always a set of components,The tourism product is always a set of components, differentiated into physical and service oriented typesdifferentiated into physical and service oriented types Information can reduce product complexityInformation can reduce product complexity Carrier Accommodation Restaurant Destination‘s infrastructure Physical components Service components Integrative additive set Additive service components (information by travel agent, room service, etc.) Tourism product as a set of components (Rohte 1994)
    • 29 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism ImportanceImportance ofof informationinformation CharacteristicsCharacteristics of tourismof tourism servicesservices IntangibilityIntangibility Supplier performance and service quality can not be evaluated anSupplier performance and service quality can not be evaluated and testedd tested prior to consumptionprior to consumption SyncronismSyncronism ProductProduct qualityquality basedbased on social interactionon social interaction betweenbetween suppliersupplier andand consumer (consumer (prosumingprosuming)) NonNon--storabilitystorability Capacities not sold are irretrievably lostCapacities not sold are irretrievably lost IndividualityIndividuality andand complexitycomplexity HighHigh informationinformation needneed ForFor consumerconsumer as well asas well as suppliersupplier ConsequenceConsequence ofof missingmissing informationinformation ((asymmetriesasymmetries)) AdverseAdverse selectionselection:: displacementdisplacement of goodof good qualitiesqualities MoralMoral hazardhazard:: missingmissing willingnesswillingness ofof suppliersupplier toto satisfysatisfy consumerconsumer needsneeds
    • 30 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism InformationInformation needsneeds (Sheldon 1997)
    • 31 © copyright IFITTICT in Tourism Changing consumer behaviorChanging consumer behavior TouristsTourists tend to maketend to make moremore butbut shorter vacationsshorter vacations decide laterdecide later, leading to decreased time span between, leading to decreased time span between booking and consumptionbooking and consumption ask forask for ““betterbetter”” servicesservices, as being travel experienced, as being travel experienced wantwant moremore specificspecific offersoffers ask forask for better informationbetter information aboutabout product itselfproduct itself entire destinationentire destination additional servicesadditional services are becoming moreare becoming more mobilemobile andand criticalcritical butbut less loyalless loyal are moreare more priceprice--consciousconscious, comparing many offers, comparing many offers IncreasingIncreasing informationinformation needneed