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Leadership for All

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The authors of Leadership for All present an innovative approach to the development of personal leadership. They provide a valuable guide for either self-directed or facilitated ongoing personal …

The authors of Leadership for All present an innovative approach to the development of personal leadership. They provide a valuable guide for either self-directed or facilitated ongoing personal development. Their book will assist leaders and managers to enhance their specific competencies and clarify their value systems.


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  • 1. City of Cape Town Leadership for All By Marius Ungerer, Johan Herholdt Leadership Development Proposal & Jannie le Roux Arnold Smit Presented by Prof Marius UngererYour partner in world-classbusiness learning Date: 30/10/2012We Read For You:October 2012
  • 2. The scorecard – disenchantment with management  2008 Gallup poll on honesty and ethics among workers in 21 different professions :  only 12% felt business executives had high/very high integrity – an all time low.  37% rate executives low/very low on integrity.  2009 survey by Management Today:  31% of respondents stated they had low or no trust in their management team.  This pattern is continuously confirmed by MBA students during class discussions. Everybody is interested in leadership, but how do we break the patterns from the past? How do we restore confidence in leaders and their practice? 2M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 3. Purpose of book  The purpose of this book is to make a contribution in the leadership ‘practices’ domain.  Although there are many books covering leadership content (the What of leadership) there is a shortage of material that guides leaders to ‘entrain’, experiment and explore options for the How-to of refining their natural leadership style and strengths.  This book structures self-help reflective routines to assist leaders in developing their skills, attitude and knowledge practically in 24 competencies .  The core of this book centres around 101 reflective rituals that guide leaders to expand their competence repertoire . 3M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 4. Target audience(s)  People who want to develop a thorough understanding about:  the essential competences that leaders use  in order to be influential and  have a positive impact in the world.  People who would find this book beneficial will include students, leaders, coaches, mentors, trainers, programme developers and academics who are in the game of developing leaders.  This book is aimed at any person who wants to improve his or her leadership capacity. Building a deep leadership capacity and capability to foster societal, organisational and personal leadership is a strategic priority, especially in emerging economies 4M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 5. The intent with the title  Leadership does not only reside in a “super-club” of specially gifted individuals or the executive floor.  Organisational success is the result of many collaborators each doing their part to fulfil shared ideals and aspirations of the enterprise.  In thriving organisations, leaders and leadership behaviour is an ubiquitous, widely distributed capability.  The reality is that there are people who swim in front.  Leadership cannot exist without followers. Followers always “swim” behind a leader/s, but in front of others.  This implies that, paradoxically, we are ALL leaders and followers at the same time. To be a leaders is however a conscious choice. We are all confronted with this challenge choice. To lead from anywhere requires a systematic on-going skills building approach. 5M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 6. How do we see leadership?  Leadership is viewed from an outcome perspective.  Leadership is not about our intent, but all about our effect on others. We know leaders are judged by their results as well as how it were achieved, and not their intent only.  Leadership is a capability to influence positively and impact on situations and people in order to make a difference in the circle of influence of the leader and her or his followers.  Leaders exert their influence and power in such a way that they impact the status quo and others in a positive way.  Leadership is a team activity where mutual influencing between leaders and followers creates outcomes that no individual could have achieved on her or his own.  The core activity that leaders perform is to use their voice, presence and power ethically and within moral boundaries to energise themself and others 6M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 7. Developing my leadership influence and impact through:  Finding my own unique, authentic voice  Making a difference through my presence Presence makes my leadership an experience for others  Using my power wisely Leadership involves using my Voice and Power with moral responsibility and moral boundaries 7M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 8. Approach to reading and working with the book  Because the nature of the book is ‘practice’ orientated, it would be impossible to complete the reading and do the tasks structured in the routines all in one go.  This is not a book where the emphasis is only on conceptual understanding of the material.  You will be challenged to engage positively and constructively with the reflective rituals that are designed to build your leadership competencies for positive influence and impact effects. 8M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 9. Chapter themes  Chapter 1: Leadership – an Introduction  Chapter 2: Reflective Learning  Chapter 3: The Reality of Leading  Chapter 4: Growing Your Leadership Influence and Impact: Introduction to Reflective Rituals  Chapter 5: Reflective Rituals: Cognitive and Knowledge Competency Cluster  Chapter 6: Reflective Rituals: Social and Attitude Competency Cluster  Chapter 7: Reflective Rituals: Personal and Emotional Competency Cluster  Chapter 8: Leadership – The Fat Lady Never Sings 9M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 10. Key departure points related to content Positive Psychology Authentic Leadership (Robert H. (Bob) Terry)  Larger perspective flows 6 Universal from science of Positive Virtue Themes Principle- Psychology. Servant Centred Leadership Leadership  Integrated view based on (Stephen R. (Robert K. leadership concepts relating Covey) Greenleaf) to authentic leadership, principle-centred leadership, distributed leadership and servant leadership. Figure 4.2: The relationship between the Leadership Models and Positive Psychology 10M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 11. Key departure points related to content Positive Psychology Authentic Leadership (Robert H. (Bob) Terry) • Positive psychology is the 6 Universal study of circumstances and Virtue Themes processes required for the Principle- Centred Servant optimal functioning of Leadership Leadership (Stephen R. (Robert K. people, teams and Covey) Greenleaf) organisations. • Positive psychological thinking was born from the realisation that psychology was not producing enough Figure 4.2: The relationship between the Leadership Models and Positive Psychology “knowledge of what makes life worth living”. 11M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 12. Authentic leadership influences leaders’ and followers’ wellbeing Authentic Leadership • Self-awareness • Unbiased Processing • Authentic Behaviour/Actions • Relational Authenticity R1 Leader Well-being • Personal Expressiveness Influence Processes • Self-realisation/Development • Personal & Organisational Identification • Flow experiences • Positive Emotions Contagion • Self-efficacy/Self-esteem • Positive Behaviour Modelling • Supportive Self-determination • Positive Social Exchanges R2 Follower Well-being • Personal Expressiveness • Self-realisation/Development • Flow experiences • Self-efficacy/Self-esteem Fig. 1.1. Authentic leadership influences on Leaders’ and Followers’ well-being Based on Ilies, R., Morgeson, F.P., Nahrgang, J.D. (2005). Authentic leadership and eudaemonic well-being: Understanding leader–follower outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly. 16, 373-394. 12M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 13. The effect of followers’ wellbeing on leaders Authentic Leadership • Self-awareness • Unbiased Processing • Authentic Behaviour/Actions • Relational Authenticity R1 Leader Well-being • Personal Expressiveness Influence Processes • Self-realisation/Development • Personal & Organisational Identification • Flow experiences • Positive Emotions Contagion • Self-efficacy/Self-esteem • Positive Behaviour Modelling R3 • Supportive Self-determination • Positive Social Exchanges R2 Follower Well-being • Personal Expressiveness • Self-realisation/Development • Flow experiences • Self-efficacy/Self-esteem Figure 1.2. The effect of Followers’ Well-being on the Leader’s Well-being 13M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 14. Virtuous effects of Leadership  Entrainment and synchrony (Creating a vibe) Authentic Leadership • Self-awareness • Unbiased Processing • Authentic Behaviour/Actions • Relational Authenticity Leader Well-being • Personal Expressiveness Influence Processes • Self-realisation/Development • Personal & Organisational Identification • Flow experiences • Positive Emotions Contagion • Self-efficacy/Self-esteem • Positive Behaviour Modelling • Supportive Self-determination • Positive Social Exchanges R4 Follower Well-being • Personal Expressiveness • Self-realisation/Development • Flow experiences • Self-efficacy/Self-esteem E.g. marching in step for as little as 3 minutes increases co-operation significantly 14M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 15. Virtuous effects of Leadership  Leadership is a natural and necessary task wherever social beings have to cooperate.  The compass of the leader is her/his set of core virtues.  These virtues resonate within the leader and the leader’s behaviour and sets up a virtuous reinforcing loop between leader and followers through the process of synchrony and entrainment.  The behaviour of the leader influences the behaviour of many in a positive way.  The absence of virtues set up a negative reinforcing loop. 15M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 16. Authentic leadership in the context of leadership models Authentic Leadership Outcomes of Servant leaders: Principle-centred leaders: (Robert H. (Bob) Terry) •are continually learning – they seek •People ‘served’ grow as individuals, training, learn from their experiences and becoming “healthier, wiser, more listen to others. autonomous and more likely themselves to •are service-oriented – they see life as a become servants mission to serve others. •The least advantaged in society benefits •radiate positive energy – they have most (or are at least not more optimistic attitudes and are positive and disadvantaged). upbeat. •believe in other people – they do not Therefore the servant leader: over-react to criticism, negative behaviour •Uses Transformation as a vehicle for or human weaknesses, as they understand personal and institutional growth. that behaviour and potential are different •Uses Personal growth as a route to things. better serve others. •lead balanced lives – they are active Principle- •Creates Enabling environments that socially and intellectually, and have many Servant empower and encourage service. Centred life interests. Leadership •Sees Service as her/his fundamental •see life as an adventure – they savour life Leadership goal. (Robert K. and are not afraid of the unknown, as they (Stephen R. •Builds Trusting relationships as a basic know it will be exciting and educational. Greenleaf) platform for collaboration and service. Covey) •are synergistic – they are catalysts for •Creates commitment as a way to change, improving any situations in which collaborative activity. they become involved. •Engages in Community building as a •exercise self-renewal – they regularly way to create environments in which exercise the four dimensions of the human people can trust each other and work personality: physical, mental, emotional and together. spiritual. Figure 1.3. The Overlap between Servant, •Nurtures the spirit as a way to provide Principle-Centred and Authentic Leadership joy and fulfilment in meaningful work. 16M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 17. Virtues as the basis: What is a virtue  A virtue is defined as:  “Moral excellence and righteousness; goodness”; and  “A particularly efficacious, good, or beneficial quality; advantage”.  The general scheme we endorse relies on six overarching virtues that almost every culture across the world endorses.  Peterson and Seligman developed a classification framework in which they classified 24 individual strengths linked to six broad universal virtues.  These virtues transcend national and cultural boundaries.  Although they do not claim universality with this framework, they represent a claim of ubiquity – the identified virtues and associated individual strengths are commonly present in all people of the world. Peterson, C., and Seligman, M.E.P. 2004. Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classifications. New York: Oxford Press. “If a man decides to be a man of virtue, he will not do evil things.” – Confucius 17M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 18. Peterson, C., and Seligman, M.E.P. 2004. Character Strengths and Virtues: A Six Universal virtue themes Handbook and Classifications. New York: Oxford Press.  1 Wisdom and knowledge which includes the cognitive competencies of:  creativity, curiosity, open-mindedness, love of learning and perspective.  2 Humanity and includes the social and attitude competencies of:  kindness, love and social intelligence.  3 Justice. The social and attitude competencies associated with it are:  fairness, leadership and teamwork.  4 Courage and includes the personal and emotional competencies of:  authenticity, bravery, persistence and zest.  5 Temperance and personal and emotional competencies of:  forgiveness, modesty, prudence and self-regulation.  6 Transcendence and include the personal and emotional competencies of:  appreciation of beauty, gratitude, hope, humour and religiousness. 18M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 19. Virtue is easy  Many of us have been indoctrinated since a young age that a virtuous life is difficult, only reserved for a few ‘moral geniuses’, something that happens after a lifetime of striving, essentially impossible for ‘normal’ human beings who are worried about the next down-payment on the car and the kids’ braces.  This (non-virtuous) view has been given the lie by recent insights into our mammalian heritage.  Mark Solms argues that virtuous behaviour is the most basic instinct we all possess. He says we as people are compelled to act in ways that make us feel good, so much so that it is an ancient part of the structure of the brain – the so-called PAG structure, which developed in vertebrates before mammals split off. (Solms, M. 2011. Neurobiological Foundations in John W. de Gruchy (ed.) The Humanist Imperative in South Africa. Stellenbosch: Sun Press. p. 41-55.)  When Peterson and Seligman did their research they stumbled upon these very feel-good factors. 19M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 20. Meta-Competence Structure to house 101 Reflective Routines Cognitive and Social and attitude Personal and emotional knowledge competency cluster competency cluster Competency Cluster Cognitive and knowledge Social and attitude Personal and emotional Competency Cluster competency cluster competency cluster Universal Virtue Theme: Universal Virtue Theme: Universal Virtue Theme: 1 Wisdom and Humanity Courage knowledge  Kindness  Authenticity 4   Love  Bravery 3 Competency Creativity    Curiosity Social intelligence Persistence Clusters  Open-  Zest 2 Wisdom and knowledge mindedness  Love of learning Humanity  Perspective Justice Universal Virtue Theme: Universal Virtue Theme: Courage 6 Universal Virtue Justice Temperance 3 Temperance Themes  Fairness  Forgiveness 5  Leadership  Modesty Transcendence  Teamwork  Prudence  Self-regulation Universal Virtue Theme: 24 Leadership Meta- Transcendence  Appreciation of Competencies beauty and excellence  Gratitude 6  Hope  Humour 101 Reflective  Spirituality Routines Figure 4.3. Meta-Competence Structure to house 101 Reflective Routines 21M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 21. Self-knowledge as basis for personal growth The principle of descriptive self-awareness says that people benefit more from describing themselves to themselves than from having themselves described by others. Dave Snowden People learn through self discovery 22M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 22. Reflection as learning process Sustainable change comes from inside ourselves  The roots of reflective learning lie in this statement by professor Donald Schön:  “I have come to feel that [the] only learning which significantly influences behaviour is self-discovered, self-appropriated learning.”  We learn best by reflecting on our experience, on our practice.  This is why our 101 practices aim not at conclusions, but at being a stimulus for learning.  Following the practices will give you an experience or experiences from which to learn.  The conclusions – the morals of the stories – will, of necessity, be your own. Skill-building requires repeated practice 23M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 23. Reflective Routines for each competency area Virtue and Competencies Definition 1. Wisdom and knowledge Cognitive strengths that entail the acquisition and use of knowledge  Creativity Thinking of novel and productive ways to do things  Curiosity Taking an interest in all of ongoing experience  Open-mindedness Thinking things through and examining them from all sides  Love of learning Mastering new skills, topics, and bodies of knowledge  Perspective Being able to provide wise counsel to others 2. Courage Emotional strengths that involve the exercise of will to accomplish goals in the face of opposition, external or internal  Authenticity Speaking the truth and presenting oneself in a genuine way  Bravery Not shrinking from threat, challenge, difficulty, or pain  Persistence Finishing what one starts  Zest Approaching life with excitement and energy 3. Humanity Interpersonal strengths that involve “tending and befriending” others  Kindness Doing favours and good deeds for others  Love Valuing close relations with others  Social intelligence Being aware of the motives and feelings of self and others Peterson, C., and Seligman, M.E.P. 2004. Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classifications. New York: Oxford Press. 24M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 24. Reflective Routines for each competency area Virtue and Competencies Definition 4. Justice Civic strengths that underlie healthy community life  Fairness Treating all people the same according to notions of fairness and justice  Leadership Organizing group activities and seeing that they happen  Teamwork Working well as member of a group or team 5. Temperance Strengths that protect against excess  Forgiveness Forgiving those who have done wrong  Modesty Letting one’s accomplishments speak for themselves  Prudence Being careful about one’s choices; not saying or doing things that might later be regretted  Self-regulation Regulating what one feels and does 6. Transcendence Strengths that forge connections to the larger universe and provide Meaning  Appreciation of beauty Noticing and appreciating beauty, excellence, and/or skilled and excellence performance in all domains of life  Gratitude Being aware of and thankful for the good things that happen  Hope Expecting the best and working to achieve it  Humour Liking to laugh and tease; bringing smiles to other people  Spirituality Having coherent beliefs about the higher purpose and meaning of life Peterson, C., and Seligman, M.E.P. 2004. Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classifications. New York: Oxford Press. 25M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 25. You have to engage with the reflective rituals of this book to really learn and to develop your own leadership capacity. Reflection needs both a stimulus and a focus, and the intention is to supply a variety of these 26M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 26. Using Entrainment How virtues and competencies influence leader behaviour 24 Meta- 6 Universal competencies Virtue Themes for Leaders Authentic Leadership R1 Influence Processes Leader Well-being R3 R2 R4 Follower Well-being 27M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 27. LEADING IN THE 21ST CENTURY The currency  Personal relationships as part of a connected web  Trust is the basis of personal relationships. It is fragile and needs to be maintained through consistent behaviour.  “The moment there is suspicion about a person’s motives, everything he does becomes tainted.” – Mahatma Gandhi The scarce resource  Personal energy to strive continuously to achieve BHAGs The gift  Abundance thinking, where everybody achieves more through collaborative efforts  Co-operation and co-opetition 28M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 28. LEADING IN THE 21ST CENTURY The attitude  Positive deviance in order to seek possibilities  Love and respect for others who are different from me The intent  Organisations that are fit and friendly for human beings  Unleashing the collective genius through a community of learners The perspective  Integration of “me-we-work-world” 29M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 29. The Myths about leadership we want to change through the book ≠ Long live the hero leader ≠ Leadership power is all about me ≠ Leadership is about a position ≠ Leadership is only about results ≠ Leadership is just another additional task ≠ Leadership deals only with the positive things in life 30M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 30. What external reviewers said about the book Prof Ronel Erwee, University of Southern Queensland, Australia  This book has a very refreshing approach in assisting leaders and managers to enhance their specific competencies and clarify their value systems.  It enables leaders to pace themselves to build a personal learning program by completing the reflective exercises based on their unique needs.  The questions in the reflective exercises can be confronting, but they do generate much soul- searching and a quest for new perspectives. 31M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 31. What external reviewers said about the book Prof Peet Venter, UNISA, Business Management, south Africa  The book is not so much a traditional “academic” book, but rather a tool or roadmap for personal discovery and leadership development,  which makes it very suitable to students on leadership courses at business schools, participants in leadership workshops, as well as to practitioners such as coaches, and leaders or aspiring leaders in all types of organisations and contexts.  I also found it to be strongly founded in theoretical principles, and this combination offers a welcome alternative to the biographies of “rock star CEOs” that far too often serve as the role models and guides for aspiring leaders. 32M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 32. What external reviewers said about the book Christo Nel, The Village Leadership Consulting & visiting Lecturer Extraordinaire at USB.  It’s greatest contribution is making the art and challenge of reflection and self-directed adult learning accessible and user-friendly.  By giving people “a range of options for reflection” it removes a common layer of resistance, 33M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 33. We as humans want validation …  Some people wait their whole life to be affirmed.  This book give all of us the ability to:  Discover who I am is enough!  Allow yourself the privilege to:  Discover who you are is more than enough to be a leader.  Lead by giving yourself and other people a voice, power and presence. 34M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 34. This book is however not the last view …  The task of the leader is a never- ending one.  There is no end line. There are just many beginnings.  The fat lady never sings.  The world will always need leaders who can challenge, change and improve the status quo. 35M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.
  • 35. 36M Ungerer USB 2012 Leadership for All. WRFY October.

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