TEN PRINCIPLES WECAN LEARN FROM GAMEDESIGNERSJULIE DIRKSENUSABLE LEARNING
© Usable Learning 2013BUT FIRST, MEET ALLISONAllison is a brandnew instructionaldesigner, who justgot hired for her firstj...
© Usable Learning 2013Donald, Allison’snew boss is prettyenthusiastic.HER BOSS IS ON BOARD…We hired Allison partly because...
© Usable Learning 2013…there’s a new development…BUT THEN….Hey, Allison, I havesome great news!I just got the offer to hea...
© Usable Learning 2013Lena is not a “game-y”person.THE NEW BOSSI’m not sure I see the businessvalue of games for learning....
© Usable Learning 2013Green Work Practices Software TrainingSafety ComplianceALLISON’S DILEMMA
© Usable Learning 2013MAKING THE CASEVideoGameStare
© Usable Learning 2013 Making the business caseMAKING THE CASE FOR GAMESLena needs more than“engagement” toconvince her.S...
© Usable Learning 2013THE BOSS PRIZE OF E-LEARNINGFamiliarizationComprehensionConscious EffortConscious ActionProfici...
Glucose Metabolic Rate after several weeks of Tetris Practice
Tip #1DESIGN FOR FEEDBACK
© Usable Learning 2013 What does thefeedback loop looklike?FEEDBACK
© Usable Learning 2013CYCLES OF EXPERTISEPrinciple: Expertise is formed in any area byrepeated cycles of learners practic...
© Usable Learning 2013ANYBODY EVERY PLAYED DINER DASH?
© Usable Learning 2013How often do users get feedback in e-Learning?FEEDBACK FREQUENCY
© Usable Learning 2013Positive FeedbackNegative FeedbackRewardPunishmentBETTER THAN A SKINNER BOX
Tip #2TALK TO THE ELEPHANT
© Usable Learning 2013 How long is your attention span?FIRST, LET’S START WITH ATTENTION
© Usable Learning 2013 Let’s talk about attention…LET’S START WITH THE ELEPHANTJonathan Haidt, The Happiness Hypothesis
© Usable Learning 2013THE RIDER
© Usable Learning 2013THE ELEPHANT
© Usable Learning 2013SO, WHEN THERE’S A CONFLICT…Who do you think wins?
Tip #3URGENCY MATTERS
© Usable Learning 2013URGENCY MATTERSWe are creatures of urgency:Maybe I shouldconsiderretirementplanning…Basically, the e...
© Usable Learning 2013WE HAVE TROUBLE WITH THIS…We are also loss averse…
© Usable Learning 2013WHICH DO YOU THINK WORKS BETTER:I guess I’llbe glad Iknow thissomeday…I’m reallyglad I knowthis now…
© Usable Learning 2013AND THE FUTURE IS SOOOOO FAR AWAY…
© Usable Learning 2013WE MAKE DECISIONS DIFFERENTLY FOR OURFUTURE SELVESCurrent selfFuture selfPronin et al 2008
© Usable Learning 2013IT’S ABOUT CAKE VS FRUIT SALADShiv and Fedorikhin 1999Heart and Mind in Conflict: The Interplay of A...
Tip #4ACCOMPLISHMENTS
© Usable Learning 2013 Instead of WIIFM, How aboutWCIDWT?PURPOSE
© Usable Learning 2013WCIDWT?
© Usable Learning 2013 A goal needs to be an accomplishmentGOALS = ACCOMPLISHMENTSYou completed Module 4!I crushed the qu...
© Usable Learning 2013 Would you rather:THEY NEED TO BE INTERESTING CHOICESGofasterBesafer
Tip #5STRUCTURED FLOW OFGOALS
© Usable Learning 2013NEXT, LET’S TALK ABOUT GOALSImage Credit – Sebastian Deterdinghttp://www.slideshare.net/dings/dont-p...
© Usable Learning 2013EVER BEEN ROCK CLIMBING?
© Usable Learning 2013Image Credit – Sebastian Deterdinghttp://www.slideshare.net/dings/dont-play-games-with-me-promises-a...
© Usable Learning 2013MEDIUM GOALSImage Credit – Sebastian Deterdinghttp://www.slideshare.net/dings/dont-play-games-with-m...
© Usable Learning 2013Image Credit – Sebastian Deterdinghttp://www.slideshare.net/dings/dont-play-games-with-me-promises-a...
© Usable Learning 2013BUT WAIT…5.0 to 5.4 There are two hand- and two footholds for every move; theholds become progressiv...
© Usable Learning 2013THERE’S MORE…5.0 to 5.4 There are two hand- and two footholds for every move; theholds become progre...
Demo: AllenInteractions
Demo: AllenInteractions
Demo: AllenInteractions
Tip #6INCREASING DIFFICULTY
© Usable Learning 2013EVEN IF YOU DON’T NOTICE IT…
© Usable Learning 2013EVEN IF YOU DON’T NOTICE IT…The Art ofGame DesignByJesse Schell
© Usable Learning 2013HOW ABOUT MONOPOLY?
© Usable Learning 2013POP QUIZHow you do you say:“Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi”cheat code
© Usable Learning 2013WHAT’S FLOW?Flow: The Psychology ofOptimal ExperienceByMihaly Csikszentmihalyi
ArousalAnxietyWorry ControlRelaxationApathy BoredomFlowLow Skill Level HighChallengeLevelHighLow
© Usable Learning 2013THE FLOW CHANNELChallengeAbility- Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience by Mihaly Csikszentmiha...
Tip #7DESIGN FORAUTOMATICITY
© Usable Learning 2013WHAT’S HAPPENING IN THE BRAIN?
© Usable Learning 2013WHAT IS GOING ON WHEN YOU ARELEARNING SOMETHING NEW?Well, areas likeyour frontal cortexgets busy. It...
© Usable Learning 2013WHAT IS GOING ON WHEN YOU USING AREGULAR PATTERN YOU ALREADY KNOW?That leveragesparts of thebrain/br...
© Usable Learning 2013MOST CLASSES ARE BIKINGSTRAIGHT UPHILLNew New New New New NewWhew!
© Usable Learning 2013GAMES, ON THE OTHER HAND…Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6Some newstuff, prettyeasytho...
Glucose Metabolic Rate after several weeks of Tetris Practice
© Usable Learning 2013IT ALSO ALLOWS YOU TO PAYATTENTION TO WHAT’S DIFFERENT.In this model, everything is new andeverythin...
© Usable Learning 2013IT ALSO ALLOWS YOU TO PAYATTENTION TO WHAT’S DIFFERENT.In this model, the new material ismixed in wi...
© Usable Learning 2013KEEP IT BALANCEDChallengeAbility
Tip #8MAKE THINGS VISCERAL
© Usable Learning 2013LET’S TALK ABOUT VISCERAL FEEDBACKhttp://vhil.stanford.edu/pubs/2011/VHIL-technical-report.pdf
© Usable Learning 2013CONSEQUENCE-BASED FEEDBACK “Incorrect, a betterchoice would be toestablish a perimeterbefore procee...
Tip #9MAKE IT FUN
© Usable Learning 2013TYPES OF FUNFiero or Hard FunOvercoming Challenges,Solving PuzzlesEasy FunCuriosity, Exploration,Dis...
© Usable Learning 2013TAXONOMY OF GAME PLEASURESLeblancs Taxonomy ofGame Pleasures 1. Sensation 2. Fantasy 3. Narrative...
© Usable Learning 2013 There’s no such thing as mandatoryfun.GAME EXPERIENCE - FUNHmm…I realize thatgaming experiencesare...
© Usable Learning 2013 Is five dollars a good reward?BE CAREFUL ABOUT REWARDS
© Usable Learning 2013GOOD SURPRISES ARE GOOD Pleasant surprises cause a dopamine spike“PAY ATTENTION!If this is good, th...
© Usable Learning 2013EVEN BAD SURPRISES ARE GOOD Unpleasant surprises cause a dopamine drop.“PAY ATTENTION!This is bad. ...
© Usable Learning 2013NO SURPRISES ARE BADHmm. I wonderwhat I shouldhave for dinner...
© Usable Learning 2013GAMES DO THIS WELLGoldCoinGoldCoinGoldCoinGoldCoinSuper Platinum Hammer of Death™ thatlets you SQUAS...
Tip #10DON’T MAKE CRAPPYGAMES
© Usable Learning 2013MATCH GAMEPLAY TO THE REAL TASK Games are good at teaching you how to play games (notnecessarily ho...
© Usable Learning 2013 Is this a good game?MATCH GAMEPLAY TO CONTENTlogologologologo
© Usable Learning 2013PLAYTEST LIKE CRAZYYou HAVE to test gamesout.
© Usable Learning 2013PLANTS VS ZOMBIES LEVEL DIFFICULTY
© Usable Learning 2013Green Work Practices Software TrainingSafety ComplianceALLISON’S DILEMMAI need todecide.
© Usable Learning 2013Green Work PracticesSoftware TrainingSafety ComplianceALLISON’S DILEMMA10 Tips:1. Design for feedbac...
© Usable Learning 2013 Thanks! Julie Dirksen Usable Learning julie@usablelearning.com Twitter: usablelearning Linked...
Ten principles of game design for learning
Ten principles of game design for learning
Ten principles of game design for learning
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Ten principles of game design for learning

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  1. 1. TEN PRINCIPLES WECAN LEARN FROM GAMEDESIGNERSJULIE DIRKSENUSABLE LEARNING
  2. 2. © Usable Learning 2013BUT FIRST, MEET ALLISONAllison is a brandnew instructionaldesigner, who justgot hired for her firstjob.I’m really excited – I studied game-based learning in school, and my newboss is really enthusiastic about theidea!
  3. 3. © Usable Learning 2013Donald, Allison’snew boss is prettyenthusiastic.HER BOSS IS ON BOARD…We hired Allison partly because shecan bring a fresh new perspective.I’ll need to coach her on thebusiness end, but she’s got somegreat ideas.We are going to find a learninggame project for her right away.
  4. 4. © Usable Learning 2013…there’s a new development…BUT THEN….Hey, Allison, I havesome great news!I just got the offer to headup all of South Americantraining!It’ll be a chance to perfectmy salsa moves.And oh yeah – you’regetting a new boss.
  5. 5. © Usable Learning 2013Lena is not a “game-y”person.THE NEW BOSSI’m not sure I see the businessvalue of games for learning.Allison is going to have be prettyconvincing, and make the case forthis project.
  6. 6. © Usable Learning 2013Green Work Practices Software TrainingSafety ComplianceALLISON’S DILEMMA
  7. 7. © Usable Learning 2013MAKING THE CASEVideoGameStare
  8. 8. © Usable Learning 2013 Making the business caseMAKING THE CASE FOR GAMESLena needs more than“engagement” toconvince her.Secret:It’s not really about engagement.
  9. 9. © Usable Learning 2013THE BOSS PRIZE OF E-LEARNINGFamiliarizationComprehensionConscious EffortConscious ActionProficiencyUnconscious Competence- From Electronic Performance Support Systems by Gloria Gery
  10. 10. Glucose Metabolic Rate after several weeks of Tetris Practice
  11. 11. Tip #1DESIGN FOR FEEDBACK
  12. 12. © Usable Learning 2013 What does thefeedback loop looklike?FEEDBACK
  13. 13. © Usable Learning 2013CYCLES OF EXPERTISEPrinciple: Expertise is formed in any area byrepeated cycles of learners practicing skillsuntil they are nearly automatic, then havingthose skills fail in ways that cause thelearners to have to think again and learnanew...Games: Good games create and support thecycle of expertise...This is, in fact, part ofwhat constitutes good pacing in a game.- James Paul Gee
  14. 14. © Usable Learning 2013ANYBODY EVERY PLAYED DINER DASH?
  15. 15. © Usable Learning 2013How often do users get feedback in e-Learning?FEEDBACK FREQUENCY
  16. 16. © Usable Learning 2013Positive FeedbackNegative FeedbackRewardPunishmentBETTER THAN A SKINNER BOX
  17. 17. Tip #2TALK TO THE ELEPHANT
  18. 18. © Usable Learning 2013 How long is your attention span?FIRST, LET’S START WITH ATTENTION
  19. 19. © Usable Learning 2013 Let’s talk about attention…LET’S START WITH THE ELEPHANTJonathan Haidt, The Happiness Hypothesis
  20. 20. © Usable Learning 2013THE RIDER
  21. 21. © Usable Learning 2013THE ELEPHANT
  22. 22. © Usable Learning 2013SO, WHEN THERE’S A CONFLICT…Who do you think wins?
  23. 23. Tip #3URGENCY MATTERS
  24. 24. © Usable Learning 2013URGENCY MATTERSWe are creatures of urgency:Maybe I shouldconsiderretirementplanning…Basically, the elephant isbad at waiting for stuff.
  25. 25. © Usable Learning 2013WE HAVE TROUBLE WITH THIS…We are also loss averse…
  26. 26. © Usable Learning 2013WHICH DO YOU THINK WORKS BETTER:I guess I’llbe glad Iknow thissomeday…I’m reallyglad I knowthis now…
  27. 27. © Usable Learning 2013AND THE FUTURE IS SOOOOO FAR AWAY…
  28. 28. © Usable Learning 2013WE MAKE DECISIONS DIFFERENTLY FOR OURFUTURE SELVESCurrent selfFuture selfPronin et al 2008
  29. 29. © Usable Learning 2013IT’S ABOUT CAKE VS FRUIT SALADShiv and Fedorikhin 1999Heart and Mind in Conflict: The Interplay of Affect and Cognition in Consumer Decision Making
  30. 30. Tip #4ACCOMPLISHMENTS
  31. 31. © Usable Learning 2013 Instead of WIIFM, How aboutWCIDWT?PURPOSE
  32. 32. © Usable Learning 2013WCIDWT?
  33. 33. © Usable Learning 2013 A goal needs to be an accomplishmentGOALS = ACCOMPLISHMENTSYou completed Module 4!I crushed the quarterlysales goal!
  34. 34. © Usable Learning 2013 Would you rather:THEY NEED TO BE INTERESTING CHOICESGofasterBesafer
  35. 35. Tip #5STRUCTURED FLOW OFGOALS
  36. 36. © Usable Learning 2013NEXT, LET’S TALK ABOUT GOALSImage Credit – Sebastian Deterdinghttp://www.slideshare.net/dings/dont-play-games-with-me-promises-and-pitfalls-of-gameful-design
  37. 37. © Usable Learning 2013EVER BEEN ROCK CLIMBING?
  38. 38. © Usable Learning 2013Image Credit – Sebastian Deterdinghttp://www.slideshare.net/dings/dont-play-games-with-me-promises-and-pitfalls-of-gameful-designMICRO-LEVEL GOALS
  39. 39. © Usable Learning 2013MEDIUM GOALSImage Credit – Sebastian Deterdinghttp://www.slideshare.net/dings/dont-play-games-with-me-promises-and-pitfalls-of-gameful-design
  40. 40. © Usable Learning 2013Image Credit – Sebastian Deterdinghttp://www.slideshare.net/dings/dont-play-games-with-me-promises-and-pitfalls-of-gameful-designEND GOAL!
  41. 41. © Usable Learning 2013BUT WAIT…5.0 to 5.4 There are two hand- and two footholds for every move; theholds become progressively smaller as the number increases.5.5 to 5.6 The two hand- and two footholds are there, obvious to theexperienced, but not necessarily so to the beginner.5.7 The move is missing one hand- or foothold.5.8 The move is missing two holds of the four, or missing only one butis very strenuous.5.9 The move has only one reasonable hold which may be for either afoot or a hand.5.10 No hand- or footholds. The choices are to pretend a hold is there,pray a lot, or go home.5.11 After thorough inspection you conclude this move is obviouslyimpossible; however, occasionally someone actually accomplishes it.Since there is nothing for a handhold, grab it with both hands.5.12 The surface is as smooth as glass and vertical. No one has reallyever made this move, although a few claim they have.5.13 This is identical to 5.12 except it is located under overhangingrock."
  42. 42. © Usable Learning 2013THERE’S MORE…5.0 to 5.4 There are two hand- and two footholds for every move; theholds become progressively smaller as the number increases.5.5 to 5.6 The two hand- and two footholds are there, obvious to theexperienced, but not necessarily so to the beginner.5.7 The move is missing one hand- or foothold.5.8 The move is missing two holds of the four, or missing only one but isvery strenuous.5.9 The move has only one reasonable hold which may be for either a footor a hand.5.10 No hand- or footholds. The choices are to pretend a hold is there,pray a lot, or go home.5.11 After thorough inspection you conclude this move is obviouslyimpossible; however, occasionally someone actually accomplishes it.Since there is nothing for a handhold, grab it with both hands.5.12 The surface is as smooth as glass and vertical. No one has reallyever made this move, although a few claim they have.5.13 This is identical to 5.12 except it is located under overhanging rock."
  43. 43. Demo: AllenInteractions
  44. 44. Demo: AllenInteractions
  45. 45. Demo: AllenInteractions
  46. 46. Tip #6INCREASING DIFFICULTY
  47. 47. © Usable Learning 2013EVEN IF YOU DON’T NOTICE IT…
  48. 48. © Usable Learning 2013EVEN IF YOU DON’T NOTICE IT…The Art ofGame DesignByJesse Schell
  49. 49. © Usable Learning 2013HOW ABOUT MONOPOLY?
  50. 50. © Usable Learning 2013POP QUIZHow you do you say:“Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi”cheat code
  51. 51. © Usable Learning 2013WHAT’S FLOW?Flow: The Psychology ofOptimal ExperienceByMihaly Csikszentmihalyi
  52. 52. ArousalAnxietyWorry ControlRelaxationApathy BoredomFlowLow Skill Level HighChallengeLevelHighLow
  53. 53. © Usable Learning 2013THE FLOW CHANNELChallengeAbility- Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
  54. 54. Tip #7DESIGN FORAUTOMATICITY
  55. 55. © Usable Learning 2013WHAT’S HAPPENING IN THE BRAIN?
  56. 56. © Usable Learning 2013WHAT IS GOING ON WHEN YOU ARELEARNING SOMETHING NEW?Well, areas likeyour frontal cortexgets busy. It startsburning a lot offuel, and hits itslimits pretty quickly.
  57. 57. © Usable Learning 2013WHAT IS GOING ON WHEN YOU USING AREGULAR PATTERN YOU ALREADY KNOW?That leveragesparts of thebrain/brainfunctions that canrun without a lot ofconscious attention.
  58. 58. © Usable Learning 2013MOST CLASSES ARE BIKINGSTRAIGHT UPHILLNew New New New New NewWhew!
  59. 59. © Usable Learning 2013GAMES, ON THE OTHER HAND…Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6Some newstuff, prettyeasythoughStuff youknow plusa bit moreStuff youknow,maybe alittlefasterStuff youknow plusa bitmoreStuff youknow,kicked upa notchBoss Fight
  60. 60. Glucose Metabolic Rate after several weeks of Tetris Practice
  61. 61. © Usable Learning 2013IT ALSO ALLOWS YOU TO PAYATTENTION TO WHAT’S DIFFERENT.In this model, everything is new andeverything is important (so nothing is).Whew!
  62. 62. © Usable Learning 2013IT ALSO ALLOWS YOU TO PAYATTENTION TO WHAT’S DIFFERENT.In this model, the new material ismixed in with existing stuff, so thenew material stands out.Whew!
  63. 63. © Usable Learning 2013KEEP IT BALANCEDChallengeAbility
  64. 64. Tip #8MAKE THINGS VISCERAL
  65. 65. © Usable Learning 2013LET’S TALK ABOUT VISCERAL FEEDBACKhttp://vhil.stanford.edu/pubs/2011/VHIL-technical-report.pdf
  66. 66. © Usable Learning 2013CONSEQUENCE-BASED FEEDBACK “Incorrect, a betterchoice would be toestablish a perimeterbefore proceedinginto the securearea.” BLAM!“You just triggered asecondary device,killing yourself andseveral bystanders…”This is opinion... …while this is data.
  67. 67. Tip #9MAKE IT FUN
  68. 68. © Usable Learning 2013TYPES OF FUNFiero or Hard FunOvercoming Challenges,Solving PuzzlesEasy FunCuriosity, Exploration,Discovery and SurprisePeople Fun Socializing,CollaborationSerious Fun Excitement,RelaxationNicole Lazzaro: The 4 Fun Keys
  69. 69. © Usable Learning 2013TAXONOMY OF GAME PLEASURESLeblancs Taxonomy ofGame Pleasures 1. Sensation 2. Fantasy 3. Narrative 4. Challenge 5. Fellowship 6. Discovery 7. Expression 8. SubmissionAdditional (Schell) Anticipation Delight in anothersmisfortune Gift giving Humor Possibility Pride in an accomplishment Purification (and SetCompletion) Surprise Thrill Triumph over adversity Wonder
  70. 70. © Usable Learning 2013 There’s no such thing as mandatoryfun.GAME EXPERIENCE - FUNHmm…I realize thatgaming experiencesare fundamentallysubjective, butobjectively speaking,this game is just notfun.
  71. 71. © Usable Learning 2013 Is five dollars a good reward?BE CAREFUL ABOUT REWARDS
  72. 72. © Usable Learning 2013GOOD SURPRISES ARE GOOD Pleasant surprises cause a dopamine spike“PAY ATTENTION!If this is good, then you want more.
  73. 73. © Usable Learning 2013EVEN BAD SURPRISES ARE GOOD Unpleasant surprises cause a dopamine drop.“PAY ATTENTION!This is bad. Avoid in future.”
  74. 74. © Usable Learning 2013NO SURPRISES ARE BADHmm. I wonderwhat I shouldhave for dinner...
  75. 75. © Usable Learning 2013GAMES DO THIS WELLGoldCoinGoldCoinGoldCoinGoldCoinSuper Platinum Hammer of Death™ thatlets you SQUASH evildoers!!!
  76. 76. Tip #10DON’T MAKE CRAPPYGAMES
  77. 77. © Usable Learning 2013MATCH GAMEPLAY TO THE REAL TASK Games are good at teaching you how to play games (notnecessarily how to actually do things)
  78. 78. © Usable Learning 2013 Is this a good game?MATCH GAMEPLAY TO CONTENTlogologologologo
  79. 79. © Usable Learning 2013PLAYTEST LIKE CRAZYYou HAVE to test gamesout.
  80. 80. © Usable Learning 2013PLANTS VS ZOMBIES LEVEL DIFFICULTY
  81. 81. © Usable Learning 2013Green Work Practices Software TrainingSafety ComplianceALLISON’S DILEMMAI need todecide.
  82. 82. © Usable Learning 2013Green Work PracticesSoftware TrainingSafety ComplianceALLISON’S DILEMMA10 Tips:1. Design for feedback2. Talk to the Elephant3. Urgency Matters4. Design for accomplishments5. Create a structured flow of goals6. Increase difficulty7. Design for Automaticity8. Make it visceral9. Make it fun (use surprise and unexpectedness)10.Don’t make crappy games (Match gameplay to real task)
  83. 83. © Usable Learning 2013 Thanks! Julie Dirksen Usable Learning julie@usablelearning.com Twitter: usablelearning Linkedin: Julie Dirksen References here:http://bit.ly/TKgameQUESTION? COMMENTS? VIOLENTDISAGREEMENT?

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