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    Media theories Media theories Presentation Transcript

    • Media Theories
    • GENDER STEREOTYPES IN MUSIC
      • Men are seen to be have dominant behaviour
      • Men represented as independent
      • Stereotypical Gendered occupations apparent (i.e. Males as Fire-fighters/ Mechanics and Women as Waitress/house wifes)
      • Women engaged in explicit, sexual and passive behaviour
      • Women are represented as sexual objects
      • Sex role stereotyping and negative attitudes towards females
      • Women more likely to be wearing provocative or revealing clothing
      • Women dance, pose and do not play instruments
    • Music Videos- Andrew Goodwin
      • In the book, Dancing in the Distraction Factory. He mentioned a number of key features which distinguish music video as a form.
      • There is a relationship between the lyrics and the visual (with visuals either illustrating, amplifying or contracting the lyrics).
      • There is a relationship between the music and the visuals (again with visuals either illustrating, amplifying or contracting the lyrics).
      • Particular music genres may have their own music video style and iconography (E.g. live stage perfomance in heavy rock).
      • There is a demand on the part of the record company for lots of close ups of the main artist/vocalist.
      • The artist may develop their own star iconography, in and out of their videos, which over time , become part of their star image.
      • There is likely to be a reference to voyeurism, particularly in the treatment of women, but also in terms of systems of looking (screens with screens, binoculars, camera etc).
      • There are likely to be intertextual references, either to other music videos or to films and TV texts.
    • FEMINISM (1960/70)
      • A movement in which women questioned their position within patriarchal society & the 'private sphere' of home/children/domestic bliss.
      • Serves to uncover, challenge and elimate oppression and dominant gender imagery
      • Women began to debate the narrow range of stereotypes across all media
      • Women were seen as either virgins, mothers or promiscuous
      • Women were seen as sexual objects
      • Women are inferior to men
      • Women as domestic/based in the home
    • SEXUAL OBJECTIFICATION AND THE MALE GAZE (LAURA MULVEY 1975)
      • Definition of Voyeurism: Erotic pleasures gained from looking at a sexual object (who is unaware of being watched)
      • Women solely for the purpose of display (rather than narrative function)
      • Female on display is passive and objectified for a male gaze regardless of viewers gender
      • Voyeuristic treatment of female body in 'male' videos- use of dancers as adornments to the male ego
      • The inclusion of women for women for display is a staple element in music video's- across all genres
      • Women connote to-be-looked-at-ness and are the object of the male gaze
    • POST FEMINISM AND THE FEMALE GAZE
      • A re-appraisal of Feminist values
      • Does not strive for 'equality' as this assumes men are 'the best'- they wish to surpass male achievements
      • Objected to theories which position them as objects of the 'male gaze'
      • Identifies a 'female gaze'- women actively desiring men
      • Women began to assert their right to dress and be sexually attractive as long as they are in control.
    • MARXIST APPROACH
      • Marxism was founded by Karl Marx and it belived that the media and its messages could be used for good if in the right hands. However, with dominant ideology the message could be dangerously influential and controlling the effect of the masses(general population).
      • THE DOMINANT IDEOLOGY The ideological forces that determine how society functions. Marxists believe that all powerful institutions control how we, the masses, conduct our lives within society. These media institutions are mad up of The press, Tv, Internet and the music industry.
      • THE MEDIA'S MESSAGE Marxists believe that the media plays a significant part in controlling the masses and some would say as an institution it is greater influence on society than religion, politics and the family (nature over nature). The supposed subtle dominance with which the media control the masses is known as hegemonic control.
      • HEGEMONY This was an ideological concept first introduced by Marxist Antonio Gramsci. He believed that the media message would perform a slight indoctrination, influencing the manner in which society viewed the world until the message becomes 'common sense', unchallenged by the masses. Hegemonic control is an acceptance of the 'status quo'.
    • POST MODERNISM
      • HOW MODERNISM IS DEFINED -Art / social political movement that aimed to reinvent culture that had become outdated. -Ocurred roughly between 1890s and 1960s -A rejection against realism -Divisions of modernism include avant-garde and surrealism -Films/Novels/Art were self-reflexive of society.
      • HOW POSTMODERNISM IS DEFINED -From 1970s onwards -The breakdown of barriers between genres and style -The breakdown of distinction between binary divides (E.G Human and Machine) -Mixing up time, space and narrative -Emphasis of style over content -Blurring of fiction and reality/representation and the real world. -Becoming more use to a mediated version of reality, than reality itself (hyperreality)
    • CONVENTIONS OF POST-MODERNISM
      • INTERTEXTUALITY- One media text referring to another. PARODY- mocking something in an original way.
      • The Simpsons also use parodies both in high and low cultures to a wide range of audiences. The idea of parody mainly promotes that there is no difference between high art and mass culture.
      • PASTICHE- An artistic work in a style that imitates that of another work, artist or period.
      • BRICOLAGE- Mixing up and using different genres and styles. This is most common in films and movies
      • HOMAGE- Imitation from a respectful standpoint.