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Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
Organizational behaviour   aba8 c44
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Organizational behaviour aba8 c44

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  • 1. ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOURUNIT-IOrganisational Behaviour-definition-features of organizational behaviour-variousapproaches to study of Organisational Behaviour- process of behaviour –model ofOrganisational Behaviour.UNIT-IIGroup dynamics- definition-types of groups- theories of group formation- problems ofinformal groups- group norms- types, meaning of group cohesiveness- five stages ofgroup development. Meaning and nature of group decision making – types- steps- styles-techniques-advantages and disadvantages in group decision making.UNIT-IIIDefinition of motivation and motive- nature of motivation- importance of motivation-techniques to increase motivation- motivation and behaviour: need cause the humanbehaviour –theories of motivation- Maslow‘s needs hierarchy theory, Alfred‘s ERGtheory- Herzberg motivation rtheory. Motivational techniques. Definition of morale-factors affecting moral- cause of low morale- factors improving morale- use of attitudescale and opinion survey- meaning, definition, features and types of conflict situations-causes of conflict- conflict management – preventive measures and curative measures.UNIT-IVStress management- Meaning and definition- nature of stress- sources of stress-extraorganizational and group stressors- consequences of stress- coping strategies for stress-individual approachesd and organizational approaches.UNIT-VMeaning of changes- forces-types-managing planned change-planning, assessing andimplementing the change- causes of resistance to change- overcoming resistance.Meaning and definition of Organisational Development- characteristics –need-benefits-limitations-steps in OD.
  • 2. .ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOURUNIT-IDefinition:―Organizational behavior is the study and application of knowledge about humanbehavior in organizations as it relates to other system elements such as structure,technology and the external social system‖. -Keith DevisNature and scope of OB:1.A separate field of study and not a discipline only: OB is not based on a specific discipline. It is based on multi interdisciplinaryorientation . So it is better to call OB as a separate field of study.2. An interdisciplinary approach: OB is essentially an interdisciplinary approach: Because it tries to integrate the relevant knowledge drawn from related disciplineslike psychology, sociology, and anthropology to make them applicable and to study OB.3. An applied science: OB applies various researches to solve organizational problems which are related tohuman behavior. The basic difference between OB and pure science is pure scienceconcentrates on fundamental research and OB concentrates on applied researches.4.A Normative science.OB suggests how the findings of applied science can be applied to socially acceptedorganizational goals. So it deals with what is accepted be individuals and society.5. A humanistic approach: OB treats people as thinking , feeling human beings. It is based on the belief the humanbeings have desire to be independent, creative, and productive. And if people are givenproper environment, it can be fully realized by them.6. A total system approach: In socio-psychological framework, man is a complex system. So this systems approachis one which integrates all the variables affecting organizational functioning concernedwith people.Scope of OB:1.People:Organization consists of groups and individual. And the groups may be large, small,formal, informal, official, unofficial. Thy are dynamic. It may change every day. Peoplething to set different goals and try to achieve it. So the organizations exists to servepeople and not the people exist to serve the organization.
  • 3. 2.Structure: It defines the sole relationship of people in an organization. Different people in anorganization are given different roles and they have certain relationship with others. Itleads to division of labor and people perform and work to accomplish the organizationalgoal. Thus the structure relates to power and duties.3.Technology: People cannot do their work without the assistance of tools, buildings, machines,processes and resources. So it refers to the technology which differs based onorganizations and its nature and affects the work and working conditions in large manner.So technology brings effectiveness and at the same time restricts people in various ways.4. Social system: A single organization cannot exist also. It is a part of whole. There are many otherorganization because one organization cannot give everything. All the organizationsinfluence each other. It affects the attitude, their working conditions and above all bringscompetition for resources and power.Approaches to organizational behaviour:1. Inter-disciplinary approach: It is an integration of all other social sciences and disciplines such as psychology,sociology, organizational theories. etc., Man is studied as a whole so all disciplinesconcerning man are integrated.2.Human resources or supportive approach:It is just opposite to traditional approach in which the employees were driven by themanagers. So this approach is developmental and facilitative which provides a climatewhere a worker can develop self control, responsibilities and other abilities to achieve theorganizational goal.3. Contingency approach:Certain principles are used in all circumstances otherwise different treatment is requiredin different cases after analyzing the various situational variables carefully. So it is calledsituational approach.4.System approach:Organizational is a social system. There are so may variables in the system which areinter-related and independent. So the manager must think over the effects of an action onthe whole or part of the system before making a decision.5.Productivity approach:It refers to the numerical value of the ratio of output to input. If the ratio is higher, then itis meant that the efficiency and the effectiveness .
  • 4. Process of behaviour: Based on the analysis of behaviour process over period of time, four model ofbehaviour process have been developed;1.S-R model2.S-O-R model3. S-O-B-A model4. S-O-B-C model1. S-R model: This model of human behaviour suggest that the behaviour is caused by certainreasons. The reasons may be internal feeling(motivation) and external environment(stimulus). The stimulus may be heat, light, piece of information etc., that directly affectthe activity of organism.2. S-O-R model: This model of human behaviour is achieved by inserting O(organism‖) in the classicalS-R model. The S-O-R model is based upon the stimulus processed in the organism andfollowed by a behaviour. Here O which is active, is doing some functions like scanning the surrounding,monitoring its own action, seeking certain conditions and avoiding others ie.,maintenance function and adjustment function.3.S-O-B-A model: It is acomprehensive model of human behaviour which combines the S-R situation andhuman being. But O is not active, but it is mediating , maintenan and adjustive functionbetween S and R. B refers to the behaviour. It includes both overt and covert behaviour such as bodymovement, talking, facial expressions, emotions, sentiments and thinking. A stands for accomplishments and sonsequences. When behaviour acts on theoutside world, it leads to accomplishments.4.S-O-B-C model: It incorporates a more complex mechanism human behaviour which modifies andextends S-O-R model. In this nmodel, S stands for the situation which is morecomprehensive than the stimuli of S-O-R model. O is the organism represents bothphysiological and psychological being. B stands for pattern of behaviour both overt andcovert. C stands for consequences both overt and covert.Models of Organizational Behavior 1. Autocratic 2. Custodial 3. Supportive 4.Collegial 5. SystemAutocratic model:In the autocratic model, the employees endured the ill treatment silently. The result isobviously insecurity and frustration which they vent out on their family and friends. Suchbehavior jeopardize their personal and social relationships.
  • 5. Custodial modelIn the custodial approach, the employees cease to depend on the managers but theirdependence on the organization increases. This helps in retaining the employees. Forexample, if an organization offers regular increments, bonus, and an attractive pensionpackage, the employees are more likely to remain loyal to the organization.The Collegial Model Collegial model is an extension of the supportive model. The term collegial refers to agroup of persons working for a common purpose. It is team/group oriented generallyconducive for research laboratories and other innovative and creative projects Systembehaviour model:It is useful to understand what the external events are that our system must respond to,and to examine the details regarding what our system is supposed to do in response tothose external events. This is useful because we design and program primarily to servicethese events.The Supportive ModelThe supportive model is based on leadership rather than on power or money. Goodleaders provide an environment for employees to grow while they help the organizationachieve its objectives. In this model, managers believe that an inadequately supportivework climate leads to resistance among the employees.Unit-IIGroupGroup may be defined as the aggregation of small number of people who work forcommon goals and develop a shared attitude.The following are the features of the group:-a. TWO OR MORE PERSONS - A group should have atleast two people. With a singleindividual there cannot be a meaningful interaction.b. COLLECTIVE IDENTITY - Each member of the group must believe that s/he is apart of the group and be aware of his membership. If not aware, there will be nomeaningful interaction.c. INTERACTION - Each member should share her/his ideas with others throughcommunication, at least occasionally.
  • 6. d. SHARED GOAL INTEREST – Every group has a common objective. The shared goalinterest/s brings the group members together.Types of Groups1. Primary & Secondary Groups:-A primary group has intimate, face to face association & co-operation e.g. family,neighbourhood groups, friendship groupsA secondary group is formal, may not have any interest in the problems & pleasure ofothers.2. Membership & Reference Groups:A membership group is one to which an individual really belongs.A reference group is one with which the individual identifies. The attractiveness of thereference group makes the norms of that group more attractive to the individual whoaspires for it.3. Command & Task Groups:A command group is composed of subordinates who report directly to a commonsupervisor e.g. a production manager & his subordinates in his department.A task group is usually formed to solve a problem. It is comprised of the employees whowork together to complete a particular task.4. In-groups & Out-groups:In-groups are a cluster of individuals that have a dominant place in social functioning.The out-groups are marginal in the society and referred as minority groups.5. Formal & Informal groups:Formal groups are created and maintained to fulfill specific needs related to the overallorganizational mission:a. Designed by Top management for achieving organizational goalsb. Concentrates more on the performance of jobc. People are placed in hierarchy and their status determined accordinglyd. Co-ordination of members are controlled through process, procedures etcInformal Groups are created in the organization because of social and psychologicalforces operating at the workplace.
  • 7. a. A natural outcome at the work place & not designed and plannedb. Organization is coordinated by group norms and not by norms of the formalorganizationc. Such group associations are not specified in the blue-print of the formal organizationTHIS THEORY IS VERY VISIBLE, WHEN WE OBSERVETHE Group Formation.FormingThis is the initial stage when the group comes together and members begin todevelop their relationship with one another and learn what is expected of them.This is the stage when team building begins and trust starts to develop. Groupmembers will start establishing limits on acceptable behavior throughexperimentation. Other members’ reactions will determine if a behavior will berepeated. This is also the time when the tasks of the group and the members willbe decided.StormingDuring this stage of group development, interpersonal conflicts arise anddifferences of opinion about the group and its goals will surface. If the group isunable to clearly state its purposes and goals or if it cannot agree on sharedgoals, the group may collapse at this point. It is important to work through theconflict at this time and to establish clear goals. It is necessary for there to bediscussion so everyone feels heard and can come to an agreement on thedirection the group is to move in.NormingOnce the group resolves its conflicts, it can now establish patterns of how to getits work done. Expectations of one another are clearly articulated and acceptedby members of the group. Formal and informal procedures are established indelegating tasks, responding to questions, and in the process by which the groupfunctions. Members of the group come to understand how the group as a wholeoperates.PerformingDuring this final stage of development, issues related to roles, expectations, andnorms are no longer of major importance. The group is now focused on its task,working intentionally and effectively to accomplish its goals. The group will findthat it can celebrate its accomplishments and that members will be learning newskills and sharing roles..-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Groups
  • 8. The group is an important sociological unit of analysis in the subject of organizationalbehavior.Types of GroupsSimplest group is a two person group (dyad)Small groups and primary groups: Small group has the criterion of small size such thatthere is face-to-face interaction and communication among all members of the group.Primary group is a small group with the additional criteria that there is a comradeship,loyalty, and common sense of values among members. An example of primary group isfamily. The work group of a person is also a primary group.All primary groups are small groups. But all small groups are not primary groups.Coalition: Coalition is a group of interacting individuals and is formed by members for aspecific purpose. But it does not have a formal internal structure. Still its members act asa group for the specific purpose for which it is formed.Membership groups and Reference groups: A person is a member in themembership group. The group in which he wants to be a member is a reference group tohim. Many times persons want to display the values of their reference groups.Why Do Inviduals Form Groups?Theodore Newcombs Balance Theory: According to this theory, persons are attractedto one another on the basis of similar attitudes toward commonly relevant objects andgoals. Once the relationship is formed, a balance is maintained between the attraction andthe common attitudes. If an imbalance occurs, there is an attempt to restore the balance,and if the balance cannot be restored, the relationship dissolves.Exchange Theory of Group Formation: An interaction between two or more personshas rewards and costs. Rewards from interactions gratify needs. Cost is incurred due toanxiety, frustration, embarrassment, and fatigue.Disadvantages of informal groupsInformal organizations also possess the following potential disadvantages and problemsthat require astute and careful management attention.Resistance to change.Perpetuation of values and lifestyle causes informal groups to become overly protectiveof their "culture" and therefore resist change. For example, if restriction of output was the
  • 9. norm in an autocratic management group, it must continue to be so, even thoughmanagement changes have brought about a more participative administrationRole conflict.The quest for informal group satisfaction may lead members away from formalorganizational objectives. What is good for and desired by informal group members is notalways good for the organization. Doubling the number of coffee breaks and the length ofthe lunch period may be desirable for group members but costly and unprofitable for thefirm.RumorThe grapevine dispenses truth and rumor with equal vengeance. Ill-informed employeescommunicate unverified and untrue information that can create a devastating effect onemployees. This can undermine morale, establish bad attitudes, and often result indeviant or, even violent behavior.Conformity: This can harm the formal organization by stifling initiative, creativity, anddiversity of performance. In some British factories, if a group member gets "out of line‖,tools may be hidden, air may be let out of tires, and other group members may refuse totalk to the deviant for days or weeks. Obviously, these types of actions can force a goodworker to leave the organization.Benefits of the informal organizationAlthough informal organizations create unique challenges and potential problems formanagement, they also provide a number of benefits for the formal organization.Blend with formal system:Informal relations in the organization serve to preserve theorganization from the self-destruction that would result from literal obedience to theformal policies, rules, regulations, and procedures." No college or university couldfunction merely by everyone following the "letter of the law" with respect to writtenpolicies and procedures.Lighten management workloadManagers are less inclined to check up on workers when they know the informalorganization is cooperating with them. This encourages delegation, decentralization, andgreater worker support of the manager, which suggests a probable improvement inperformance and overall productivity..Fill gaps in management abilitiesEmployees experience frustration, tension, and emotional problems with managementand other employees. The informal group provides a means for relieving these emotional
  • 10. and psychological pressures by allowing a person to discuss them among friends openlyand candidly. In faculty lounge conversations, frustrations with the dean, departmenthead, or students are "blown off" among empathetic colleagues.Encourage improved management practicePerhaps a subtle benefit of informal groups is that they encourage managers to prepare,plan, organize, and control in a more professional fashion. Managers who comprehendthe power of the informal organization recognize that it is a "check and balance" on theiruse of authority.Understanding and Dealing with the Environmental CrisisThe The IRG Solution - hierarchical incompetence and how to overcome it1984, argued,that Central media and government type Hierarchical organizations. could not adequatelyunderstand the environmental crisis we were manufacturing, or how to initiate adequatesolutions..NORMS DEFINED: Norms are generally the unwritten, unstated rules that govern thebehavior of a group. Norms often just evolve and are socially enforced through socialsanctioning. Norms are often passed down through time by a culture or society. Normsare intended to provide stability to a group and only a few in a group will refuse to abideby the norms.Group cohesiveness refers to the degree of liking each group member has towards eachother and how far one wants to remain as a group member.ADVANTAGES OF GROUP COHESIVENESSi) Cohesive group are highly motivated.They have increased morale.ii)There are less conflicts .ii) There is more effective communication among group members in a cohesive group.iv)Cohesiveness may lead to higher productivity as members of a cohesive group tend tohave less degree of absenteeism and turnover and they also have comparatively lesswork anxieties.DISADVANTAGES OF GROUP COHESIVENESSi) Sometimes the group is so cohesive that the group members forget the realization ofultimate goals and objectives for fear of disrupting the group itself.ii) It can also hamper productivity when performance norms are too low.competition GROUP COHESIVENESSGroup cohesiveness refers to the degree of liking each group member has towards eachother and how far one wants to remain as a group member.ADVANTAGES OF GROUP COHESIVENESSi) Cohesive group are highly motivated.They have increased morale.ii)There are less conflicts .ii) There is more effective communication among group members in a cohesive group.
  • 11. iv)Cohesiveness may lead to higher productivity as members of a cohesive group tend tohave less degree of absenteeism and turnover and they also have comparatively lesswork anxieties.DISADVANTAGES OF GROUP COHESIVENESSi) Sometimes the group is so cohesive that the group members forget the realization ofultimate goals and objectives for fear of disrupting the group itself.ii) It can also hamper productivity when performance norms are too low. CARRONS MODEL of Factors Affecting Cohesion1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORSthe most general and remote, refer to the normative forces holding a group together.(contracts, scholarships, family expectations)These influences can hold a group together, although other factors such as age, proximity,or eligibility requirements can also play an important role.2. PERSONAL FACTORSrefer to the individual characteristics of group members, such as participation motives.Three Motivestask motivation (associated with task cohesion)affiliation motivation (associated with social cohesion)self-motivation (attempt to obtain personal satisfaction) Carron‘s Model3. LEADERSHIP FACTORSinclude leadership style and behaviors that professionals exhibit and the relationshipsthey establish with their groups.The role of leaders is vital to team cohesion.Specifically clear, consistent, unambiguous communication from coaches and captainsregarding team goals, etc… Carron‘s Model4. TEAM FACTORS
  • 12. refer to group characteristics (individual versus team sports), group productivity norms,desire for group success, and team stability. The Relationship between Cohesion and PerformanceCohesion increases performance for interacting sports but decreases or shows no effecton performance for co-acting.Co-acting Teams--archery, bowling, golf, riflry, skiing, wrestling.Mixed--football, baseball, track.Interacting--basketball, hockey, soccer, volleyball. DIRECTION OF CAUSALITYwhether cohesion leads to performance success or performance success leads to cohesion.Circular relationship. OTHER FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH COHESIONTeam Satisfaction--an individual factor. (Circular)Conformity--the more cohesive the group, the more influence the group has on itsindividual members.Adherence--exercise groups. Those that feel good cohesion are more likely to attendmore classes, arrive on time, less likely to drop out, more resistant to disruptions ingroup, more likely experience positive affect related to exercise, have stronger efficacybeliefs related to exercise. Other Factors…Social Support--there is a positive relationship between the social support an individualreceives and her or his evaluations of group cohesion.Stability--refers both to the turnover rate for group membership and to how long groupmembers have been together.The more cohesive a group is, the greater an influence it will have on individual membersto conform to the groups norms.Teams higher in cohesion can better resist disruption than teams lower in cohesion.
  • 13. Teams that stay together longer tend to be more cohesive, which leads to improvementsin performance.Togetherness--When group members are repetitively put in close physical proximity,feeling of cohesion increase. Common Barriers to Group CohesionClash of personalities in the groupConflict of task or social roles among members of the groupBreakdown in communication among group members or between the group leader andmembersOne or more members struggling for powerFrequent turnover of group membersDisagreement on group goals and objectivesGROUP DECISION MAKING:What are the advantages of group decision making?Whether or not one would resort to group decision making in a particular scenario woulddepend on whether the advantages of group decision making justify it. There arenumerous advantages of group decision making:1. Diversity: Varied cultures, age groups, gender, etc all add to the diversity of groupwhich gives us varied perspectives and enhances the kind of ideas the group can come upwith.2. Varied experiences: There are difference in fields of experience and amount ofexperience and there differences in the life experiences and the kind of experiencespeople have had even with the same problem. This pool of experience can be a greatadvantage.3. Enhanced memory for facts: An individual may forget a particular piece ofinformation, but as there are a number of people involved here, there is the combinedmemory of all members to recollect data.4. Greater Acceptability of decisions: As everyone has made some contribution to thedecision, people tend to be more accepting of the decision. Also those who may not havecontributed still support it as ―the group‖ has come to this decision.
  • 14. 5. Error detection: When there are many people working together, mistakes and errorsthat may have accidentally gone unnoticed and had serious consequences are spotted byother team members.6. collective understanding: The members together come to a decision after muchdeliberation and discussions and so everyone has a better understanding of the course ofaction to be followed.7. Less influence of bias: Individual biases can be challenged and individuals may haveto recognize and eliminate them.8. more creative solutions: With so many people involved, more creative and innovativesolutions to problems may emerge than an individual may have been able to develop.9. shared responsibility: There are a number of people involved, so no one person has toshoulder the burden of work or of single-handedly making a decision.10. motivational effect: The group decision making may even have a motivational effecton the team if the team is a successful one.11. simplifies complex decisions: Many complex decisions can be made by the groupdecision making process which an individual may not have been able to tackle.• What are the disadvantages of group decision making?While group decision making has numerous advantages there are times when individualmembers may outperform the group. In fact, at times, what are the very advantages ofgroup decision making become disadvantages.1. Diversity: Too much diversity, or diversity when diversity is not needed, can reducecohesiveness and affect the group decision making process.2. Time used: With too many people involved, more time is required to reach a decisionwhich reduces efficiency.3. Group think: If members strive for agreement at the cost of accurate assessment ofrequired information, the group decision making falls prey to the problem of group thinkand individual performances may reflect better results. This is particularly true for highlycohesive groups.4. diffusion of responsibility: As numerous people are involved, no one person wants toassume responsibility which may lead to lesser results.5. potential for conflict: If the group is too large, or low on cohesiveness or too diverse,and sometimes even if none of these factors are present, there is the potential for conflictwhich may reduce output.
  • 15. 6. group polarization: People sometimes tend to make more extreme or radical decisionsin a group than individually. This is an advantage so far as it offers new solutions butextreme solutions may present more problems than anticipated.7. cost to organizations: The cost in terms of time, money and resources is high wheregroup decision making is involved which may not always be viable.8. competition: If individual performance is also rewarded in groups in a manner that isnot motivational, group decision making may inadvertently lead to competition amongindividual members.9. lack of objective direction: In a group without a leader, there may be a lack ofdirection and the decisionsMotivation:Need hierarchy theoryMain article: Maslows hierarchy of needsAbraham Maslows theory is one of the most widely discussed theories of motivation.The theory can be summarized as follows: Human beings have wants and desires which influence their behavior. Only unsatisfied needs influence behavior, satisfied needs do not. Since needs are many, they are arranged in order of importance, from the basic to the complex. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. The further the progress up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and psychological health a person will show.The needs, listed from basic (lowest-earliest) to most complex (highest-latest) are asfollows: Physiology (hunger, thirst, sleep, etc.) Safety/Security/Shelter/Health Belongingness/Love/Friendship Self-esteem/Recognition/Achievement Self actualizationHerzbergs two-factor theory
  • 16. Frederick Herzbergs two-factor theory, a.k.a. intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, concludesthat certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction, but if absent, they dont leadto dissatisfaction but no satisfaction.[7]The factors that motivate people can change over their lifetime, but "respect for me as aperson" is one of the top motivating factors at any stage of life.He distinguished between: Motivators; (e.g. challenging work, recognition, responsibility) which give positive satisfaction, and Hygiene factors; (e.g. status, job security, salary and fringe benefits) that do not motivate if present, but, if absent, result in demotivation.The name Hygiene factors is used because, like hygiene, the presence will not make youhealthier, but absence can cause health deterioration.The theory is sometimes called the"Motivator-Hygiene Theory" and/or "The Dual Structure Theory."Alderfers ERG theoryERG theory (existence, category. The growth category contains our self-actualizationand self-esteem needs. Alderfer argues that there are three groups of core needs —existence, relatedness, and growth hence the label: ERG theory. The existence group isconcerned with providing our basic material existence requirements.. Finally, Alderferisolates growth needs an intrinsic desire for personal development. These include theintrinsic component from Maslows esteem category and the characteristics includedunder self-actualization.There are two kinds of motivation Intrinsic motivation occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is significant. It has been shown that intrinsic motivation for education drops from grades 3-9 though the exact cause cannot be ascertained[17]. Also, in younger students it has been shown that contextualizing material that would otherwise be presented in an abstract manner increases the intrinsic motivation of these students[18]. Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act a certain way because of factors external to him or her (like money or good grades). satisfaction employee recognition employee motivation
  • 17. human resources definitions managing employeesEmployee Morale:Definition:Employee morale describes the overall outlook, attitude, satisfaction, and confidence thatemployees feel at work. When employees are positive about their work environment andbelieve that they can meet their most important needs at work, employee morale ispositive or high. If employees are negative and unhappy about their workplace, and feelunappreciated and as if they cannot satisfy their goals and needs, employee morale isnegative or low.Improve Employee Morale treating employees with respect, providing regular employee recognition, empowering employees, offering open and regular communication about factors important to employees, providing feedback and coaching, offering above industry-average benefits and compensation, providing employee perks and company activities, and positively managing employees within a success framework of goals, measurements, and clear expectations.Importance of Employee Morale:Employee Morale plays vital role in the origination success. High Morale leads to successand low Morale brings to defeat in its wake. The plays of Morale is no less important foran industrial undertaking. The success of failure of the industry much depends up on theMorale of its employees.Types of Morale:I. High Morale:It will lead to enthusiasm among the workers for better performance. High Morale isneeded a manifestation of the employees strength, dependability pride, confidence anddevotion. Some of the advantages of high Morale such as:1. Willing cooperation towards objectives of the organization.2. Loyalty to the organization and its leadership.3. Good Leadership.4. Sound superior subordinate relations.5. High degree of employee‘s interest in their job and organization.6. Pribe in the organization7. Reduction in absenteeism and labour turnover.8. Reduction in grievance.9. Reduction in industrial conflict.
  • 18. 10. Team building.11. Employee empowerment.II. Low Morale:Low Morale indicates the presence of mental unrest. The mental unrest not only hampersproduction but also leads to ill health of the employees.1. High rates of absenteeism and labour turnover.2. Decreased quality.3. Decreased Productivity.4. Excessive Complaints and Grievances.5. Frustration among the workers.6. Lack of discipline.7. Increase errors, accidents or injuries.FACTORS AFFECTING MORALE:Employee Morale is a very complex phenomenon and is influenced by many factors onthe shop floor. Several criteria seem important in the determinants of levels of workersMorale such as:1. Objectives of the organization: Employees are highly motivated and their Morale ishighly if their individual goal and objectives are in tune with organizational goal andobjectives.2. Organizational design: Organization structure has an impact on the quality of labourrelation, particularly on the level of Morale. Large organization tend to lengthen theirchannels of vertical communication and to increase the difficulty of upwardcommunication. Therefore the Morale tends to be lower. Against this flat structureincreases levels of Morale.3. Personal Factors: It is relating to age, training, education and intelligence of theemployees, time spent by them on the job and interest in worth taken by them, affect theMorale of the employees. For examples if an employees is not imparted proper traininghe will have low Morale.4. Rewards: Employees expect adequate compensation for their services rendered to theorganization. Good system of wages, salaries, promotions and other incentives keep theMorale of the employees high.5. Good Leadership and Supervision: The nature of supervision can tell the attitudes ofemployees because a supervisor is in direct contact with the employers and can havebetter influences on the activities of the employees.6. Work Environment: The building and it appearance the condition of machines, tools,available at work place provision for safety, medical aid and repairs to machinery etc. allhave an impact on their Morale.
  • 19. 7. Compatibility with fellow employees: Man being a social animal finds his wordsmore satisfying if he feels that he has the acceptance and companionship of his fellowworkers. If he has confidence in his fellow worker and faith in their loyalty his Moralewill be high.8. Job Satisfaction: If the job gives an employee an opportunity to prove his talents andgrow personality, he will certify like it and he will have high morale.9. Opportunity to share profit: one of the requirements of high morale is possibility andopportunity of progress in any concern. All worker should be given an opportunity of theprogress and earn high wages without any discrimination.MEASUREMENT OF MORALEMorale is basically a psychological concept. As such the measurement of morale is a verydifficult task to measure it directly. However the following methods are more commonlyused to study employee morale.1.Observation Method:Under this method evaluator observes the employees on work and records theirbehaviour, altitude, sentiments and feelings, which have developed in them. The changesin the attitude and behaviour of the employee are the indicators of high and low morale.2.Attitude Surveys:In order to overcome the limitation of the above method attitude survey method is beinglargely employed in modern days. This method includes conducting surveys throughquestionnaires and interviews. This relates what the workers are looking in and what stepshould be taken to improve their approach towards work.3.Company Records and Reports:The records and reports relating to Labour turnover, rate of absenteeism, the number ofgoods rejected, strikes and such other things, which are indicators of the level of morale.4.Counseling:Under this method employees are advised to develop better mental health. So that theycan imbide self confidence, understanding and self control. This method is used to findout the causes of dissatisfaction and then to advice the employees by way of remedialmeasures.BUILDING OF HIGH MORALEIn order to achieve high morale among the employees the following suggestion may befollowed.1. Two-Way Communication:-There should be a two-way communication between the management and the workers asif exercises a profound influences on morale. The workers should be kept informed aboutthe organization polices and programmes through conferences, bulletins and informaldiscussions with the workers.2. Show Concern.
  • 20. Large or small every business should have names on desks work stations or cubicles toshow that a real person with worth works there not just a machine. Next ask their opinionwhenever an opportunity arises rather than always telling them what to do or the way todo it.3. Job Enrichment:-This involves a greater use of the factors which are intended to motive the worker ratherthan to ensure his continuing satisfaction with the job he performs the idea is to reduceemployee discontent by changing or improving a job to ensure that he is better motivated.4. Modifying the work environment:-This involves the use of teams of work groups developing social contacts of theemployees the use of music regular rest breaks.5. Rotation of Jobs:This is also one of important techniques to increase employee morale. Job rotation helpsto reduce an employees boredom.6. Incentive System:There should be a proper incentive system in the organization to ensure monetary andnon-monetary rewards of the employees to motivate them.7. Welfare Measures:Management must provide for employees welfare measures like canteens credit facilitiessport clubs, education for their children e.t.c…8. Social Activities:Management should encourage social group activities by the workers. This will help todevelop greater group cohesiveness which can be used by the management for buildinghigh morale.9. Training:There should be proper training of the employees so that they may do their workefficiently and avoid frustration when the worker are given training they getpsychological satisfaction as they feel that management is taking interest in them.10. Workers Participation:There should be industrial democracy in the organization management should allowworkers participation in management. Whenever a change to be introduced which effectsthe workers they must be consulted and taken into confidence workers must be allowed toput forward their suggestion and grievance to the top management.11. Cognitive theories:It takes but a few seconds to say "Nice Job" "Well done", "Marked improvement", "Youre on the right road" orUNIT-IIIConflict:Nature of conflict:We define conflict as a disagreement through which the parties involved perceive athreat to their needs, interests or concerns. Within this simple definition there areseveral important understandings that emerge:
  • 21. Disagreement - Generally, we are aware there is some level of difference in the positionsof the two (or more) parties involved in the conflict. But the true disagreement versus theperceived disagreement may be quite different from one another.Parties involved -. On many occasions, people who are seen as part of the social system(e.g., work team, family, company) are influenced to participate in the dispute, whetherthey would personally define the situation in that way or not. Perceived threat -, while perception doesnt become reality per se, peoples behaviors,feelings and ongoing responses become modified by that evolving sense of the threat theyconfront. If we can work to understand the true threat (issues) and develop strategies(solutions) that manage it (agreement), we are acting constructively to manage theconflict.Needs, interests or concerns - There is a tendency to narrowly define "the problem" asone of substance, task, and near-term viability. However, workplace conflicts tend to befar more complex than that, for they involve ongoing relationships with complex,emotional components.Styles of conflictEach style is a way to meet ones needs in a dispute but may impact other people indifferent ways. Competing is a style in which ones own needs are advocated over the needs of others. It relies on an aggressive style of communication, low regard for future relationships, and the exercise of coercive power. Those using a competitive style tend to seek control over a discussion, in both substance and ground rules.. Accommodating, also known as smoothing, is the opposite of competing. Persons using this style yield their needs to those of others, trying to be diplomatic. They tend to allow the needs of the group to overwhelm their own, which may not ever be stated, as preserving the relationship is seen as most important. Avoiding is a common response to the negative perception of conflict. "Perhaps if we dont bring it up, it will blow over," we say to ourselves. But, generally, all that happens is that feelings get pent up, views go unexpressed, and the conflict festers until it becomes too big to ignore. Compromising is an approach to conflict in which people gain and give in a series of tradeoffs. While satisfactory, compromise is generally not satisfying. We each remain shaped by our individual perceptions of our needs and dont necessarily understand the other side very well. Collaborating is the pooling of individual needs and goals toward a common goal. Often called "win-win problem-solving," collaboration requires assertive communication and cooperation in order to achieve a better solution than either individual could have achieved alone meaningfully
  • 22. Factors affecting conflict situation: Culture, race, and ethnicity: Our varying cultural backgrounds influence us to hold certain beliefs about the social structure of our world, as well as the role of conflict in that experience. Gender and sexuality:Men and women often perceive situations somewhat differently, based on both their experiences in the world .So men and women will often approach conflictive situations with differing mindsets about the desired outcomes from the situation, as well as the set of possible solutions that may exist. Knowledge (general and situational): Parties respond to given conflicts on the basis of the knowledge they may have about the issue at hand. This includes situation-specific knowledge (i.e., "Do I understand what is going on here?") and general knowledge (i.e., "Have I experienced this type of situation before?" or "Have I studied about similar situations before?"). Impressions of the Messenger: If the person sharing the message - the messenger - is perceived to be a threat (powerful, scary, unknown, etc.), this can influence our responses to the overall situation being experienced. Previous experiences: Some of us have had profound, significant life experiences that continue to influence our perceptions of current situations. These experiences may have left us fearful, lacking trust, and reluctant to take risks Causes of conflict : Differing values (eg conservative v/s progressive minded) Differing perspectives (eg limited v/s broad, domestic v/s international) Differing ideas (creative v/s mundane) Different styles of solving organisational problems. Differing agendas (sometimes hidden ones) Differing attitudes (rigid v/s flexible) Differing objectives and goals. Differing circumstances How to manage conflicts in an organisation : Let us simulate the situations under which the conflicts occur in an organisation. Basically there could be three situations in an organisational context. 1. Conflict with the boss. 2. Conflict with colleagues/peers. 3. Conflict with subordinates 1. Managing conflict with the boss : All of us have read the famous rule, Rule no. 1 Boss is always right. Rule no. 2 In case the boss is wrong see rule no. 1. This is not to say that one has to be yes man all the time. When ever you face a conflict situation with your boss consider the following approaches. (i) Appreciate wider perspective : The boss has wider perspective than you, therefore please consider whether there is something you are not able to visualise that your boss has visualised?
  • 23. (ii) Do not offend his authority : Every boss is sensitive to maintaining hisauthority. If you have a better idea, put it in amanner of suggestion, avoid offending his authority.(iii) Evaluate the impact : Very carefully evaluate the impact of the wrongdecision of the boss on your position in particularand on organisation in general. Do not challenge his decision unless you have to.(iv) Avoid bitterness : If you have to differ with your boss, just register yourpoint of view without making it bitter.TOP2. Managing conflict with peers/colleagues :Most of the times the conflict between peers occurs because of the tendency of "One up manship". When ever you face a conflict situation with your colleagues,try some of the following approaches.(i) Communicate: Most of the time your colleagues may be differing with you,either because they have not understood your point of view properly or you havenot communicated clearly enough. Since you do not have any authority overthem, enter into a dialogue and discuss the issue with an open mind.(ii) Conflict to Co-operation : Work towards skillfully converting conflict in to aco-operation. Strive to appreciate their point of view. Find out the ways andmeans to create a win-win situation. If need be ammend your approach and meetyour colleagues midway.3. Managing conflicts with the subordinates :In this situation you have the authority, yet you have to be skillful in managingthe conflict.(i) Allow freedom to express : Give adequate freedom to your subordinates toexpress their views freely, be patient listen to them carefully.(ii) Allow dissent : Dissent is natural, manage disagreement constructively(iii) Build consensus : Identify the +ve minded persons in your team and convertthem into the champions of causes and let them reason it out with the ynicalfellows. Provide right kind of support, intervene skillfully to build consensus.(iv) Develop a common vision : Appreciate the fact that all your subordinatesmay not have the broad vision and perspective like yours. Its your responsibilityto share your dreams and aspirations for the organisation with them and makethem appreciate these. Through discussion, training and counseling develop acommon vision.TEN (GENERIC) APPROACHES TO MANAGE CONFLICTS1. Patient listening.2. Empathy, understand others point of view.3. Avoid reacting strongly / avoid anger under all circumstances.4. Evaluate your responses properly before responding.5. Communicate, enter into a dialogue, convince or get convinced.
  • 24. 6. Choose the right time for dialogue, when the other person is in a receiving mood. 7. Avoid throwing your weight, even if you have the authority. 8. Allow dissent, manage disagreement constructively, 9. Build consensus, take people along. 10. Create a common vision if others do not have as broad a perspective as your, explain it to them with patience, train them & counsel themIn resolving conflict using this approach, you follow these rules: Make sure that good relationships are the first priority: As far as possible, make sure that you treat the other calmly and that you try to build mutual respect. Do your best to be courteous to one-another and remain constructive under pressure. Keep people and problems separate: Recognize that in many cases the other person is not just "being difficult" – real and valid differences can lie behind conflictive positions. By separating the problem from the person, real issues can be debated without damaging working relationships. Pay attention to the interests that are being presented: By listening carefully youll most-likely understand why the person is adopting his or her position. Listen first; talk second: To solve a problem effectively you have to understand where the other person is coming from before defending your own position. Set out the “Facts”: Agree and establish the objective, observable elements that will have an impact on the decision. Explore options together: Be open to the idea that a third position may exist, and that you can get to this idea jointly.Conflict resolution processStep One: Set the Scene.If you are involved in the conflict, emphasize the fact that you are presenting yourperception of the problem. Use active listening skills to ensure you hear and understandother‘s positions and perceptions. Restate ParaphraseStep Two: Gather InformationHere you are trying to get to the underlying interests, needs, and concerns. Ask for theother person‘s viewpoint and confirm that you respect his or her opinion and need his orher cooperation to solve the problem.Step Three: Agree the ProblemThis sounds like an obvious step, but often different underlying needs, interests and goalscan cause people to perceive problems very differently. Youll need to agree the problemsthat you are trying to solve before youll find a mutually acceptable solution.
  • 25. Step Four: Brainstorm Possible Solutions If everyone is going to feel satisfied with the resolution, it will help if everyone has had fair input in generating solutions. Brainstorm possible solutions, and be open to all ideas, including ones you never considered before. Step Five: Negotiate a Solution By this stage, the conflict may be resolved: Both sides may better understand the position of the other, and a mutually satisfactory solution may be clear to all. However you may also have uncovered real differences between your positions. This is where a technique like win-win negotiation can be useful to find a solution that, at least to some extent, satisfies everyone. Unit-IV Stress management: Definition. Let us see now whether the following definition will fit all our facts: Stress is the state manifested by a specific syndrome which consists of all the nonspecifically-induced changes within a biologic system. Thus, stress has its own characteristic form and composition, but no particular cause. The elements of its form are the visible changes due to stress, which are addictive indicators expressing the sum of all the different adjustments that are going on in the body at any time. Causes of stress:1. Causes of Stress at Home o Death of spouse, family, near relative or friend. o Injury or illness of any family member. o Marriage of self or son or daughter or brother or sister. o Separation or divorce from partner. o Pregnancy or birth of a new baby. o Childrens behavior or disobedience. o Childrens educational performance. o Hyperactive children. o Sexual molestation. o Argument or heated conversations with spouse, family members or friends or neighbors. o Not sufficient money to meet out daily expenses or unexpected expenditure. o Not sufficient money to raise your standard of living.
  • 26. o Loss of money in burglary, pick-pocketed or share market. o Moving house. o Change of place or change of city or change of country.2. Causes of Stress at Work o To meet out the demands of the job. o Your relationship with colleagues. o To control staff under you. o To train your staff and take work from them. o Support you receive from your boss, colleagues and juniors. o Excessive work pressure. o To meet out deadlines. o To give new results. o To produce new publications if you are in research area. o Working overtime and on holidays. o New work hours. o Promotion or you have not been promoted or your junior has superseded you. o Argument or heated conversations with co-workers or boss. o Change of job. o Work against will. o Harassment. o Sexual molestation.3. Other Causes of Stress o Fear, intermittent or continuous. o Threats: physical threats, social threats, financial threat, other threats. o Uncertainty. o Lack of sleep. o Somebody misunderstands you. o Setback to your position in society. Sources of stress: 1. Significant Life Adjustments Any critical life changes, both pleasant and unpleasant. 2. Daily Routines Daily routines such as fighting the rush hour traffic or meeting the deadline on an important project zap your energy. You become accustomed to your daily activities and easily overlook their cumulative effect on you. 3. Unrealistic Self-Expectations
  • 27. While positive self-expectations motivate you to realize your goals, unrealisticexpectations can lead to setting yourself up for failure and a lowering of self-esteem.4. Interpersonal RelationshipsBoth personal and professional relationships require a significant amount of effort tomaintain. Poor communication leads to conflicts that can escalate into increasedfrustration and open hostility. Types of stress 1.Eustress can be defined as a pleasant or curative stress. We cant always avoid stress, in fact, sometimes we dont want to. Often, it is controlled stress that gives us our competitive edge in performance related activities like athletics, giving a speech, or acting2.Distress is an unpleasant or disease-producing stress. Chronic, sustained, uncontrolledstress of a negative type may lead to a compromised immune system, illness, and evendeath. As a result, we all should become more aware of common or persistent distressorsin our lives and initiate methods for managing them.Nature of stress: 1. Stress is not nervous tension. Stress reactions do occur in lower animals and even in plants, which have no nervous system. The general manifestations of an alarm reaction can be induced by mechanically damaging a denervated limb. Indeed, stress can be produced under deep anesthesia in patients who are unconscious, and even in cell cultures grown outside the body. 2. Stress is not an emergency discharge of hormones. An adrenaline discharge is frequently seen in acute stress affecting the whole body, but it plays no conspicuous role in generalized inflammatory diseases (arthritis, tuberculosis) although they can also produce considerable stress. 3. Stress is not that which causes a secretion by the adrenal cortex of its hormones (the corticoids). ACTH, the adrenal-stimulating pituitary hormone, can discharge these hormones without producing any evidence of stress. 4. Stress is not the nonspecific result of damage only. Normal and even pleasant activities - a game of tennis or a passionate kiss - can produce considerable stress without causing conspicuous damage. 5. Stress Is not the deviation from homeostasis, the steady state of the body. Any specific biologic function, e.g., the perception of sound or light, the contraction of a muscle, eventually causes marked deviations from the normal resting state in the active organs. 6. Stress is not identical with the alarm reaction or with the G.A.S. as a whole. These are characterized by certain measurable organ changes which are caused by stress.
  • 28. 7. Stress itself is not a nonspecific reaction. The pattern of the stress reaction is very specific: it affects certain organs (e.g., the adrenal, the thymus, the gastrointestinal tract) in a highly selective manner. 8. Stress is not a reaction to a specific thing. The stress response can be produced by virtually any agent. 9. Stress is not necessarily undesirable. It all depends on how you take it. The stress of failure, humiliation, or infection is detrimental; but that of exhilarating, creative, successful work is beneficial. The stress reaction, like energy consumption, may have good or bad effects.Causes of StressGeneral causesThreatA perceived threat will lead a person to feel stressed. This can include physical threats,social threats, financial threat, and so on. In particular it will be worse when the personfeels they have no response that can reduce the threat, as this affects the need for asense of control.Generally speaking, any threat to needs is likely to lead to stress being experienced.FearThreat can lead to fear, which again leads to stress. Fear leads to imagined outcomes,which are the real source of stress.UncertaintyWhen we are not certain, we are unable to predict, and hence feel we are not in control,and hence may feel fear or feel threatened by that which is causing the uncertainty.Cognitive dissonanceissonance also occurs when we cannot meet our commitments. We believe we arehonest and committed, but when circumstances prevent us from meeting our promiseswe are faced with the possibility of being perceived as dishonest or incapable (ie. asocial threat).Individual stressors:Life causesSignificant Life AdjustmentsAny critical life changes, both pleasant and unpleasant.2. Daily RoutinesDaily routines such as fighting the rush hour traffic or meeting the deadline on animportant project zap your energy. You become accustomed to your daily activities andeasily overlook their cumulative effect on you.
  • 29. 3. Unrealistic Self-ExpectationsWhile positive self-expectations motivate you to realize your goals, unrealisticexpectations can lead to setting yourself up for failure and a lowering of self-esteem.4. Interpersonal RelationshipsBoth personal and professional relationships require a significant amount of effort tomaintain. Poor communication leads to conflicts that can escalate into increasedfrustration and open hostilityThere are many causes of stress in life including: Death: of spouse, family, friend Health: injury, illness, pregnancy Crime: Sexual molestation, mugging, burglary, pick-pocketed Self-abuse: drug abuse, alcoholism, self-harm Family change: separation, divorce, new baby, marriage Sexual problems: getting partner, with partner Argument: with spouse, family, friends, co-workers, boss Physical changes: lack of sleep, new work hours New location: vacation, moving house Money: lack of it, owing it, investing it Environment change: in school, job, house, town, jail Responsibility increase: new dependent, new jobOrganisational Stressors:The UKs Health and Safety Executive lists six key stress factors: 1. The demands of the job 2. The control staff have over how they do their work 3. The support they receive from colleagues and superiors 4. Their relationships with colleagues 5. Whether they understand their roles and responsibilities 6. How far the company consults staff over workplace changes.Other stress indicators at work include: Sickness absence High staff turnover Poor communication between teams Bullying Lack of feedback on performance Value and contribution Technological change Lack of clarity of roles and responsibilities
  • 30. Dissatisfaction with non-monetary benefits Working long hours Boring and mundane work One-off incidents Uncomfortable workplace Lack of trainingConsequences of stress:Physiological consequences:Just like some people are just born more emotionally reactive, some have a moresensitive physiology, and find that stress impacts their blood pressure, inducesheadaches, or causes other physical responses. Likewise, the way you care for yourbody in terms of healthy diet, quality sleep, and regular exercise—or lack thereof—canimpact your reactivity to stress. Coping strategies:1.Get Enough SleepSleep is very important for your emotional and physical wellbeing. Lack of sleep cannegatively impact your ability to handle stress, be productive, and function properly.Unfortunately, busy schedules and stress can make sleep more elusive2.Exercise RegularlyExercise can be great for you physically and mentally. It provides a stress release andkeeps your body healthy. It also helps your body release endorphins, which increase yourfeelings of overall wellbeing3.. Maintain Social SupportSocial support can keep you healthier and happier, creating a buffer against stress.Friends can pick you up when you‘re sad, provide insights when you‘re confused, andhelp you have fun when you need to blow off steam5. Find HobbiesHaving some ―down time‖ is important, and hobbies can provide a nice distraction fromstress and help you stay ‗in the moment‘, which is also a great way to relieve tension.6. Pamper YourselfTaking care of your body on the outside—with a spa treatment, for example, can workwonders for your internal state. Don‘t overlook the importance of pampering yourself ona regular basis, to feel great about yourself and feel ready to take on the world.7. Keep Your Mind SharpIf you maintain the attitude that stress is a challenge—rather than a threat, you are betterable to handle it. And by keeping your mind sharp, you are more equipped to solve theproblems and take on the ―challenges‖ that life presents.8. Have The Right AttitudeMuch of what you experience in life can feel more stressful or less so depending of yourpoint of view. Looking at things from an optimistic frame of mind can not only decreaseyour stress level, but bring you more success in life and more.UNIT-V
  • 31. WHAT IS ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT?Organization Development (OD) is the process of improving organizations. The processis carefully planned and implemented to benefit the organization, its employees and itsstakeholders. The client organization may be an entire company, public agency, non-profitorganization, volunteer group - or a smaller part of a larger organization.WHY IS ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT IMPORTANT?Profitability, productivity, morale and quality of work life are of concern to mostorganizations because they impact achievement of organization goals. There is anincreasing trend to maximize an organizations investment in its employees. Jobs thatpreviously required physical dexterity now require more mental effort. Organizationsneed to "work smarter" and apply creative ideas.WHAT DO ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT CONSULTANTS DO?OD consultants custom tailor established social science theory and methods toorganizations seeking to improve profitability, productivity, morale and/or quality ofwork life. Examples of activities which are facilitated by OD consultants are:TeambuildingGoal SettingGroup FacilitationCreative Problem solvingStrategic PlanningLeadership DevelopmentManagement DevelopmentCareer ManagementConflict ResolutionDevelopmental EducationInterpersonal CommunicationHuman Resources ManagementManaging Workforce DiversityOrganization RestructuringHigh Involvement Work TeamsSociotechnical Systems DesignTechnical TrainingTotal Quality ManagementOften described as "change agents," OD consultants come from varied backgrounds withexperience and training in organization development, organization behavior, psychology,education, management and/or human resources. Many have advanced degrees and mosthave experience in a variety of organizational settings.
  • 32. There are both internal and external OD consultants. An internal OD consultant is a full-time employee with a given organization. External consultants may be self-employed oron the staff of a consulting firm. "Externals" work with one or more clients contractingfor specific projects.Organization EffectivenessConsultants apply organization effectiveness strategies such as those shown below whenthere are needs for assessment, planning, growth, quality improvement, teamwork andother organizational changes.Action Research - An assessment and problem solving process aimed at improvedeffectiveness for the entire organization or specific work units. The consultant helps theclient organization identify the strengths and weaknesses of organization andmanagement issues and works with the client in addressing problem opportunities. (Someform of action research is generally applied as a foundation for other consultingstrategies.)Conflict Management - Bringing conflicts to the surface to discover their roots,developing a common ground from which to resolve or better manage conflict.Consultants serve as facilitator in a conflict situation or train employees to betterunderstand and manage conflict.Executive Development - One-on-one or group developmental consultation with CEOsor VPs to improve their effectiveness.Goal Setting - Defining and applying concrete goals as a road map to help anorganization get where it wants to go. (Can also be applied to employee development.)Group Facilitation - Helping people learn to interact more effectively at meetings and toapply group guidelines that foster open communication, participation andaccomplishment.Managing Resistance to Change - Helping clients identify, understand, and begin tomanage their resistance to planned organizational change.Organizational Restructuring - Changing departmental and/or individual reportingstructures, identifying roles and responsibilities, redesigning job functions to assure thatthe way work gets done in the organization produces excellence in production andservice.Project Management - The general management of specific work, blending diversefunctions and skills, usually for a fixed time and aimed at reaching defined outcomes.Self-Directed Work Teams - Developing work groups to be fully responsible for creatinga well defined segment of finished work.
  • 33. Sociotechnical Systems Design - Designing and managing organizations to emphasizethe relationship between peoples performance, the workplace environment and thetechnology used to produce goods and services in order to effect high level productivity.Strategic Planning - A dynamic process which defines the organizations mission andvision, sets goals and develops action steps to help an organization focus its present andfuture resources toward fulfilling its vision.Teambuilding - Improving how well organization members help one another in activitieswhere they must interact.Total Quality Management - Through work process analysis, teambuilding, definingquality and setting measurable standards, the consultant assists the organization inbecoming more cost effective, approach zero-defects and be more market-driven.Employee EffectivenessConsultants use employee effectiveness strategies such as those below when there areneeds for employee improvement in skill, commitment and leadership.Career Counseling - Focused attention on goal setting, career selection and job seekinghelp individuals make career decisions.Coordination & Management of Multi-Disciplinary Consultants - One or severaldifferent technical specialists team up with an OD consultant to design and install newequipment, work processes, work methods, or work procedures.Creative Problem Solving - Organization members use practical problem solving modelsto address existing problems in a systematic, creative manner.Customer Service Training - Creating interpersonal excellence in public contactpositions where the individual and the organization are expected to meet or exceedcustomer expectations.Developmental Education - Training in basic math, reading, writing and grammar.Interpersonal Communication Skills - Increased skill in exchanging needed informationwithin the organization and providing feedback in a non-threatening, non-judgmentalway.Human Resource Management - Managing the function of hiring, compensation,benefits and employee relations toward systematic goals of the organizations morale andproductivity.Labor Relations - Facilitation of conflict, planning and problem-solving amongmanagement and workforce union representation.
  • 34. Leadership Development - Training in select areas which change managers to leaders.Includes visioning, change management and creative problem solving.Management Development - Training in various management skill areas with particularfocus on performance management, communications and problem solving.Outplacement - Providing individual and group job search skills and services toemployees who have been affected by corporate downsizing. Typically paid for by theemployer.Sales Training - Training in the art of selling a product or service.Stress Management - An individual growth workshop designed to arm and activatehealthy responses to stress. It enables participants to maximize positive stressors andminimize the negative, both for themselves and others.Technical Training - Training in a specific technical area, such as computers.Time Management - An opportunity for individuals and organizations to effect higherlevels of productivity with the time they are allotted.Training Evaluation - Systematic controlled inquiry grounded in sound statisticalpractice, assessing on-line training effectiveness and/or business impact. Assessmentfocuses on course relevance, transfer and cost value.Workforce Diversity - Facilitating understanding between groups toward the goal wheredifferences among people in an organization become the strengths for competitiveadvantage, productivity and work satisfaction.Group EffectivenessIn formal organizations, group effectiveness can be increased by the following actions1. Organizing work around intact groups.2. Let the group select, train, and reward its members.3. Use the group only to enforce norms for behavior both on the job as well as off the job.4. Distributing rewards on a group basis.5. Allowing intergroupEND

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