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The Kalamazoo Promise: Michelle Miller-Adams Presentation
The Kalamazoo Promise: Michelle Miller-Adams Presentation
The Kalamazoo Promise: Michelle Miller-Adams Presentation
The Kalamazoo Promise: Michelle Miller-Adams Presentation
The Kalamazoo Promise: Michelle Miller-Adams Presentation
The Kalamazoo Promise: Michelle Miller-Adams Presentation
The Kalamazoo Promise: Michelle Miller-Adams Presentation
The Kalamazoo Promise: Michelle Miller-Adams Presentation
The Kalamazoo Promise: Michelle Miller-Adams Presentation
The Kalamazoo Promise: Michelle Miller-Adams Presentation
The Kalamazoo Promise: Michelle Miller-Adams Presentation
The Kalamazoo Promise: Michelle Miller-Adams Presentation
The Kalamazoo Promise: Michelle Miller-Adams Presentation
The Kalamazoo Promise: Michelle Miller-Adams Presentation
The Kalamazoo Promise: Michelle Miller-Adams Presentation
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The Kalamazoo Promise: Michelle Miller-Adams Presentation

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  • in 2005, Kalamazoo resembled many cities in the Upper Midwest and Northeast --expanding region (county grew by 25%)shrinking urban core (city down almost 15%)Poverty rate in the city (34.7%) double that of the county (18.6% ).Child poverty rate one of highest in the nation, double that of county
  • School district trends mirror pattern of urban core (but not as strong because of mismatch between district and city; see next slide).urban school district with Declining enrollment Increasingly poor student population- Home to most of the region’s non-white students
  • Positive numbers re: graduation rates, test scores, college completion, enrollment growthUndoubtedly trends are related to the Kalamazoo Promise, but they all lack a critical element to understanding causal relationships.
  • Positive numbers re: graduation rates, test scores, college completion, enrollment growthUndoubtedly trends are related to the Kalamazoo Promise, but they all lack a critical element to understanding causal relationships.
  • Foundation grant calculation does not count cost of serving students Current budget $131 millionStill cutting b/c of declining state funding, but much less than other schoolsTest scoresGains evident among every demographic group, outpacing gains at state level and average for other urban districtsMlive.com for news report, upjohn institute web site for academic workKalamazoo Promise as catalyst for change by school district… (and others)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Dr. Michelle Miller-Adams, Research FellowW.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment ResearchPresentation at Looking Back, Moving Forward ConferenceRichmond, VA, March 13-14, 2013
    • 2. 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010KalamazooCounty(pop.)201,550 212,378 223,411 238,603 250,331% African-American4.8 7.5 8.7 9.7 11.1City ofKalamazoo(pop.)85,555 79,722 80,277 77,145 74,262% African-American10 15.6 18.8 20.6 22.2Population Trends 1970-2010Source: U.S. Census
    • 3. 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010KPSEnrollment17,285 13,280 12,584 11,245 12,739% African-American17 30 36 44 43% lowincome<50 <50 <50 56 69School District Trends 1970-2010Source: Kalamazoo Public SchoolsPortage Public Schools (2010): 5% African-American, 25% low-income
    • 4. School District Boundary
    • 5. Kalamazoo Public Schools Enrollment Trend59000100001100012000130001400015000FallHeadcountAcademic YearKalamazooPromiseAnnounced
    • 6. 605,00010,00015,00020,00025,00030,000Kalamazoo Public SchoolsBattle Creek Public SchoolsGrand Rapids Public SchoolsLansing Public SchoolsFlint City School DistrictSaginaw City School DistrictPontiac School DistrictSimilar School District Comparison
    • 7. The Kalamazoo Promise Announced November 2005, to continue in perpetuity Funded by anonymous private donors First-dollar program (before other financial aid) Place-based: Kalamazoo Public Schools Covers 65-100% of tuition and fees at any in-state, publicpost-secondary institution for KPS graduates Minimum 4-year residency & enrollment requirement Universal: Every graduate is eligible Students have 10 years in which to use funding
    • 8. What makes Promise programs potential toolsfor community transformation?Promise programs seek to change the culture of acommunity, not simply award scholarships. They are: Place-based – focus on a geographically boundedcommunity Universal or near-universal – everyone has a stake;broad buy-in throughout the community Long-term – allow time for people to make choicesbased on the program’s benefits
    • 9. Promise programs are not all alike…Models vary by: Student eligibility Universal (all graduates eligible) or minimum GPA (usually 2.5) and/orattendance requirement Eligible post-secondary institutions Local only, in-state public, or any institution (with tuition cap) 2-year only, 4-year included Public or private (with tuition cap) Level of student support services provided Funding Private (businesses, individuals); philanthropic; public (tax resources)
    • 10. “If the college scholarship draws middle-class familiesinto the district and, if, also, there is some effort atpromoting equity within the school system – that isto say you don’t have one part of the district that isoverwhelmingly middle class and another part that ispoor (in other words, if you get economic schoolintegration) – that will be far more important thanany of the traditional approaches of spending moneyon high-poverty schools.”- Richard Kahlenberg, quoted in Miller-Adams,The Power of a Promise (2009), p. 90.
    • 11. Demographic (non) impact2005 2012Enrollment 10,548 12,725% low-income 62 69% African-American 48 43% Caucasian 40 38% Hispanic 9 12Source: Kalamazoo Public Schools
    • 12. Achievement/Attainment Impacts Enrollment growth Foundation grant (est. $26 million) First new school construction in four decades Improving statewide standardized test scores Improving high-school graduation rates Strong college attendance and completion Shift in college choices (Miller-Adams and Timmeney 2013) High-school achievement gains (Bartik and Lachowska 2012) More positive media coverage (Miller-Adams, in progress)
    • 13. Additional Resources Questions or comments: miller-adams@upjohn.org http://michellemilleradams.com http://thepromiseofkalamazoo.org W.E. Upjohn Institute - Kalamazoo Promise Research Special Topics: Kalamazoo Promise http://www.upjohn.org 5thPromiseNet conference – KalamazooOctober 23-25, 2013

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