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Introduction of Monitoring and EvaluationDifference between M & EUnderstanding of Techniques of Monitoringand Evaluation
It carries with it very hierarchical, authoritative and evaluative-com- directional connotations. Sarfraz Khawaja(2001)
The systematic collection andinterpretation ofevidence, leading toa judgment of valueintended to produceaction”.Worthen and Sanders(1996) --------
Characteristics Evaluation MonitoringSubject: Usually focused on strategic aspects addresses operational management issuesCharacter: incidental, flexible subject & methods continuous, regular, systematicPrimary client: stakeholders and external program managementApproach: objectivity, transparency utilityMethodology: demanding research methodologies, rapid appraisal methods refined toolsPrimary focus: focus on relevancy, outcomes, impact focus on operational efficiency and and sustainability effectivenessObjectives: to check outcomes / impact, verify to identify and resolve implementation developmental hypothesis problems to document successes and lessons to assess progress towards objectives learned
William Gantt was an engineer who, during World War 1, developed a method to keep track of major activities, depict the time and sequence of activities in order to monitor a project . Construct with the placement of vertical and horizontal axis on a page. The various functions and tasks to be completed in a project are listed in sequence from first to last, along the axis. A timeline with measured raises is recorded along horizontal axis with beginning to end. Symbols can be added to the Gantt chart that represent report documents and specified activities.
The ProgramEvaluation and ReviewTechnique (PERT) wasintroduced by spaceengineers (NASA) andoriginally use to helpmanage large projectsin which literallythousands of tasks toperform. Desmond L. Cook tookthe concept and appliedin education.
PERT is a network. The PERT network is used in graphic presentation to depict theactivities to be accomplished in a project andto show the sequence and relationship ofactivities. Time estimates for each activity areincluded in the PERT.
EventsStage or check point in the plan. It defines the start or finish ofone or more activities. ActivitiesIt represented by arrows joining two events following the directionof the gap of time. It is symbol of work in hand of theconsumption/labor. NetworkA network is a diagrammatic representation of a project having alogical sequence of various activities which together makeupproject. Time estimateMinimum possible period of the activity is time estimate.
Event is a point in time. e.g. Start Normal Event Key or milestone event Stop
There may bemany paths in aPERT network; thepath that requiresthe greatestamount of time forcompletion is theCritical path.
CPM is the project network analysis technique for determining the minimum project duration. useful approach to develop realistic schedules based on knowledge of resources Main application of this technique is, planning, controlling and construction programs for the large infrastructural and industrial projects.
Response sheets Interviews Committees and Panels
ObservationWhat ?How?Whom? Participants/non-participants. Adversary evaluationTo filter out personal views and prejudices. Goal-Free evaluationUnexpected results with observation. Product evaluationIts part of learning and traditional culture to conductactivity/ceremony. Social-impact methodsGather data to seek social impact after need assessment before the program.
A favorite method in Western nations is theresponse sheet handed out at the end ofcourse. Having a yes/no response makes theanalysis easy but scaled responses, based onLikert type options, produces more usefuldata.
Interviews can replace the written words, asparticipants pass on verbally their views andthey are recorded, either inwriting at that time by the interviewer or on audiotape for later analysis.
Committees are one useful technique for theprocess of evaluation. It is elected internally orexternally based on experts focus on comments,suggestions, and criticism. A committee is drawn from participants in aprogram whereas a panel is drawn fromoutsiders. The panel can provide information, oras it may be appropriately termed in thesecircumstances ‘feedback’, to both the learners,instructors and program managers.
It was originally developed by personnel at theRand Corporation in 1960s. The Delphi wasoriginally designed to provide the predictions ofexperts. The Delphi method technique is planning andmanagement technique of collecting andutilizing specific information from severalexperts as a basis for decision-making orplanning. Involvement in the Delphi process istime-consuming.
Step One: Experts are involved and selected. Two: Topics and issues are asked from experts/panel with time frame and best judgment. Three: The survey containing the original topics for consideration and time predictions to the participants to measure “effectiveness and probability” with seven-point scale.
Four: The responses are complied, summarized, synthesized and feedback. Five: Third questionnaire, the experts are asked to review their position of group of experts, to read the comments of other experts/opinion leaders, and reevaluate their own position. Six: Received responses are tabulated thus becomes the source of information for constructing opinion. Final: Results are analyzed and report is prepared.
It has been used in Russia and USA as meanof determining futures based on expertopinion. Both positive and negative featureshave been perceived to accompany suchtechniques as the Delphi process, as well as,such as brain storming techniques. Thisapproach developed in an effort to minimizenegative and highlight positive traits.
Group members are not allowed to have face to face interaction. Group members are not permitted to know the identities of participants regarding any issue or question publicized. The responses or survey is presented in frequency and percentage. Questions are focused on “what” and “why”.
Administrators use models and simulations to “test” plans or ideas in many ways. A simulation may be applied to immediate planning efforts, or a simulation may become part of strategic planning efforts. The scenario is a means of communication potential options for planners and decision makers to consider. Futurists use scenarios to depict their perceptions of what the future will look like.
A method for determining what abilities areneeded to do a particular job. The standards ofsuccess are established through actualincidents going on the job.Flangan used it to develop charts of thepersonal and social developments ofelementary school children.Films or tapes are used to study cause andpossible solutions of problem encountering inachieving success. (e.g.)
PPBS is in effect an addition of a techniquesin planning and budgeting process for identifying,costing and assigning a complexity of resourcesfor establishing priorities and strategies in a majorprogram and for forecasting costs, expenditureand achievements within the immediate financialyear or over a longer period.
Combining two or more courses of action whenit is considered more effective rather thanpursuing them individually.