Chapter 1: PSYCHOLOGY

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Sir James Grasparil's Chapter 1 (PSYCHOLOGY 101)

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Chapter 1: PSYCHOLOGY

  1. 1. GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY PROF.JAMES GRASPARIL
  2. 2. PSYCHOLOGY DEFINED-THE WORD PSYCHOLOGY IS DERIVEDFROM THE TWO GREEK WORDSPSYCHE (MIND OR SOUL) AND LOGOS(STUDY).ITS IS THEREFORE THESTUDY OF MIND OR SOUL.-THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF THEBEHAVIOR AND MENTAL PROCESSES.
  3. 3. WHAT IS BEHAVIOR?-IT REFERS TO ANYTHING WEDO,THINK AND FEEL.
  4. 4. TYPES OF BEHAVIOR1. COVERT-BEHAVIORAL PATTERNKNOWN ONLY TO THE PERSONEXPERIENCING IT.2. OVERT-BEHAVIORAL PATTERNWHICH CAN BE OBSERVED BYOTHERS.
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION OF BEHAVIOR1. CONSCIOUS-BEHAVIORALRESPONSES AND PROCESSSES THATAN INDIVIDUAL IS AWARE OF.2. UNCONSCIOUS-MENTALPROCESSES AND BODY REACTIONSTHAT THE INDIVIDUAL IS NOT AWAREOF.
  6. 6. HIGHLIGHTS IN THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY FORERUNNERS CONTRIBUTIONSRENE DESCARTES ANIMAL STUDIES;REFLEX ACTIONJOHN LOCKE IDEA OF TABULA RASAFRANZ JOSEF GALL PHRENOLOGYCHARLES DARWIN PUBLISHED “THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES”WILHELM WUNDT ESTABLISHED THE FIRST PSYCHOLOGICAL LABOROTORY IN LEIPZIG,GERMANYHERMAN VON HELMHOLTZ STUDIED THE SPEED OF NERVE IMPULES
  7. 7. HIGHLIGHTS IN THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY FORERUNNER CONTRIBUTIONERNEST WEBER PHYSIOLOGY OF SENSE ORGANGUSTAV FECHNER PSYCHOPHYSICSG.STANLEY HALL FIRST AMENICAN PH.D IN PSYCHOLOGY,ESTABLISHED THE FIRST PSYCHOLOGICAL LABOROTORY FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN US.JAMES CATTEL FORMULATED THE FIRST QUESTIONNAIRE KNOWN AS (16 PF).WILLIAM JAMES PUBLISHED”PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGY
  8. 8. HIGHLIGHTS IN THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY FORERUNNER CONTRIBUTIONEDWARD TITCHENER CONTINUE TO PROPAGATE THE STRUCTURALISM IN US.EDWARD THORNDIKE PIONEERED ON TRIAL AND ERROR LEARNING OF ANIMALS USING PUZZLE BOX.SIGMUND FREUD DEVELOPED PSYCHOANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION OF DREAMSALFRED BINET DEVELOPED THE FIRSTINTELLIGENCE TEST IN FRANCE.IVAN PAVLOV PROPONENT OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
  9. 9. HIGHLIGHTS IN THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY FORERUNNER CONTRIBUTIONMAX WERTHEIMER DESCRIBE THE ORGANIZATION PROCESSES THROUGH GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY.JOHN WATSON ADVOCATED BEHAVIORISM.JEAN PIAGET PROPAGATED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY.BF SKINNER PROPONENT OF OPERANT CONDITIONING.ABRAHAM MASLOW ESTABLISHED THE HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY.
  10. 10. SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY
  11. 11. STRUCTURALISM FOUNDERS: WILHELM WUNDT,EDWARD TITCHENER MAJOR EMPHASES: THE IMPORTANCE OF THOUGHT PROCESS AND THE STRUCTURE OF THE MIND. IDENTIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTS OF THOUGHT. TECHNIQUES OF STUDYING: TRAINED INTROSPECTION.
  12. 12. FUNCTIONALISM FOUNDERS: WILLIAM JAMES,JIHN DEWEY MAJOR EMPHASES: THE IMPOTANCE OF APPLYING PSYCHOLOGICAL FINDINGS TO PRACTICAL SITUATIONS. THE FUNCTION OF MENTAL PROCESSES IN ADOPTING TO ENVIRONMENT. TECHNIQUES OF STUDYING: INTROSPECTION,EXPERIMENTAL METHOD AND COMPARATIVE METHOD
  13. 13. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY FOUNDERS: SIGMUND FREUD, CARL JUNG MAJOR EMPHASES:THE INFLUENCE OF THE UNCONCIOUS ON BEHAVIOR . THE IMPORTANCE OF EARLY LIFE EXPERIENCE ON PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT. TECHNIQUES OF STUDYING:INDIVIDUAL CASE STUDY OF THE PATIENT.
  14. 14. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY FOUNDERS: MAX WERTHEIMER,WOLFGANG KOHLER,KURT KOFFKA MAJOR EMPHASES:THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATION AND CONTEXT IN THE PERCEPTION OF MEANINGFUL WHOLES. TECHNIQUES OF STUDYING:PERCEPTION EXPERIMENT
  15. 15. BEHAVIORISM FOUNDERS: JOHN WATSON,B.F SKINNER, EDWARD THORNDIKE MAJOR EMPHASES: THE IMPOTANCE OF OBJECTIVE,OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR IN THE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGY. THE CONVICTION THAT BEHAVIORS ARE MERE RESPONSES TO EXTERNAL STIMULI. TECHNIQUES OF STUDYING: EXPERIMENTS, PRIMARILY ON LEARNING AND OFTEN DONE WITH ANIMALS.
  16. 16. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY FOUNDERS: CARL ROGERS, ABRAHAM MASLOW MAJOR EMPHASES: THE IMPORTANCE OF PEOPLE’S FEELINGS. THE VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE AS NATURALLY POSITIVE AND GROWTH SEEKING, AND FAITH IN PEOPLE’S ABILITY TO SOLVE THEIR OWN PROBLEMS. TECHNIQUES OF STUDYING:INTERVIEW TECHIQUE.
  17. 17. METHODS OF STUDY USED IN PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH-IS A CRITICAL INQUIRY OR CAREFUL EXAMINATION IN SEEKING FACTS. OBSERVATION-THE MOST WIDELY USED METHOD. THIS IS DEPENDENT ON OVERT BEHAVIOR.
  18. 18. KINDS OF OBSERVATION UNCONTROLLED/INFORMAL- IT DOES NOT FOLLOW ANY PARTICULAR BEHAVIOR TO BE OBSERVED. IT IS CASUAL AND THE PSYCHOLOGIST IS FREETO OBSERVE ANY ACTIVITY THAT COMES HIS WAYS WITHOUT ANY FORMAL RECORDING OF BEHAVIOR. NATURALISTIC- IT IS THE OBSERVATION OF THINGS AS THEY NATURALLY HAPPENED. ITS IS ALSO CALLED THE FIELD STUDY METHOD. CONTROLLED/FORMAL- IT FOLLOWS CERTAIN RULES,FACTORS OR CONTROL IN GATHERING MATERIALS IN ORDER TO DRAW THE BEST CONCLUSIONS.
  19. 19. LIFE HISTORY- THIS INVOLVES EXTENSIVESTUDIES OF INDIVIDUALS BY TRACING THEDEVELOPMENT OF A PARTICULAR FORMOF BEHAVIOR.A. DAYBOOK METHOD-IT IS THE DIARY OFDEVELOPMENT; NORMALLY A RECORD OFDAY TO DAY ACTIVITIES USED IN CHILDDEVELOPMENT.B. CLINICAL METHOD-IT CONTAINS THEEMOTIONAL AND THE PERSONALITYADJUSTMENT OF HUMAN BEINGS. THIS ISOBTAINED FROM MEDICAL/HOSPITALRECORDS.
  20. 20. C. CASE HISTORY-THE PARENTSPROVIDE THE DATA ABOUT THEINDIVIDUAL BEING STUDIED BYPSYCHOLOGIST TO DISCOVER THECAUSE OF AND SOLUTION TO SOMESOCIAL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS.D.BIOLOGICAL METHOD-IT TELLSABOUT THE LIVES OF PERSON BASEDON THE REMEMBERED EVENTS ANDRECORD WRITTEN ON THEIR OWN BYTHE INDIVIDUAL THEMSELVES.
  21. 21. SURVEY/GROUP METHOD-IT IS DONETHROUGH QUESTIONNAIRES ORINTERVIEWS WHEN DIRECTOBSERVATION IS NOT FEASIBLE.EXPERIMENTAL METHOD-THISMETHOD STUDIES BEHAVIOR IN THELABOROTORY AND NORMALLY UNDERCONTROLLED CONDITIONS.
  22. 22. FIELDS OF PSYCHOLOGY EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY PARANORMAL PSYCHOLOGY

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