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  • ChristineGood morning teachers and friends. We are group CJ 066. I’m Christine, and this is Melinda, Danial, and Urmila. It is with pleasure and excitement that we would like to tell you more about our project today.
  • ChristineFirst up, I’ll be introducing our project and we will take a closer look at our case study on offshore oil drilling.Melinda will speak on this as well and then at Singapore, regarding the construction of the Liquid Fluroide Thorium Reactor, more commonly referred to as the LFTR. . Then, Danial will speak about the primary research we conducted and our first action plan. Last but not least, Urmila will talk about the second action plan and she will also end off with some of our insights and concluding remarks.
  • ChristineAllow me to begin by giving you an overview of our project.Our group has chosen the risk of anLFTR, in Singapore as our area of focus; specifically, the technological, safety and social risks it entails. BP Global’s offshore oil drilling was our case study, for reasons which we’ll explain later. We looked at measures BP had taken to minimize the risks involved and then, considered the application of these approaches to Singapore such that a successful outcome may be achieved.
  • ChristineWithout further ado, let’s begin our introduction.There are 4 main questions that we want to answer: One, why is there a need for alternative sources of energy? Two, why other forms of energy aren’t feasible? Three, why have we chosen the LFTR above all choices? Four, why we chose BP Global as our case study?
  • CHANGE THAI FLAG TO INDO FLAG.
  • ChristineJust like how every technology comes with risks and issues, this too has its own. Society might retaliate to the thought of having nuclear power in Singapore due to fear instilled from past accidents. The inadequate technology might not equip us with the necessary knowledge to encounter possible problems and to keep the LFTR as safe as possible. To better analyse these aforementioned risks, we analysed BP Global’s Offshore Oil Drilling which is a similar project which also faced social and technological issues.Slides 1 – 6 (Overview and Introduction): 2.5 minutes
  • ChristineNow, let’s take a closer look at our case study on BP Global’s Offshore Oil Drilling.
  • ChristineBP Global is a multinational company with its headquarters in the United Kingdom. It searches for oil and natural gas and extracts them from almost inaccessible places, such as the ocean floors of the Gulf of Mexico. The company processes these materials and sells it mainly as fuels. 
  • ChristineOne of their ways of ensuring energy sustainability in the world is via offshore oil drilling which is the extraction of oil from the seabed and converting it into energy. As can be seen from the illustration here* this is how oil is drawn from the seabed.
  • ChristineTo suit the scope of the project, we identified 2 of their main risks involved in offshore oil drilling. This would include the safety and technological risk, and a social risk.
  • ChristineThe first risk is the safety and technological risk. The nature of the drilling process involves pressure build-ups within pipes. Also, mishandling or failure of the equipment would result in explosions which harms both human and marine life.The other risk would be the social risk. Locals might retaliate to the act of offshore oil drilling carried out by BP Global. Photo from Los Angeles:A protester shouts slogans in front of an ARCO station owned by BP. [CIVILIANS]  http://www.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1993919,00.html#ixzz1bkFqUtP1Photo from London Greenpeace activists scaled BP's offices in London and placed this banner on a flagpole in front of the building. [ORGNIASATIONS]http://www.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1993919,00.html#ixzz1bkGp0MbV
  • ChristineThe first risk is the safety and technological risk. The nature of the drilling process involves pressure build-ups within pipes. Also, mishandling or failure of the equipment would result in explosions which harms both human and marine life.The other risk would be the social risk. Locals might retaliate to the act of offshore oil drilling carried out by BP Global. Photo from Los Angeles:A protester shouts slogans in front of an ARCO station owned by BP. [CIVILIANS]  http://www.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1993919,00.html#ixzz1bkFqUtP1Photo from London Greenpeace activists scaled BP's offices in London and placed this banner on a flagpole in front of the building. [ORGNIASATIONS]http://www.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1993919,00.html#ixzz1bkGp0MbV
  • ChristineHowever, oil accounts for 37.1% of US’s energy needs. * With political disputes that may arise anytime, there is a need to create independence with energy resources. * And with the large oil deposits located around US, why let it go to waste when it can be used to power American’s energy needs. As the positive impacts outweigh the drawbacks, offshore oil drilling has been deemed necessarySLIDES 7-12 : 2 minutes
  • MELINDAThank you, Christine. I’m Melinda, and let me tell you about an accident involving BP Global’s offshore oil drilling, which led to several devastating impacts. * The Deepwater Horizon was an oil-rig located in the Gulf of Mexico owned by BP Global. On 20th of April just last year, an explosion at the oil rig resulted in a fire that burned for 36 hours before the rig sank. Gallons of oil leaked into the gulf for 87 days before the well was sealed.    As a result of the accident, there were 11 deaths on top of the many casualties. Marine life was also badly affected as the oil spill caused pollution. The accident sparked protests from Americans and activists. They asked for such practices to be ceased. Consequently, BP recognized its need to implement measures to counter the problems faced. We identified two approaches that BP undertook to be grouped under the safety and technological aspect and social aspect.20th April Gulf of Mexico 11 deaths Marine life died Social ProtestsMeasures Safety Technological Constant Research Regular checks Reduce the risk Social Civilians Greenpeace
  • MELINDAFirstly, under the technological aspect, BP realised that through constant research, they can upgrade the existing facilities to increase the level of safety of the oil rig. Constant checks have to be done on the reactor to ensure that the safety devices are in working conditions and the risk of an accident is kept at a minimal level.  It was the failure of this equipment, *(point at picture of the blowout preventer), known as the blowout-preventer, which caused the accident.At a social level, there was also opposition from the public, which included civilians and the organisations like Greenpeace. The most effective way to overcome this is via public education which would inform the public of how they have tried to make offshore oil drilling a relatively safe project and tell them about its advantages.
  • MELINDANext, let’s take a closer look at Singapore. Earlier, we claimed that there is a growing need for energy in Singapore, and so we’ll now go on how an LFTR can solve this issue.
  • ADD PICTURE OF MAP WITH ABUNDANCE OF THORIUM (ask mel for it)
  • MELINDAThe risks involved are alike to what was looked into earlier in Offshore Oil Drilling. Due to the inadequate knowledge about the LFTR, any technological glitch in the reactor could be mishandled, posing a safety hazard. Other safety hazards also include the possibility of a radiation leak resulting from dangerous disposal of waste which may endanger the lives of many. In addition, there is a social risk that is caused by the social stigma that nuclear energy is unsafe. TO further justify the existence of a social stigma, we had an email correspondence with Dr Julian Kelly from WNA who agreed to the presence of a social stigma.These risks have become necessary for Singapore today. As Christine mentioned in the overview, we feel that Nuclear Energy is best alternative to meet Singapore’s energy needs and diversify our resources.
  • Thank you, Melinda. I’m Danial, and I will now continue with our explanation of what we did in our primary research. Later, I’ll also touch on the first action plan, about the formation of a research and development committee.Let me explain what my group has done for our primary research. To derive strategies for Singapore to adopt in the use of LFTR technology, our group has decided to conduct the following primary research to find out more of the public’s perception of nuclear energy.
  • Our group carried out an online survey using SurveyMonkey, based on 52 respondents of various ages to see how the public feels about the construction of the LFTR in Singapore and their concerns about it. We will deal with these concerns in the social campaign to be mentioned later on in our strategies, as we believe that once they are addressed through public education, the masses would most likely be supportive of the LFTR’s construction.In addition to that, we conducted an email interview using Gmail with Dr Julian Kelly from the World Nuclear Association to confirm our predictions that there was a social stigma attached to any form of nuclear energy and through his guidance, we also gained a deeper insight into the working mechanisms of the LFTR which would then guide us in our strategies. 
  • On to our very first action plan!As in the case study, where research and development was used to minimise the technological and safety risk, we propose that the Economics Strategies Committee, who is in-charge of setting up and running of the LFTR, set up a committee to R&D various aspects of the LFTR.
  • Our group proposes a Research and Development Committee be formed. This committee aims to gain more knowledge of LFTR and develop better measures and equipment to improve the safety of the reactor.
  • As Singapore may lack these local researchers and engineers who have the required expertise, the Economies Strategies Committee may need to source for and thereafter, hire experts from foreign companies to sit in the committees, or to serve as consultants. They can also be involved in training of local researchers and engineers and hence the transfer of expertise can take place. The agency in Singapore, A*STAR which has expertise and a proven track record in attracting Nobel Laureates to Singapore to engage in research could be tasked to scout for and recruit talented scientists in LFTR.
  • Thank you, Danial. I’m Urmila, and I will now continue with our explanation of the second action plan and also end this presentation by sharing a few of our insights and a few concluding remarks.As in the case study, where an apology campaign was initiated to minimise the social risk, we propose that the Economics Strategies Committee, who is in-charge of setting up and running of the LFTR, set up a committee to R&D various aspects of the LFTR initiates a public education campaign.
  • Singapore is our home and your happiness is our happiness. Addressing your priorities is our main concern. Social protests come about when people are unable to address their concerns which could be due to imperfect information or other reasons. Through public education, we hope to address the concerns of Singaporeans and in turn, gain their support.  
  • Firstly, to ensure that we more effectively reach our aim of increasing social support, we conducted a survey to find out what are the main concerns of Singaporeans with regards to nuclear technology. As seen from the pie chart, safety inadequacy of technology and social unrest were the 3 aspects Singaporeans were most concerned about. This helped us tailor our exhibition to overcoming these concerns and thus gaining support.
  • We then asked about how they would want information to be disemminated. Among the listed options, exhbitions and website were the most favourable options. Thus, we set up an exhbition and website to help explain how the organisation would have adequate knowledge to tackle future problems that arises in the LFTR, how any social unrest would be responded to and how the safety of employees, civilians and marine life will be taken care of. By doing this, we are able to achieve our main aim of addressing the needs of Singaporeans and thus gaining their support.
  • Publicity: Pamphlet were distributed in crowded places. Christine is now handing out a few copies of the pamphlet. As you can see from the pamphlet and the picture, the words had been translated in the 4 main languages of Singapore to ensure that it reaches out to people from all backgrounds. An event was created on Facebook to publicize the event. INSERT PHOTO OF S’PORE MAP WITH 5 STARs AT N, S, E, W, C. Location:To ensure that Singaporeans living in all parts of Singapore are able to access the exhibition, there will be one held in each shopping centre in the Northern, Eastern, Southern and Western parts of Singapore. The fifth and final one will be held in the Central at Suntec Convention Centre. An added feature at this exhbition would be a dialogue session with Mr TharmanShanmugarathnam and energy experts from the World Nuclear Assocation. Attendees would be allowed to ask questions to these panel of expertise and get their queries and concerns clarified. Should one not be able to attend these exhbitions, they could email their questions to support@lftr.org.sg.
  • Publicity: Pamphlet were distributed in crowded places. Christine is now handing out a few copies of the pamphlet. As you can see from the pamphlet and the picture, the words had been translated in the 4 main languages of Singapore to ensure that it reaches out to people from all backgrounds. An event was created on Facebook to publicize the event. INSERT PHOTO OF S’PORE MAP WITH 5 STARs AT N, S, E, W, C. Location:To ensure that Singaporeans living in all parts of Singapore are able to access the exhibition, there will be one held in each shopping centre in the Northern, Eastern, Southern and Western parts of Singapore. The fifth and final one will be held in the Central at Suntec Convention Centre. An added feature at this exhbition would be a dialogue session with Mr TharmanShanmugarathnam and energy experts from the World Nuclear Assocation. Attendees would be allowed to ask questions to these panel of expertise and get their queries and concerns clarified. Should one not be able to attend these exhbitions, they could email their questions to support@lftr.org.sg.
  • Publicity: Pamphlet were distributed in crowded places. Christine is now handing out a few copies of the pamphlet. As you can see from the pamphlet and the picture, the words had been translated in the 4 main languages of Singapore to ensure that it reaches out to people from all backgrounds. An event was created on Facebook to publicize the event. INSERT PHOTO OF S’PORE MAP WITH 5 STARs AT N, S, E, W, C. Location:To ensure that Singaporeans living in all parts of Singapore are able to access the exhibition, there will be one held in each shopping centre in the Northern, Eastern, Southern and Western parts of Singapore. The fifth and final one will be held in the Central at Suntec Convention Centre. An added feature at this exhbition would be a dialogue session with Mr TharmanShanmugarathnam and energy experts from the World Nuclear Assocation. Attendees would be allowed to ask questions to these panel of expertise and get their queries and concerns clarified. Should one not be able to attend these exhbitions, they could email their questions to support@lftr.org.sg.
  • To assess the effectiveness of this exhibition, we conducted a prototype of it in CJC on the 12th of September and conducted a post-exhibition survey. I now ask you to look at this exhibit which was built based on the picture here. I’ll briefly mention what this represents. This is the internal-processes of the reactor. As Melinda mentioned earlier, the nuclear reaction takes place in this main reactor with gases pumped in from these two gas chambers. The heat produced from this nuclear reaction then powers the turbines which then produces electricity. This is the safety device, freeze plug which would melt down during excess heat and this is the waste heat consumer which stores waste. From the post-exhibit we found out that 74% of the attendees found it effective in gaining a better insight into the exhibits.
  • Oral presentation

    1. 1. Have No Fear; Thorium is Here Applying risks involved in Offshore Oil Drilling toconstructing a Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor in Singapore Project Work  CJ066 de Silva Christine Anne, Melinda Tai Urmila Baskaran, Danial Adam Leong
    2. 2. Have No Fear; Thorium is Here1. Overview. 2. Offshore Oil Drilling. 3. Liquid FluorideThorium Reactor. 4. Primary Research. 5. Action Plan 1.6. Action Plan 2. 7. Conclusion.
    3. 3. 1. Overview. 2. Offshore Oil Drilling. 3. Liquid FluorideThorium Reactor. 4. Primary Research. 5. Action Plan 1.6. Action Plan 2. 7. Conclusion.1. OVERVIEW
    4. 4. OVERVIEW OVERVIEW the need for alternatives? not other forms of energy?Why Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR)?
    5. 5. OVERVIEW OVERVIEWContextualising Singapore
    6. 6. OVERVIEW Current Project andOVERVIEW Future Project BP Risks: Social LFTRGlobal and Technology
    7. 7. 1. Overview. 2. Offshore Oil Drilling. 3. Liquid FluorideThorium Reactor. 4. Primary Research. 5. Action Plan 1.6. Action Plan 2. 7. Conclusion.2. OFFSHORE OIL DRILLING
    8. 8. OFFSHORE OIL DRILLING OFFSHORE OIL An Overview DRILLING Have No Fear; Thorium is HereApplying risks involved and lessons learnt in BP GLOBAL’s Offshore Oil Drilling to constructing a Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor in Singapore
    9. 9. OFFSHORE OIL DRILLING OFFSHORE OIL An Overview DRILLING Have No Fear; Thorium is Here Applying risks involved and lessons learnt in BP Global’sOFFSHORE OIL DRILLING to constructing a Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor in Singapore
    10. 10. OFFSHORE OIL DRILLING OFFSHORE OILRisks Involved DRILLING Have No Fear; Thorium is HereApplying RISKS INVOLVED and lessons learnt in BP Global’s offshore oil drilling to constructing a Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor in Singapore
    11. 11. OFFSHORE OIL DRILLING Risks Involved
    12. 12. OFFSHORE OIL DRILLING Risks Involved
    13. 13. OFFSHORE OIL DRILLINGOFFSHORE OIL DRILLING Need to take the Risk
    14. 14. OFFSHORE OIL DRILLING OFFSHORE OIL DRILLING An application of the Risks Overview Overview Deepwater Horizon Accident Aftermath Aftermath BP’s of ofresponse Accident Accident
    15. 15. OFFSHORE OIL DRILLING Lessons Learnt from the accident Have No Fear; Thorium is HereApplying risks involved and LESSONS LEARNT in BP Global’s Offshore Oil Drilling to constructing a Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor in Singapore Social Aspect Technological Aspect
    16. 16. 1. Overview. 2. Offshore Oil Drilling. 3. Liquid FluorideThorium Reactor. 4. Primary Research. 5. Action Plan 1.6. Action Plan 2. 7. Conclusion.3. LIQUID FLUORIDE THORIUM REACTOR
    17. 17. LIQUID FLUORIDE THORIUM REACTORLIQUID FLUORIDE THORIUM An Overview REACTOR Have No Fear; Thorium is Here Applying risks involved and lessons learnt in BP Global’s Offshore Oil Drilling to constructing a LIQUID FLUORIDE THORIUM REACTOR in Singapore
    18. 18. LIQUID FLUORIDE THORIUM REACTOR Risks Involved and the Need to take the Risk There is certainly a social stigma Have Nowith Nuclear Energy as there Fear; Thorium is Here associatedINVOLVED and lessons learnt in BP Global’sApplying RISKS have beendrilling to constructing a Liquid Fluoride offshore oil accidents like the Fukushima Accident and Reactor in Singapore Thorium Chernobyl Accident. ― Dr Julian Kelly from World Nuclear Association (WNA) The Technological The Social Aspect Safety Aspect Aspect
    19. 19. 1. Overview. 2. Offshore Oil Drilling. 3. Liquid FluorideThorium Reactor. 4. Primary Research. 5. Action Plan 1.6. Action Plan 2. 7. Conclusion.4. PRIMARY RESEARCH
    20. 20. PRIMARY RESEARCH Surveys and InterviewsSurveyMonkey Gmail
    21. 21. 1. Overview. 2. Offshore Oil Drilling. 3. Liquid FluorideThorium Reactor. 4. Primary Research. 5. Action Plan 1.6. Action Plan 2. 7. Conclusion.5. ACTION PLAN 1
    22. 22. ACTION PLAN 1 Research and Development Committee1. Goals. 2.Details. 3.Evaluation.
    23. 23. ACTION PLAN 1 Research and Development Committee1. Goals. 2.Details. 3.Evaluation.
    24. 24. ACTION PLAN 1Research and Development Committee
    25. 25. ACTION PLAN 1 Research and Development Committee1. Goals. 2.Details. 3.Evaluation.
    26. 26. 1. Overview. 2. Offshore Oil Drilling. 3. Liquid FluorideThorium Reactor. 4. Primary Research. 5. Action Plan 1.6. Action Plan 2. 7. Conclusion.6. ACTION PLAN 2
    27. 27. ACTION PLAN 2 Public Education1. Goals. 2.Details. 3.Evaluation.
    28. 28. ACTION PLAN 2 Public Education1. Goals. 2.Details. 3.Evaluation.
    29. 29. ACTION PLAN 2 The Details – Pre-Exhibition Survey No concerns 0% Having read the brief Land introduction regarding Constraints LFTR, what should you Social Unrest 18%be most concerned with 24%regards to the adoption of such a technology? Inadequate technology 25% Safety 33%
    30. 30. ACTION PLAN 2 The Details: Pre-Exhibition Survey Newspaper Advertisements What mode of 7% dissemination of Foruminformation would 10% Youtube Videos you prefer? 8% Exhibition 50% Website 25%
    31. 31. ACTION PLAN 2The Details - Location
    32. 32. ACTION PLAN 2The Details - Publicity
    33. 33. ACTION PLAN 2The Details - Location
    34. 34. ACTION PLAN 2 The Details – Prototype of the proposed idea After theexhibition you No attended 26%today, do you have a better Yes idea of what 74% the LFTR is about?
    35. 35. 1. Overview. 2. Offshore Oil Drilling. 3. Liquid FluorideThorium Reactor. 4. Primary Research. 5. Action Plan 1.6. Action Plan 2. 7. Conclusion.7. CONCLUSION
    36. 36. THANK YOU.

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