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  • 1. Climate and Architecture Arch 331 Dr. Abdelrahman Elbakheit References . ‫عوف‬ ‫بن‬ ‫سعيد‬ ‫الرحيم‬ ‫عبد‬ ‫سعيد‬ .‫د‬ ,‫المعمارى‬ ‫التصميم‬ ‫و‬ ‫المناخية‬ ‫العناصر‬1 2. ‫الموسوى‬ ‫عبود‬ ‫هاشم‬ .‫د‬ , ‫المناخ‬ ‫و‬ ‫العمارة‬
  • 2. General characteristics of main climates on earth: Equatorial climate: tropical climate: Temperate climate: Artic Climate: 1. Equatorial climate - Between 15ºN - 15ºS. - High Air Temperature, Humidity, V. High rain Falls. - e.g., Singapore, Jakarta, Lagos, Dar Al salaam, Mombassa, Kuala Lumpur. - Daily Max. 27º – 32 º. - Daily Min. 21º – 27º. - Monthly mean Humidity 55% - 100% Total mean 75%. - Heavy green Vegetations. - Calm winds, but up to 30m/s when raining.
  • 3. 2. Tropical climate: 2.1 Hot dry (Desert). 2.2 Hot Humid. 2.3 Composite. 2.4 Tropical high land. 2.1 Hot Dry (Desert): - Between 15º - 30º N&S. - Two seasons Hot and Moderate. - e.g., Swan, Baghdad, Riyadh, Al Ain. - Monthly Max. (43º – 49º). (27º - 32º) - Monthly Min. (24º – 30º). (10º - 18º) - Monthly mean Humidity 10% - 55% 2.2 Hot Humid: - Same location of Hot Dry , but near coasts. - Two seasons , Hot and relatively moderate.
  • 4. 2.2 Hot Humid: - Same location of Hot Dry , but near coasts. - Two seasons , Hot and relatively moderate. - High relative humidity 50-90%, with clear skies and few clouds that causes glare. - Local wind, more influenced by Land/Sea Breath. Day - Sea Land. + Night - Land Sea. - Monthly Max. (40º – 48º). (24º - 30º) - Monthly Min. (21º – 26º). (10º - 18º). - Kuwait, Karachi, Jeddah. 2.3 Composite: - In central areas of continents, north of tropic of Cancer and South of tropic of Capricorn.
  • 5. 2.3 Composite: - In central areas of continents, north of tropic of Cancer and South of tropic of Capricorn. - Two main seasons Hot Dry (8-months) and Worm Humid (4-months). - Max. Hot Dry (32º – 43º). Humidity 22-55% - Min. Hot Dry (21º – 27º). - Max. Worm Humid (27º – 32º). Humidity 55-95% - Min. Worm Humid (24º – 27º). - New Deli, Cano, La hour. 2.4 Tropical high lands: - 900-1800m above sea level. - Above 1800m, Max. temp. (24º -30º). Humidity (45-99%) - Min. Temp. (10º -13º). - Addis Abba, Nairobi, New Mexico.
  • 6. 3. Temperate climate: 3.1 Mediterranean Climate 3.2 Marine temperate Climate: 3.3 continental temperate Climate: 3.4 temperate Grassland climate: 3.1 Mediterranean Climate: - Has three regions, coastal, High land and desert areas. Around the Mediterranean and other Similar areas. - Hot dry in Summer and Worm rainy in winter. - Subjected to tropical winds in summer and Arctic marine wind in winter. 3.2 Marine Temperate Climate: - Very close to seas, very unsettled changes from place to place , even from hour-hour in a single place. - Comprising of series of days with varying weather. - Rainy near coasts with the rain reducing gradually away from coasts. - Heavy presence of vegetations in rainy areas. - From North of Spain in the south to Sweden Southern Coasts in the North. And in the
  • 7. 3. Temperate climate: 3.1 Mediterranean Climate 3.2 Marine temperate Climate: 3.3 continental temperate Climate: 3.4 temperate Grassland climate: 3.3 Continental temperate Climate: - The main difference between Marine and Continental climates is that the later has high yearly temperature diurnal range from the former. Could be twice as much. - This is due to being away from the influence of Sea and far from the range of moist sea wind. - Subjected to tropical marine winds in summer and Arctic continental wind in winter. - Always under high pressure. - Inner parts of continents as in East Europe and Russia, Eastern Parts of Continents like North east of USA, Canada, Korea. 3.4 Temperate Grassland: - This is the driest of the temperate climates, due to being far away from seas. - Famous of its tender grass coverage due to low rain. (Steppes Grass) - In Middle areas of North America, South of Continental temperate climate in Russia and Asia South of Argentina and south east Australia.
  • 8. 4. Arctic Climate: 4.1 Cold Climate or Semi Arctic: 4.2 Arctic Climate: 4.3 Snow coverage Climate: 4.1 Cold Climate or Semi Arctic: - Covers Northern Europe, Asia and north America, Southern half of Alaska to Canada and north of Finland. - Free from marine influence. - Very cold and dry especially in winter, ground is frosted or covered in snow. 4.2 Artic Climate: - Northern part of Russia, Canada and Green Land and Southern Pole - Very cold in both winter and Summer, temperature below Zero even in Summer. 4.3 Snow Coverage: - Very cold all year round. Temperatures always below Zero. - Central areas of green land. - Covered in snow all year round.
  • 9. Climate considerations in building and urban design, Baruch Givoni, 1998 Man, Climate and architecture, Design with climate, V. Olgyay Natural energy and vernacular architecture, Fathy
  • 10. Climate considerations in building and urban design, Baruch Givoni, 1998 Man, Climate and architecture, Design with climate, V. Olgyay Natural energy and vernacular architecture, Fathy