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Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
Soil testing
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Soil testing

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  • 1. Soil Testing
  • 2. Why test soils?
    • to determine fertilizer needs
    • increased yields faster growth
    • = money to grower
  • 3. How much fertilizer is enough?
    • Underfertilized
    • growth, yield reduced increased susceptibility to disease, insects
  • 4. How much fertilizer is enough?
    • Overfertilized
    • ties up micronutrients leaches into groundwater – nitrate
    • pollution expensive
  • 5. How much fertilizer is enough?
    • Best approach:
    • Frequent soil tests followed by low level applications of fertilizer at regular intervals
  • 6. Plant Nutrient Levels
    • Level 1: Deficient
    • growth, productivity slowed
  • 7. Plant Nutrient Levels
    • Level 2: Sufficient
    • plant needs satisfied
    • adding more fertilizer only increases
    • growth slightly - not worth cost
  • 8. Plant Nutrient Levels
    • Level 3: High
    • high nutrient levels
    • maximum growth can easily become too much - toxicity, pollution, nutrient tie-ups.
  • 9. Plant Nutrient Levels
    • Level 4: Toxic
    • yields decline
    • plant damage
  • 10.
    • Three methods for finding nutrient deficiencies in plants:
  • 11. 1 Visual inspection
    • deficiency signs
    • yield reductions
    • slow growth
    • ureliable
    • damage already done
  • 12. 2 Soil test
    • measure nutrient levels of soil
    • most common method
    • determine lime, fertilizer needs
    • soil conditions not identified
  • 13. 3 Tissue testing
    • measures nutrient levels in plant itself
    • bypasses soil to determine if nutrient was taken up by plant
    • measures nutrient levels in the plant itself
    • most complete and accurate
  • 14. Testing basis
    • chemical reactions that produce color changes depending on amount of minerals in soil
    • not always reliable - human error, results vary
  • 15. Home test kits
        • More common among greenhouse and nursery growers
        • Results may vary and not compare w/ lab tests
  • 16. Professional testing
  • 17. Projessional Lab
    • Laboratory testing with instruments
    • Extraction - filter water through soil sample
    • spectrophotometer - p asses light through solution, measures amount of light absorbed
  • 18. Professional Lab
      • use charts to interpret measurements
      • based on validated tests on similar soils
      • results may vary from lab to lab
  • 19. Professional lab
    • Standard laboratory series soil test includes:
    • texture organic matter content pH nutrients – NPK
    • high, medium and low rating
  • 20. Results
    • Based on needs of area
    • Standard/Optional depending on lab
    • Soluble salts
    • CEC
    • Ca
    • S
    • Mg
    • Trace elements
  • 21. Results
    • Nitrogen difficult to test because soluble
    • Test for organic matter storage - what crop took out
  • 22. Soil Testing
    • University of Wisconsin Extension and private labs perform soil tests
    http://soiltest.cfans.umn.edu/ http://www.soilperfect.com/
  • 23. How to use test kit

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