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Soil testing
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Transcript

  • 1. Soil Testing
  • 2. Why test soils?
    • to determine fertilizer needs
    • increased yields faster growth
    • = money to grower
  • 3. How much fertilizer is enough?
    • Underfertilized
    • growth, yield reduced increased susceptibility to disease, insects
  • 4. How much fertilizer is enough?
    • Overfertilized
    • ties up micronutrients leaches into groundwater – nitrate
    • pollution expensive
  • 5. How much fertilizer is enough?
    • Best approach:
    • Frequent soil tests followed by low level applications of fertilizer at regular intervals
  • 6. Plant Nutrient Levels
    • Level 1: Deficient
    • growth, productivity slowed
  • 7. Plant Nutrient Levels
    • Level 2: Sufficient
    • plant needs satisfied
    • adding more fertilizer only increases
    • growth slightly - not worth cost
  • 8. Plant Nutrient Levels
    • Level 3: High
    • high nutrient levels
    • maximum growth can easily become too much - toxicity, pollution, nutrient tie-ups.
  • 9. Plant Nutrient Levels
    • Level 4: Toxic
    • yields decline
    • plant damage
  • 10.
    • Three methods for finding nutrient deficiencies in plants:
  • 11. 1 Visual inspection
    • deficiency signs
    • yield reductions
    • slow growth
    • ureliable
    • damage already done
  • 12. 2 Soil test
    • measure nutrient levels of soil
    • most common method
    • determine lime, fertilizer needs
    • soil conditions not identified
  • 13. 3 Tissue testing
    • measures nutrient levels in plant itself
    • bypasses soil to determine if nutrient was taken up by plant
    • measures nutrient levels in the plant itself
    • most complete and accurate
  • 14. Testing basis
    • chemical reactions that produce color changes depending on amount of minerals in soil
    • not always reliable - human error, results vary
  • 15. Home test kits
        • More common among greenhouse and nursery growers
        • Results may vary and not compare w/ lab tests
  • 16. Professional testing
  • 17. Projessional Lab
    • Laboratory testing with instruments
    • Extraction - filter water through soil sample
    • spectrophotometer - p asses light through solution, measures amount of light absorbed
  • 18. Professional Lab
      • use charts to interpret measurements
      • based on validated tests on similar soils
      • results may vary from lab to lab
  • 19. Professional lab
    • Standard laboratory series soil test includes:
    • texture organic matter content pH nutrients – NPK
    • high, medium and low rating
  • 20. Results
    • Based on needs of area
    • Standard/Optional depending on lab
    • Soluble salts
    • CEC
    • Ca
    • S
    • Mg
    • Trace elements
  • 21. Results
    • Nitrogen difficult to test because soluble
    • Test for organic matter storage - what crop took out
  • 22. Soil Testing
    • University of Wisconsin Extension and private labs perform soil tests
    http://soiltest.cfans.umn.edu/ http://www.soilperfect.com/
  • 23. How to use test kit