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Soil Testing
Why test soils? <ul><li>to determine fertilizer needs </li></ul><ul><li>increased yields faster growth </li></ul><ul><li>=...
How much fertilizer is enough? <ul><li>Underfertilized </li></ul><ul><li>growth, yield reduced increased susceptibility to...
How much fertilizer is enough? <ul><li>Overfertilized </li></ul><ul><li>ties up micronutrients leaches into groundwater – ...
How much fertilizer is enough? <ul><li>Best approach: </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent soil tests followed by low level applicat...
Plant Nutrient Levels <ul><li>Level 1:  Deficient </li></ul><ul><li>growth, productivity slowed </li></ul>
Plant Nutrient Levels <ul><li>Level 2: Sufficient </li></ul><ul><li>plant needs satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>adding more fe...
Plant Nutrient Levels <ul><li>Level 3:  High  </li></ul><ul><li>high nutrient levels </li></ul><ul><li>maximum growth can ...
Plant Nutrient Levels <ul><li>Level 4:  Toxic  </li></ul><ul><li>yields decline </li></ul><ul><li>plant damage </li></ul>
<ul><li>Three methods for finding nutrient deficiencies in plants: </li></ul>
1  Visual inspection <ul><li>deficiency signs </li></ul><ul><li>yield reductions </li></ul><ul><li>slow growth </li></ul><...
2  Soil test  <ul><li>measure nutrient levels of soil </li></ul><ul><li>most common method </li></ul><ul><li>determine lim...
3  Tissue testing <ul><li>measures nutrient levels in plant itself </li></ul><ul><li>bypasses soil to determine if nutrien...
Testing basis <ul><li>chemical reactions that produce color changes depending  on amount of minerals in soil </li></ul><ul...
Home test kits <ul><ul><ul><li>More common among greenhouse and nursery growers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Result...
Professional testing
Projessional Lab <ul><li>Laboratory testing with instruments  </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction - filter water through soil sam...
Professional Lab <ul><ul><li>use charts to interpret measurements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on validated tests on s...
Professional lab <ul><li>Standard laboratory series soil test includes: </li></ul><ul><li>texture organic matter content p...
Results <ul><li>Based on needs of area </li></ul><ul><li>Standard/Optional depending on lab </li></ul><ul><li>Soluble salt...
Results <ul><li>Nitrogen difficult to test because soluble </li></ul><ul><li>Test for organic matter storage -  what crop ...
Soil Testing <ul><li>University of Wisconsin Extension and private labs perform soil tests </li></ul>http://soiltest.cfans...
How to use test kit
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Soil testing

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Transcript of "Soil testing"

  1. 1. Soil Testing
  2. 2. Why test soils? <ul><li>to determine fertilizer needs </li></ul><ul><li>increased yields faster growth </li></ul><ul><li>= money to grower </li></ul>
  3. 3. How much fertilizer is enough? <ul><li>Underfertilized </li></ul><ul><li>growth, yield reduced increased susceptibility to disease, insects </li></ul>
  4. 4. How much fertilizer is enough? <ul><li>Overfertilized </li></ul><ul><li>ties up micronutrients leaches into groundwater – nitrate </li></ul><ul><li> pollution expensive </li></ul>
  5. 5. How much fertilizer is enough? <ul><li>Best approach: </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent soil tests followed by low level applications of fertilizer at regular intervals </li></ul>
  6. 6. Plant Nutrient Levels <ul><li>Level 1: Deficient </li></ul><ul><li>growth, productivity slowed </li></ul>
  7. 7. Plant Nutrient Levels <ul><li>Level 2: Sufficient </li></ul><ul><li>plant needs satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>adding more fertilizer only increases </li></ul><ul><li> growth slightly - not worth cost </li></ul>
  8. 8. Plant Nutrient Levels <ul><li>Level 3: High </li></ul><ul><li>high nutrient levels </li></ul><ul><li>maximum growth can easily become too much - toxicity, pollution, nutrient tie-ups. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Plant Nutrient Levels <ul><li>Level 4: Toxic </li></ul><ul><li>yields decline </li></ul><ul><li>plant damage </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Three methods for finding nutrient deficiencies in plants: </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1 Visual inspection <ul><li>deficiency signs </li></ul><ul><li>yield reductions </li></ul><ul><li>slow growth </li></ul><ul><li>ureliable </li></ul><ul><li>damage already done </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2 Soil test <ul><li>measure nutrient levels of soil </li></ul><ul><li>most common method </li></ul><ul><li>determine lime, fertilizer needs </li></ul><ul><li>soil conditions not identified </li></ul>
  13. 13. 3 Tissue testing <ul><li>measures nutrient levels in plant itself </li></ul><ul><li>bypasses soil to determine if nutrient was taken up by plant </li></ul><ul><li>measures nutrient levels in the plant itself </li></ul><ul><li>most complete and accurate </li></ul>
  14. 14. Testing basis <ul><li>chemical reactions that produce color changes depending on amount of minerals in soil </li></ul><ul><li>not always reliable - human error, results vary </li></ul>
  15. 15. Home test kits <ul><ul><ul><li>More common among greenhouse and nursery growers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results may vary and not compare w/ lab tests </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Professional testing
  17. 17. Projessional Lab <ul><li>Laboratory testing with instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction - filter water through soil sample </li></ul><ul><li>spectrophotometer - p asses light through solution, measures amount of light absorbed </li></ul>
  18. 18. Professional Lab <ul><ul><li>use charts to interpret measurements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on validated tests on similar soils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>results may vary from lab to lab </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Professional lab <ul><li>Standard laboratory series soil test includes: </li></ul><ul><li>texture organic matter content pH nutrients – NPK </li></ul><ul><li>high, medium and low rating </li></ul>
  20. 20. Results <ul><li>Based on needs of area </li></ul><ul><li>Standard/Optional depending on lab </li></ul><ul><li>Soluble salts </li></ul><ul><li>CEC </li></ul><ul><li>Ca </li></ul><ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><li>Mg </li></ul><ul><li>Trace elements </li></ul>
  21. 21. Results <ul><li>Nitrogen difficult to test because soluble </li></ul><ul><li>Test for organic matter storage - what crop took out </li></ul>
  22. 22. Soil Testing <ul><li>University of Wisconsin Extension and private labs perform soil tests </li></ul>http://soiltest.cfans.umn.edu/ http://www.soilperfect.com/
  23. 23. How to use test kit
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