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Soil properties
 

Soil properties

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Soil Properties

Soil Properties
Fruit and Vegetable Science
K. Jerome

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    Soil properties Soil properties Presentation Transcript

    • SOIL PROPERTIES
    • Components of soil
      • Texture – amounts of sand, silt, clay particles
      • almost pure sand
      • sandy loam
      • silt loam
      • clay
    • Components of soil
      • Soil Texture Affects:
        • Infiltration rate
        • Drainage
        • Nutrient storage
        • Ease of seedling emergence
        • Ease of root penetration
    • Components of soil
      • Aggregates – clumps of soil held together
      • Aggregation is
      • GOOD
    • Cycles that affect plant growth
      • Temperature:
      • most roots grow when soil temperature is above 40°F to 50°F
      • seed germination depends on soil temperature
    • Cycles that affect plant growth
      • Gasses:
      • Plants need oxygen
      • Give off carbon dioxide
      • Soil helps maintain proper amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide
    •  
    • Cycles that affect plant growth
      • Water:
      • stored in soil pores
      •   s oil filters, purifies water
    •  
    •   Cycles that affect plant growth
      • Carbon:
      • Plants collect energy from sun to perform photosynthesis
      • Convert atmospheric carbon into biological carbon
      • Recycled by organic matter decay in soil
    •  
    •   Medium for plant growth
      • Plants need four things from soil:   Anchorage
      • Water
      • Oxygen
      • Nutrients
    • Anchorage
      • Soil must hold plants in place
      • deep soil - firm support, anchorage
      • shallow soil or poor holding capacity –
      • artificial support required
    •   Water
      • Roots absorb water
      • better than leaves
      • Water-holding capacity critical for growth
      • 200-1000 pounds water used for every pound of dry plant matter produced
    • Oxygen
      • All living things need oxygen
      • Plants roots consume oxygen in soil during respiration, give off carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
      • Replace it with carbon dioxide
    •   Aeration
      • Process by which carbon dioxide and oxygen exchanged in soil to provide plants with oxygen.  
      • Waterlogged soil has no aeration, no oxygen for plants; causes root hairs to die.  
    • Nutrients
      • Plants need 17 nutrients; 14 come from soil  
      • Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen come from air and water
    • Nutrients
      • Root hairs absorb plant nutrients dissolved in soil solution
      • Energy that powers uptake produced by root respiration
    • Makeup of soils
      • Soil made of solid
      • particles
      • Consist largely of minerals
      • 1 to 10 percent organic matter
    • Makeup of soils
      • Pore spaces – voids, open spaces between solid particles
      •  
      • Usually, half soil volume is solid and half is pore space  
    • Root Growth
      • The health of the entire plant depends on the health of its root system.
    •   Root Growth
      •   R oots follow continuous pore spaces between solid particles   Root tips easily penetrate larger pores, must exert pressure to penetrate small pores
    •   Root Growth
      • Tree roots cover area 60-100 percent beyond spread of tree canopy
      • Roots grow to 5-6 feet down; no oxygen below this point 
    • Root Growth
      • Most roots in upper one foot of soil where greatest amount of oxygen is found
      • Roots will grow
      • toward water and
      • nutrients
    • Root Growth
      • Limited by:
      • hardpan
      • bedrock
      • soil salt
      • low nutrients
      • high water
      • low water
      • toxic materials
      • temperature extremes  
    • Soil health
      • Capacity of soil to sustain plant and animal growth
      • Capacity of soil to maintain air and water quality
    • Tilth
      • Physical condition of tilled soil
      • How easy soil is to till?
      • What kind of seedbed can be made?
      • How easily seedlings will come up?
      • How easily can roots push through the soil?
    • Tilth
      • Tilling improves tilth in fine-textured soil because increases air spaces
      • Over time, tilling destroys soil structure
    • COMPACTION
      • Pressure applied to soil surface - collapses particles into pores
      • Dry soil less vulnerable to compaction than wet soil
    • COMPACTION
      • Profoundly alters soil structure:
      • Particles squeezed together
      • Roots need more pressure to get through
    • COMPACTION
      • Reduced permeability
      • Reduced air exchange
      • Reduced infiltration
      • Reduced microbial activity because of loss of oxygen
    • COMPACTION
      • Annual tilling breaks up soil at surface,
      • makes tillage pan which is impenetrable
      • Heavy equipment makes
      • compaction worse
      • Decreases yields
      • Working wet soil compounds
      • problem
    • Improving tilth
      • Never work wet or dry soils
      • Control traffic in fields
      • Reduce amount of tillage
      • Keep soil covered by vegetation
    • Improving tilth
      • Crop rotation
      • Add organic
      • material - green
      • manure
      • Chisel plow to go really deep
    • How much soil is there?
      • How Much Soil Is There?