Soil properties
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  • 1. SOIL PROPERTIES
  • 2. Components of soil
    • Texture – amounts of sand, silt, clay particles
    • almost pure sand
    • sandy loam
    • silt loam
    • clay
  • 3. Components of soil
    • Soil Texture Affects:
      • Infiltration rate
      • Drainage
      • Nutrient storage
      • Ease of seedling emergence
      • Ease of root penetration
  • 4. Components of soil
    • Aggregates – clumps of soil held together
    • Aggregation is
    • GOOD
  • 5. Cycles that affect plant growth
    • Temperature:
    • most roots grow when soil temperature is above 40°F to 50°F
    • seed germination depends on soil temperature
  • 6. Cycles that affect plant growth
    • Gasses:
    • Plants need oxygen
    • Give off carbon dioxide
    • Soil helps maintain proper amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide
  • 7.  
  • 8. Cycles that affect plant growth
    • Water:
    • stored in soil pores
    •   s oil filters, purifies water
  • 9.  
  • 10.   Cycles that affect plant growth
    • Carbon:
    • Plants collect energy from sun to perform photosynthesis
    • Convert atmospheric carbon into biological carbon
    • Recycled by organic matter decay in soil
  • 11.  
  • 12.   Medium for plant growth
    • Plants need four things from soil:   Anchorage
    • Water
    • Oxygen
    • Nutrients
  • 13. Anchorage
    • Soil must hold plants in place
    • deep soil - firm support, anchorage
    • shallow soil or poor holding capacity –
    • artificial support required
  • 14.   Water
    • Roots absorb water
    • better than leaves
    • Water-holding capacity critical for growth
    • 200-1000 pounds water used for every pound of dry plant matter produced
  • 15. Oxygen
    • All living things need oxygen
    • Plants roots consume oxygen in soil during respiration, give off carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
    • Replace it with carbon dioxide
  • 16.   Aeration
    • Process by which carbon dioxide and oxygen exchanged in soil to provide plants with oxygen.  
    • Waterlogged soil has no aeration, no oxygen for plants; causes root hairs to die.  
  • 17. Nutrients
    • Plants need 17 nutrients; 14 come from soil  
    • Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen come from air and water
  • 18. Nutrients
    • Root hairs absorb plant nutrients dissolved in soil solution
    • Energy that powers uptake produced by root respiration
  • 19. Makeup of soils
    • Soil made of solid
    • particles
    • Consist largely of minerals
    • 1 to 10 percent organic matter
  • 20. Makeup of soils
    • Pore spaces – voids, open spaces between solid particles
    •  
    • Usually, half soil volume is solid and half is pore space  
  • 21. Root Growth
    • The health of the entire plant depends on the health of its root system.
  • 22.   Root Growth
    •   R oots follow continuous pore spaces between solid particles   Root tips easily penetrate larger pores, must exert pressure to penetrate small pores
  • 23.   Root Growth
    • Tree roots cover area 60-100 percent beyond spread of tree canopy
    • Roots grow to 5-6 feet down; no oxygen below this point 
  • 24. Root Growth
    • Most roots in upper one foot of soil where greatest amount of oxygen is found
    • Roots will grow
    • toward water and
    • nutrients
  • 25. Root Growth
    • Limited by:
    • hardpan
    • bedrock
    • soil salt
    • low nutrients
    • high water
    • low water
    • toxic materials
    • temperature extremes  
  • 26. Soil health
    • Capacity of soil to sustain plant and animal growth
    • Capacity of soil to maintain air and water quality
  • 27. Tilth
    • Physical condition of tilled soil
    • How easy soil is to till?
    • What kind of seedbed can be made?
    • How easily seedlings will come up?
    • How easily can roots push through the soil?
  • 28. Tilth
    • Tilling improves tilth in fine-textured soil because increases air spaces
    • Over time, tilling destroys soil structure
  • 29. COMPACTION
    • Pressure applied to soil surface - collapses particles into pores
    • Dry soil less vulnerable to compaction than wet soil
  • 30. COMPACTION
    • Profoundly alters soil structure:
    • Particles squeezed together
    • Roots need more pressure to get through
  • 31. COMPACTION
    • Reduced permeability
    • Reduced air exchange
    • Reduced infiltration
    • Reduced microbial activity because of loss of oxygen
  • 32. COMPACTION
    • Annual tilling breaks up soil at surface,
    • makes tillage pan which is impenetrable
    • Heavy equipment makes
    • compaction worse
    • Decreases yields
    • Working wet soil compounds
    • problem
  • 33. Improving tilth
    • Never work wet or dry soils
    • Control traffic in fields
    • Reduce amount of tillage
    • Keep soil covered by vegetation
  • 34. Improving tilth
    • Crop rotation
    • Add organic
    • material - green
    • manure
    • Chisel plow to go really deep
  • 35. How much soil is there?
    • How Much Soil Is There?