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Pests and Diseases Gardening organically isn't just gardening without chemicals
<ul><li>Working with nature to develop an ecosystem in the garden </li></ul>
<ul><li>Goal:  </li></ul><ul><li>to foster ecosystem in which plants are strong enough to resist pests and diseases </li><...
<ul><li>Pesticide residues on fruits, vegetables pose serious health hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Temik in watermelons </li><...
<ul><li>Some pests immune to repeated applications of chemical pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger pesticides being deve...
<ul><li>Potent chemicals leached into groundwater </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides kill off more than unwanted pests </li></ul...
Many see organic gardening as way of protecting environment <ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging  </li></ul><ul><li>Re...
<ul><li>Setbacks, temptation to reach for chemical spray </li></ul><ul><li>Think about long-term benefits of avoiding chem...
<ul><li>organically grown vegetables less subject to pest and disease problems </li></ul>
Integrated Pest Management <ul><li>Ecological approach to pest control </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible, logical, practical <...
Integrated Pest Management <ul><li>Integrates many different methods to reduce pest problems or minimize impact  </li></ul...
Integrated Pest Management <ul><li>Correctly identify pest </li></ul><ul><li>or  disease </li></ul><ul><li>Determine thres...
Education integral to IPM <ul><li>Need to know : </li></ul><ul><li>Plant culture </li></ul><ul><li>Insect, disease  </li><...
IPM <ul><li>Decision making process  </li></ul><ul><li>Based on pests present </li></ul><ul><li>Based on factors influenci...
IPM <ul><li>Decide most effective,  </li></ul><ul><li>least invasive control  </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate plant’s value in ...
<ul><li>Determine threshold level for population </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance level – how much  </li></ul><ul><li>damage ca...
Steps in IPM system <ul><li>1. choose plants appropriate to growing situation </li></ul><ul><li>pest, disease resistant </...
Steps in IPM system <ul><li>2. proper culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fertilizing, watering,  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pla...
Steps in IPM system <ul><li>3. sanitation  </li></ul><ul><li>remove problems,  </li></ul><ul><li>dispose of properly </li>...
Steps in IPM system <ul><li>4. monitoring </li></ul>
Steps in IPM system <ul><li>5. make correct diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Correctly identify insect or disease </li></ul><ul...
Steps in IPM system <ul><li>6. determine tolerance  </li></ul><ul><li>levels </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold : point where tol...
Steps in IPM system <ul><li>7. choose appropriate  </li></ul><ul><li>control </li></ul>
Cultural Techniques <ul><li>Correct culture cornerstone of IPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Biological Control <ul><li>Living organisms used  </li></ul><ul><li>to suppress pests </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>predator <...
Predators, pathogens, parasites <ul><li>Ants, spiders, mites,  </li></ul><ul><li>ground beetles, wasps </li></ul><ul><li>F...
 
Toads, Birds, Bugs <ul><li>Toad eats 10,000 insect pests in three months </li></ul><ul><li>Birds effective at controlling ...
Cutworm Parasitized by Wasp
Aphid parasitized
 
Traps <ul><li>Pheromone </li></ul><ul><li>Food lures </li></ul>
Low Toxicity Chemicals <ul><li>Neem - tropical oil  </li></ul><ul><li>many modes of action  </li></ul><ul><li>Used for cen...
Horticultural oils <ul><li>Biodegradable </li></ul><ul><li>Only kill what they contact </li></ul><ul><li>Work by smotherin...
Insecticidal soaps <ul><li>Fairly safe to handle </li></ul><ul><li>Kills by contact – fatty acids  </li></ul><ul><li>penet...
Organic pesticides <ul><li>May be as toxic but usually  </li></ul><ul><li>go away quicker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyrethrum ...
<ul><li>Tomato Problem Solver </li></ul>
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Pests and diseases

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Pests and Diseases
Fruit and Vegetable Science
K. Jerome

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
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Transcript of "Pests and diseases"

  1. 1. Pests and Diseases Gardening organically isn't just gardening without chemicals
  2. 2. <ul><li>Working with nature to develop an ecosystem in the garden </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Goal: </li></ul><ul><li>to foster ecosystem in which plants are strong enough to resist pests and diseases </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Pesticide residues on fruits, vegetables pose serious health hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Temik in watermelons </li></ul><ul><li>Alar on apples </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Some pests immune to repeated applications of chemical pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger pesticides being developed </li></ul><ul><li>Developing stronger pests </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Potent chemicals leached into groundwater </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides kill off more than unwanted pests </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate helpful organisms – earthworms, fungi, beneficial insects </li></ul>
  7. 7. Many see organic gardening as way of protecting environment <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging </li></ul><ul><li>Requires time </li></ul><ul><li>Patience </li></ul><ul><li>Can take many </li></ul><ul><li>months to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>healthy state </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Setbacks, temptation to reach for chemical spray </li></ul><ul><li>Think about long-term benefits of avoiding chemical </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>organically grown vegetables less subject to pest and disease problems </li></ul>
  10. 10. Integrated Pest Management <ul><li>Ecological approach to pest control </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible, logical, practical </li></ul><ul><li>Works with ecosystem, natural balance </li></ul>
  11. 11. Integrated Pest Management <ul><li>Integrates many different methods to reduce pest problems or minimize impact </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on preventing pests </li></ul>
  12. 12. Integrated Pest Management <ul><li>Correctly identify pest </li></ul><ul><li>or disease </li></ul><ul><li>Determine threshold </li></ul><ul><li>level </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment not necessary unless populations reach damaging levels </li></ul>
  13. 13. Education integral to IPM <ul><li>Need to know : </li></ul><ul><li>Plant culture </li></ul><ul><li>Insect, disease </li></ul><ul><li>identification </li></ul><ul><li>Local conditions – early blight </li></ul><ul><li>climate, soil, humidity </li></ul>
  14. 14. IPM <ul><li>Decision making process </li></ul><ul><li>Based on pests present </li></ul><ul><li>Based on factors influencing population </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate entire system, make decisions based on all factors </li></ul>
  15. 15. IPM <ul><li>Decide most effective, </li></ul><ul><li>least invasive control </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate plant’s value in </li></ul><ul><li>contrast to how extreme </li></ul><ul><li>measure is </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Determine threshold level for population </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance level – how much </li></ul><ul><li>damage can be tolerated </li></ul>
  17. 17. Steps in IPM system <ul><li>1. choose plants appropriate to growing situation </li></ul><ul><li>pest, disease resistant </li></ul><ul><li>suited to site </li></ul><ul><li>virus on raspberry </li></ul>
  18. 18. Steps in IPM system <ul><li>2. proper culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fertilizing, watering, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>planting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>avoid over fertilizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>watch pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good root </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>over-fertilized eggplant </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Steps in IPM system <ul><li>3. sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>remove problems, </li></ul><ul><li>dispose of properly </li></ul>
  20. 20. Steps in IPM system <ul><li>4. monitoring </li></ul>
  21. 21. Steps in IPM system <ul><li>5. make correct diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Correctly identify insect or disease </li></ul><ul><li>Understand pest’s life cycle </li></ul>
  22. 22. Steps in IPM system <ul><li>6. determine tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>levels </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold : point where tolerance is exceeded, control is needed </li></ul><ul><li>fruit trees in landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Corn earworm </li></ul>
  23. 23. Steps in IPM system <ul><li>7. choose appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>control </li></ul>
  24. 24. Cultural Techniques <ul><li>Correct culture cornerstone of IPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weed control </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Biological Control <ul><li>Living organisms used </li></ul><ul><li>to suppress pests </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>predator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pathogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parasite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rove beetle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nontoxic to higher animals, environment </li></ul>
  26. 26. Predators, pathogens, parasites <ul><li>Ants, spiders, mites, </li></ul><ul><li>ground beetles, wasps </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi, bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Compost feeds good bacteria, </li></ul><ul><li>fungi, contributes to population </li></ul><ul><li>May prove superior to fungicides </li></ul>
  27. 28. Toads, Birds, Bugs <ul><li>Toad eats 10,000 insect pests in three months </li></ul><ul><li>Birds effective at controlling garden pests - invite birds to garden with feeders and nesting materials </li></ul>
  28. 29. Cutworm Parasitized by Wasp
  29. 30. Aphid parasitized
  30. 32. Traps <ul><li>Pheromone </li></ul><ul><li>Food lures </li></ul>
  31. 33. Low Toxicity Chemicals <ul><li>Neem - tropical oil </li></ul><ul><li>many modes of action </li></ul><ul><li>Used for centuries in India </li></ul><ul><li>Repels insects, stops </li></ul><ul><li>feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Nontoxic, degrades quickly, used as toothpaste </li></ul>
  32. 34. Horticultural oils <ul><li>Biodegradable </li></ul><ul><li>Only kill what they contact </li></ul><ul><li>Work by smothering or interfering with metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used on all plants with proper dilution </li></ul>
  33. 35. Insecticidal soaps <ul><li>Fairly safe to handle </li></ul><ul><li>Kills by contact – fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>penetrate body, </li></ul><ul><li>disrupt membrane, cell functions </li></ul>
  34. 36. Organic pesticides <ul><li>May be as toxic but usually </li></ul><ul><li>go away quicker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyrethrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotenone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicotine </li></ul></ul>
  35. 37. <ul><li>Tomato Problem Solver </li></ul>
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