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Pests and Diseases …

Pests and Diseases
Fruit and Vegetable Science
K. Jerome

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  • 1. Pests and Diseases Gardening organically isn't just gardening without chemicals
  • 2.
    • Working with nature to develop an ecosystem in the garden
  • 3.
    • Goal:
    • to foster ecosystem in which plants are strong enough to resist pests and diseases
  • 4.
    • Pesticide residues on fruits, vegetables pose serious health hazards
    • Temik in watermelons
    • Alar on apples
  • 5.
    • Some pests immune to repeated applications of chemical pesticides
    • Stronger pesticides being developed
    • Developing stronger pests
  • 6.
    • Potent chemicals leached into groundwater
    • Pesticides kill off more than unwanted pests
    • Eliminate helpful organisms – earthworms, fungi, beneficial insects
  • 7. Many see organic gardening as way of protecting environment
    •  
    • Challenging
    • Requires time
    • Patience
    • Can take many
    • months to achieve
    • healthy state
  • 8.
    • Setbacks, temptation to reach for chemical spray
    • Think about long-term benefits of avoiding chemical
  • 9.
    • organically grown vegetables less subject to pest and disease problems
  • 10. Integrated Pest Management
    • Ecological approach to pest control
    • Responsible, logical, practical
    • Works with ecosystem, natural balance
  • 11. Integrated Pest Management
    • Integrates many different methods to reduce pest problems or minimize impact
    • Focuses on preventing pests
  • 12. Integrated Pest Management
    • Correctly identify pest
    • or disease
    • Determine threshold
    • level
    • Treatment not necessary unless populations reach damaging levels
  • 13. Education integral to IPM
    • Need to know :
    • Plant culture
    • Insect, disease
    • identification
    • Local conditions – early blight
    • climate, soil, humidity
  • 14. IPM
    • Decision making process
    • Based on pests present
    • Based on factors influencing population
    • Evaluate entire system, make decisions based on all factors
  • 15. IPM
    • Decide most effective,
    • least invasive control
    • Evaluate plant’s value in
    • contrast to how extreme
    • measure is
  • 16.
    • Determine threshold level for population
    • Tolerance level – how much
    • damage can be tolerated
  • 17. Steps in IPM system
    • 1. choose plants appropriate to growing situation
    • pest, disease resistant
    • suited to site
    • virus on raspberry
  • 18. Steps in IPM system
    • 2. proper culture
      • fertilizing, watering,
      • planting
      • avoid over fertilizing
      • watch pH
      • good root
      • Environment
      • over-fertilized eggplant
  • 19. Steps in IPM system
    • 3. sanitation
    • remove problems,
    • dispose of properly
  • 20. Steps in IPM system
    • 4. monitoring
  • 21. Steps in IPM system
    • 5. make correct diagnosis
    • Correctly identify insect or disease
    • Understand pest’s life cycle
  • 22. Steps in IPM system
    • 6. determine tolerance
    • levels
    • Threshold : point where tolerance is exceeded, control is needed
    • fruit trees in landscape
    • Corn earworm
  • 23. Steps in IPM system
    • 7. choose appropriate
    • control
  • 24. Cultural Techniques
    • Correct culture cornerstone of IPM
      • Fertilizing
      • Watering
      • Weed control
  • 25. Biological Control
    • Living organisms used
    • to suppress pests
        • predator
        • pathogen
        • parasite
        • rove beetle
    • Nontoxic to higher animals, environment
  • 26. Predators, pathogens, parasites
    • Ants, spiders, mites,
    • ground beetles, wasps
    • Fungi, bacteria
    • Compost feeds good bacteria,
    • fungi, contributes to population
    • May prove superior to fungicides
  • 27.  
  • 28. Toads, Birds, Bugs
    • Toad eats 10,000 insect pests in three months
    • Birds effective at controlling garden pests - invite birds to garden with feeders and nesting materials
  • 29. Cutworm Parasitized by Wasp
  • 30. Aphid parasitized
  • 31.  
  • 32. Traps
    • Pheromone
    • Food lures
  • 33. Low Toxicity Chemicals
    • Neem - tropical oil
    • many modes of action
    • Used for centuries in India
    • Repels insects, stops
    • feeding
    • Nontoxic, degrades quickly, used as toothpaste
  • 34. Horticultural oils
    • Biodegradable
    • Only kill what they contact
    • Work by smothering or interfering with metabolism
    • Can be used on all plants with proper dilution
  • 35. Insecticidal soaps
    • Fairly safe to handle
    • Kills by contact – fatty acids
    • penetrate body,
    • disrupt membrane, cell functions
  • 36. Organic pesticides
    • May be as toxic but usually
    • go away quicker
      • Pyrethrum
      • Rotenone
      • Nicotine
  • 37.
    • Tomato Problem Solver