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Management care

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Management Care

Management Care
Fruit and Vegetable Science
K. Jerome

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    Management   care Management care Presentation Transcript

    • Garden Care
      • Proper culture makes difference between
      • “ okay” garden and superior garden
    • Weeds
    • Weed Control
      • control when small
      • compete for water, fertilizer, light
      • harbor insects, diseases
      • allelopathy
    • Types of Weeds
      • Control, prevention vary according to life cycle
    • Types of Weeds
      • Annual vs. Perennial
      • If you pull and it grows back in a few weeks, assume it is perennial
    • Annual Weeds
      • Die at end of season
      • spread thousands of seeds
      • chickweed 15,000 seeds
      • shepherd's purse 40,000 seeds
      • lamb's-quarters 70,000 seeds
    • Perennial Weeds
      • More serious
      • Dandelion, plantain, thistle
      • Grow through heavy mulch
      • Must kill roots
      • Leafy spurge roots 4 to 8 feet deep
      • Canada thistle roots 20 feet
      • Small piece of root left in ground will regenerate plant
    • Controlling Annual Weeds
      • Break reproductive cycle –
      • no seeds
      • purslane seeds
      • Prevent from emerging –
      • minimize disturbance of soil by not tilling
    • Controlling Annual Weeds
      • Mulch
      • Layer of organic mulch
      • 3 to 4 inches prevents almost all annual weeds from germinating
      • few that pop through mulch easily pulled by hand
    • Controlling Annual Weeds
      • Hand Pulling
      • Pull a few each visit to garden
      • within first 3 weeks of emergence
      • damp soil – entire root
      • For every two weeds pulled, only one will come back next season
    • How To Weed
      • Sharp hoe, shallow shaving stroke instead of chop
      • Don’t cultivate too closely
      • Prevent stem and root injury by hand pulling
    • Controlling Perennial Weeds
      • Pulling difficult
      • Diligence
      • Soon after emerges
      • Weeding tool to cut roots 4 to 5 inches below soil surface
      • Cut back several times will eventually kill weed
      • Natural herbicides – vinegar, hot water, corn protein, ammoniated soap
      • Natural Herbicides
    • Weed Control
      • Fast growing 'smother' crops
      • annual rye
      • Reduce weed germination
      • Planted in fall, tilled under early spring
      • straw residue inhibits early season germination of weeds 75% or more
    • Weed Identification
      • ISU Weed Science Online - Weed ID
      • WSSA::Photo Gallery
      • http:// weedid.aces.uiuc.edu /
      • Mulch
    • Mulching
      • Encourages growth by:
      • conserving moisture controlling weeds
      • moderating soil temperature
    • Mulching
      • Black plastic
      • ideal for warm season crops - tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, vine crops
    • Plastic Mulches
      • Black plastic suppresses weeds, warms soil
      • White, red films reflect light, warmth onto ripening fruits
      • Some films - underside black to suppress weeds, upper side white to reflect light
    • Plastic Mulches
      • Applied before planting the crop:
      • dig trench
      • lay down plastic
      • secure edges
      • make cross-shaped slits at required spacing
      • dig hole large enough to take root ball
    • Organic Mulches
      • 2-4 inch layer of organic matter will control most weeds
      • Organic mulches moderate temperatures
    • Organic Mulches
      • Straw, bark chips, shredded bark, sawdust, compost
      • Apply in early June, after weeded and soil has warmed
      • Use 4” of straw, 2” of fine material like grass clippings
      • Guide to Selecting a Garden Mulch | Tips & Techniques
      • Water
    • Watering
      • Vegetable plants need plenty of water throughout entire growing season
    • Watering
      • Apply 1 to 1 ½ inches per week in single watering unless rain
      • Light sprinklings do more harm than good
    • Watering
      • Sandy soil requires more frequent watering than heavy clay
      • Apply water slowly so it can soak in
      • Check amount applied with rain gauge or digging to 6 inches
    • Watering
      • Periods in growing cycle of vegetables when water is critical
      • Germinating seeds, seedlings, new transplants should never dry out
    • Watering
      • Leafy vegetables - frequent waterings
      • most critical period - between ten days
      • and three weeks before maturity
    • Watering
      • Fruiting crops - when flowers forming, fruits or pods developing
      • Do not water heavily before critical period -produces leafy growth at expense of fruit
    • Watering
      • Root crops - moderate watering during entire growing period
    • Watering Systems
      • “ wet pot”
    • Watering Systems
    • Thinning
      • Proper spacing:
      • between plants in row
      • between rows
      • promotes
      • faster growth
      • larger crop
      • better quality crop
    • Thinning
      • Transplants - space properly when planted
      • Seeds – thin to recommended spacing
    • Thinning
      • Thin while small
      • Thin when soil is moist to minimize injury to remaining plants.
      • Choose strongest plants
      • Grasp at soil line, pull out gently
      • Or, clip off at soil line
      • Firm soil, water gently