Management care

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Management Care
Fruit and Vegetable Science
K. Jerome

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Management care

  1. 1. Garden Care
  2. 2. <ul><li>Proper culture makes difference between </li></ul><ul><li>“ okay” garden and superior garden </li></ul>
  3. 3. Weeds
  4. 4. Weed Control <ul><li>control when small </li></ul><ul><li>compete for water, fertilizer, light </li></ul><ul><li>harbor insects, diseases </li></ul><ul><li>allelopathy </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Weeds <ul><li>Control, prevention vary according to life cycle </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of Weeds <ul><li>Annual vs. Perennial </li></ul><ul><li>If you pull and it grows back in a few weeks, assume it is perennial </li></ul>
  7. 7. Annual Weeds <ul><li>Die at end of season </li></ul><ul><li>spread thousands of seeds </li></ul><ul><li>chickweed 15,000 seeds </li></ul><ul><li>shepherd's purse 40,000 seeds </li></ul><ul><li>lamb's-quarters 70,000 seeds </li></ul>
  8. 8. Perennial Weeds <ul><li>More serious </li></ul><ul><li>Dandelion, plantain, thistle </li></ul><ul><li>Grow through heavy mulch </li></ul><ul><li>Must kill roots </li></ul><ul><li>Leafy spurge roots 4 to 8 feet deep </li></ul><ul><li>Canada thistle roots 20 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Small piece of root left in ground will regenerate plant </li></ul>
  9. 9. Controlling Annual Weeds <ul><li>Break reproductive cycle – </li></ul><ul><li>no seeds </li></ul><ul><li>purslane seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent from emerging – </li></ul><ul><li>minimize disturbance of soil by not tilling </li></ul>
  10. 10. Controlling Annual Weeds <ul><li>Mulch </li></ul><ul><li>Layer of organic mulch </li></ul><ul><li>3 to 4 inches prevents almost all annual weeds from germinating </li></ul><ul><li>few that pop through mulch easily pulled by hand </li></ul>
  11. 11. Controlling Annual Weeds <ul><li>Hand Pulling </li></ul><ul><li>Pull a few each visit to garden </li></ul><ul><li>within first 3 weeks of emergence </li></ul><ul><li>damp soil – entire root </li></ul><ul><li>For every two weeds pulled, only one will come back next season </li></ul>
  12. 12. How To Weed <ul><li>Sharp hoe, shallow shaving stroke instead of chop </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t cultivate too closely </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent stem and root injury by hand pulling </li></ul>
  13. 13. Controlling Perennial Weeds <ul><li>Pulling difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Diligence </li></ul><ul><li>Soon after emerges </li></ul><ul><li>Weeding tool to cut roots 4 to 5 inches below soil surface </li></ul><ul><li>Cut back several times will eventually kill weed </li></ul><ul><li>Natural herbicides – vinegar, hot water, corn protein, ammoniated soap </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Herbicides </li></ul>
  14. 14. Weed Control <ul><li>Fast growing 'smother' crops </li></ul><ul><li> annual rye </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce weed germination </li></ul><ul><li>Planted in fall, tilled under early spring </li></ul><ul><li>straw residue inhibits early season germination of weeds 75% or more </li></ul>
  15. 15. Weed Identification <ul><li>ISU Weed Science Online - Weed ID </li></ul><ul><li>WSSA::Photo Gallery </li></ul><ul><li>http:// weedid.aces.uiuc.edu / </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Mulch </li></ul>
  17. 17. Mulching <ul><li>Encourages growth by: </li></ul><ul><li>conserving moisture controlling weeds </li></ul><ul><li>moderating soil temperature </li></ul>
  18. 18. Mulching <ul><li>Black plastic </li></ul><ul><li>ideal for warm season crops - tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, vine crops </li></ul>
  19. 19. Plastic Mulches <ul><li>Black plastic suppresses weeds, warms soil </li></ul><ul><li>White, red films reflect light, warmth onto ripening fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Some films - underside black to suppress weeds, upper side white to reflect light </li></ul>
  20. 20. Plastic Mulches <ul><li>Applied before planting the crop: </li></ul><ul><li>dig trench </li></ul><ul><li>lay down plastic </li></ul><ul><li>secure edges </li></ul><ul><li>make cross-shaped slits at required spacing </li></ul><ul><li>dig hole large enough to take root ball </li></ul>
  21. 21. Organic Mulches <ul><li>2-4 inch layer of organic matter will control most weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Organic mulches moderate temperatures </li></ul>
  22. 22. Organic Mulches <ul><li>Straw, bark chips, shredded bark, sawdust, compost </li></ul><ul><li>Apply in early June, after weeded and soil has warmed </li></ul><ul><li>Use 4” of straw, 2” of fine material like grass clippings </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Guide to Selecting a Garden Mulch | Tips & Techniques </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Water </li></ul>
  25. 25. Watering <ul><li>Vegetable plants need plenty of water throughout entire growing season </li></ul>
  26. 26. Watering <ul><li>Apply 1 to 1 ½ inches per week in single watering unless rain </li></ul><ul><li>Light sprinklings do more harm than good </li></ul>
  27. 27. Watering <ul><li>Sandy soil requires more frequent watering than heavy clay </li></ul><ul><li>Apply water slowly so it can soak in </li></ul><ul><li>Check amount applied with rain gauge or digging to 6 inches </li></ul>
  28. 28. Watering <ul><li>Periods in growing cycle of vegetables when water is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Germinating seeds, seedlings, new transplants should never dry out </li></ul>
  29. 29. Watering <ul><li>Leafy vegetables - frequent waterings </li></ul><ul><li>most critical period - between ten days </li></ul><ul><li> and three weeks before maturity </li></ul>
  30. 30. Watering <ul><li>Fruiting crops - when flowers forming, fruits or pods developing </li></ul><ul><li>Do not water heavily before critical period -produces leafy growth at expense of fruit </li></ul>
  31. 31. Watering <ul><li>Root crops - moderate watering during entire growing period </li></ul>
  32. 32. Watering Systems <ul><li>“ wet pot” </li></ul>
  33. 33. Watering Systems
  34. 34. Thinning <ul><li>Proper spacing: </li></ul><ul><li> between plants in row </li></ul><ul><li> between rows </li></ul><ul><li>promotes </li></ul><ul><li>faster growth </li></ul><ul><li>larger crop </li></ul><ul><li>better quality crop </li></ul>
  35. 35. Thinning <ul><li>Transplants - space properly when planted </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds – thin to recommended spacing </li></ul>
  36. 36. Thinning <ul><li>Thin while small </li></ul><ul><li>Thin when soil is moist to minimize injury to remaining plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose strongest plants </li></ul><ul><li>Grasp at soil line, pull out gently </li></ul><ul><li>Or, clip off at soil line </li></ul><ul><li>Firm soil, water gently </li></ul>

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