Herbs
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Herbs

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Herbs

Herbs
Fruit and Vegetable Science
K. Jerome

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Herbs Herbs Presentation Transcript

  • HERBS
  • Expensive to buy
    throw them away every year
    Growing own herbs inexpensive, easy
     
  • used for hundreds of years
    Medicinal
    Cosmetic
    Culinary
  • Herb Gardens
    Formal
    simple
    knot gardens
    French embroidery gardens
    cottage and kitchen gardens
  • Use in landscape
    drought tolerant
    Insect, disease resistant 
  • Use in landscape
    Perennial border
    beds devoted entirely to herbs
    Pots
    among vegetables and flowers
    Windowsill
    hanging baskets
    window boxes
  • Life Cycle
    Annual: seed-bloom-seed in one growing season.
    Perennial: grow from crown each year to produce foliage, flowers and seeds
    Tender perennial: treated as an annual, brought indoors
  • CULTURE
    Easy to grow
    few pests, diseases
    full day of sun ideal
    Most grow well in four to six hours of sun
  • CULTURE
    Do well in most soils
    Best flavors on dry, infertile
    Tolerate dryness
    If poorly drained, add organic matter
     
  • CULTURE
    Seldom need fertilizing
    annual side dressing of compost
  • Winter care
    Cut back perennial herbs late
    Remove annuals as soon as frost blackens leaves
    Three to four inches of mulch over perennial herbs after ground freezes
     
  • Bringing indoors
    Dig, pot about three weeks before first frost
    Clay pots
    drainage holes
  • Bringing indoors
    old nylon, cheesecloth
    Up around pot
    Tie around plant base (insects)
    Set in sheltered spot in sun, no wind, keep watered
  • Bringing indoors
    After week, cut back drastically.
    Before first frost (early to mid-October), bring in to sunny windowsill
     
  • Bringing indoors
    Candidates:
    thyme
    lemon thyme
    sage
    oregano
    chives
     
  • Harvesting, Preserving, Storing
    Harvesting specific to how will be used
    basil – foliage
    dill – flowers, seeds
    chives – leaves, flowers
    fennel - bulbs
  • Harvesting, Preserving, Storing
    foliage -just before flower buds form
    leaves contain most concentrated oils
    Flowering herb loses potency
     
  • Harvesting, Preserving, Storing
    gather herbs in early morning
    Snip leaves as needed to cook
    harvest larger quantities to preserve for winter
    Cut with scissors just above leaf
    remove no more than three quarters of plant
  • Drying
    away from direct sunlight
    air circulation
  • Drying
    Rinse in cool water
    Shake off or blot extra moisture
    Tie stems firmly into bundle with rubber band
    Place bundle in paper bag, gathering top of bag around the stems
    Label, hang in dry place where the temperature doesn't get above 80 degrees
    After two to four weeks, should be dry and crumbly.
  • Drying
    Alternative -
    place small herbs, individual leaves on screens
    Cover with paper towels or cheesecloth
     
  • Drying
    Heat in oven – 180 degrees, 3-4 hours, door open
    Microwave – on paper towel, 1-3minutes in 10 second intervals
    Commercial dehydrator – depends on herb
    Shorter drying time
    Must not cook  
  • Storage
    Once dried, can store for year in cool, dark
    Keep leaves whole, crush when using them
    Airtight container
    Dark cupboard.
  • Freezing
    Fresh flavor
    Some frozen dry
    Others need water, oil 
  • Freezing
    Wash, shake off excess moisture
    Strip leaves and chop in processor or blender
    Place in freezer bag, label, freeze immediately
     
  • Freezing
    Wash, strip leaves
    Place in food processor with small amount of water or olive oil
    Process, pour into ice cube trays to freeze
    When frozen put cubes into labeled freezer bags
  • Vinegars
    Single herb vinegars – tarragon, basil
    Combinations – peppercorns, garlic, hot peppers, mint, cardamom
  • Vinegar
    White, rice vinegars mild tasting- delicate herbs such as dill, tarragon
    Stronger herbs – rosemary, thyme – cider, wine vinegar
    white vinegar for colored leaves or flowers (opal basil, borage flowers
     
  • Vinegars
    Bruise handful of carefully washed herbs of choice
    Put in jar, pour cold vinegar over them
    Tighten lid, set in warm spot 3-4 weeks
    Taste, strain into decorative bottle
    Add sprig of fresh herb