Herbs
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Herbs

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Herbs

Herbs
Fruit and Vegetable Science
K. Jerome

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    Herbs Herbs Presentation Transcript

    • HERBS
    • Expensive to buy
      throw them away every year
      Growing own herbs inexpensive, easy
       
    • used for hundreds of years
      Medicinal
      Cosmetic
      Culinary
    • Herb Gardens
      Formal
      simple
      knot gardens
      French embroidery gardens
      cottage and kitchen gardens
    • Use in landscape
      drought tolerant
      Insect, disease resistant 
    • Use in landscape
      Perennial border
      beds devoted entirely to herbs
      Pots
      among vegetables and flowers
      Windowsill
      hanging baskets
      window boxes
    • Life Cycle
      Annual: seed-bloom-seed in one growing season.
      Perennial: grow from crown each year to produce foliage, flowers and seeds
      Tender perennial: treated as an annual, brought indoors
    • CULTURE
      Easy to grow
      few pests, diseases
      full day of sun ideal
      Most grow well in four to six hours of sun
    • CULTURE
      Do well in most soils
      Best flavors on dry, infertile
      Tolerate dryness
      If poorly drained, add organic matter
       
    • CULTURE
      Seldom need fertilizing
      annual side dressing of compost
    • Winter care
      Cut back perennial herbs late
      Remove annuals as soon as frost blackens leaves
      Three to four inches of mulch over perennial herbs after ground freezes
       
    • Bringing indoors
      Dig, pot about three weeks before first frost
      Clay pots
      drainage holes
    • Bringing indoors
      old nylon, cheesecloth
      Up around pot
      Tie around plant base (insects)
      Set in sheltered spot in sun, no wind, keep watered
    • Bringing indoors
      After week, cut back drastically.
      Before first frost (early to mid-October), bring in to sunny windowsill
       
    • Bringing indoors
      Candidates:
      thyme
      lemon thyme
      sage
      oregano
      chives
       
    • Harvesting, Preserving, Storing
      Harvesting specific to how will be used
      basil – foliage
      dill – flowers, seeds
      chives – leaves, flowers
      fennel - bulbs
    • Harvesting, Preserving, Storing
      foliage -just before flower buds form
      leaves contain most concentrated oils
      Flowering herb loses potency
       
    • Harvesting, Preserving, Storing
      gather herbs in early morning
      Snip leaves as needed to cook
      harvest larger quantities to preserve for winter
      Cut with scissors just above leaf
      remove no more than three quarters of plant
    • Drying
      away from direct sunlight
      air circulation
    • Drying
      Rinse in cool water
      Shake off or blot extra moisture
      Tie stems firmly into bundle with rubber band
      Place bundle in paper bag, gathering top of bag around the stems
      Label, hang in dry place where the temperature doesn't get above 80 degrees
      After two to four weeks, should be dry and crumbly.
    • Drying
      Alternative -
      place small herbs, individual leaves on screens
      Cover with paper towels or cheesecloth
       
    • Drying
      Heat in oven – 180 degrees, 3-4 hours, door open
      Microwave – on paper towel, 1-3minutes in 10 second intervals
      Commercial dehydrator – depends on herb
      Shorter drying time
      Must not cook  
    • Storage
      Once dried, can store for year in cool, dark
      Keep leaves whole, crush when using them
      Airtight container
      Dark cupboard.
    • Freezing
      Fresh flavor
      Some frozen dry
      Others need water, oil 
    • Freezing
      Wash, shake off excess moisture
      Strip leaves and chop in processor or blender
      Place in freezer bag, label, freeze immediately
       
    • Freezing
      Wash, strip leaves
      Place in food processor with small amount of water or olive oil
      Process, pour into ice cube trays to freeze
      When frozen put cubes into labeled freezer bags
    • Vinegars
      Single herb vinegars – tarragon, basil
      Combinations – peppercorns, garlic, hot peppers, mint, cardamom
    • Vinegar
      White, rice vinegars mild tasting- delicate herbs such as dill, tarragon
      Stronger herbs – rosemary, thyme – cider, wine vinegar
      white vinegar for colored leaves or flowers (opal basil, borage flowers
       
    • Vinegars
      Bruise handful of carefully washed herbs of choice
      Put in jar, pour cold vinegar over them
      Tighten lid, set in warm spot 3-4 weeks
      Taste, strain into decorative bottle
      Add sprig of fresh herb