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Grafting Budding …

Grafting Budding
Fruit and Vegetable Science
K. Jerome

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  • 1. Budding
  • 2.
    • T-bud graft most common budding method for fruits, ornamental plants
    • Single bud inserted into
    • T-shaped opening in bark of actively growing rootstock
  • 3.
    • T-budding fast by experienced propagators--2,000 to 3,000 roses in day
    • Because T-budding uses single bud, makes best use of propagation materials
  • 4.
    • Materials:
    • grafting knife
    • budsticks
    • grafting strips
  • 5. Budsticks
    • Source of buds that will be scions (shoot of new tree)
    • Branches that developed in last growing season
  • 6. Budsticks
    • should be healthy
    • diameter of pencil  
    • collected when fully dormant --no later than February in the Midwest.
  • 7. Rootstock
    • Root system of grafted tree
    • Rootstocks selected for traits such as dwarfing
    • Ideal rootstock –
    • stem diameter 1/2 to 3/4 inch
  • 8. Method- indoors
    • Rootstocks planted in pots
    • Watered, grown in greenhouse 4 to 6 weeks
  • 9.
    • At time of budding, rootstocks must be actively growing so bark “slips”
    • Slipping - rapidly dividing, thin walled cambium under bark easily separated from wood
  • 10.
    • To prepare rootstock for budding, remove side shoots in lower stem area
  • 11.
    • Holding grafting knife and budstick correctly takes practice
    • Goal: make smooth, clean cut
  • 12.
    • Cut should begin below bud to be removed
    • Bud should be in center of resulting "shield."
  • 13.  
  • 14.
    • Sharp knife
    • Smooth stroke
    • Budstick held close to body
    • Budstick between you and knife
  • 15.
    • Shield about 3/4 inch long
    • 1 to 2 mm thick
    • Bud in middle of shield
  • 16.
    • Bottom view of shield bud
    • Cambium layer greenish line between dark brown bark and the white wood
  • 17. Rootstock
    • On lower stem of rootstock choose smooth region free of axillary buds
    • Push knife into stem until resistance
    • Rock knife back and forth to cut line about 1/3 the way around stem
    • This is top or bottom of "T" cut
  • 18.
    • Cut straight downward from middle of cut about 1 inch to form "T“
    • Use grafting knife to open flaps created by cutting T in stem
  • 19.  
  • 20.
    • Slip lower, rounded end of shield bud into top of T.
    • Push in shield bud until top of shield is flush with top of T.  
    • Push shield firmly against rootstock, close flaps, wrap with grafting strip
  • 21.  
  • 22.
    • Start above bud and wrap grafting strip tightly around stem to cover all parts of shield except bud
    • Tie off strip with knot
    • Wrapping keeps bud in close contact with stock and prevents drying of exposed tissue
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26.
    • Return grafted tree to greenhouse bench
    • In 2 to 3 weeks graft union will form between scion and rootstock
    • When graft union is complete, scion will begin to produce new leaves and use rootstock's root system to obtain water and nutrients
  • 27.  
  • 28.
    • Once bud begins to grow, remove upper part of tree by cutting through the stem about 1/2 inch above scion
  • 29.  
  • 30.
    • Graft union on tree will be evident for several years as "dogleg"
  • 31.
    • Tree should flower and bear fruit in 3 to 4 years
  • 32. Chip budding
    • Used when bark is not slipping – any time
    • Gradually replacing T-bud – ornamentals, fruits
  • 33.
    • Better take, more uniform growth
    • Takes little scion wood – dormant or active
    • Water status not as big an issue
  • 34.
    • Small diameter stems
    • Plants with thin bark – doesn’t slip easily
    • Prepare rootstock same as for T-budding
  • 35.  
  • 36.
    • Usually take in 3-4 weeks
    • Remove tape and allow bud to swell
    • Winter – cut rootstock close to bud
  • 37. Patch budding
    • Rectangular patch of bark taken off rootstock and replaced with patch of same shape
    • Done on trees with thick bark that don't t-bud well - walnuts, pecans
    • Special knives with double blades so accurate with cuts
  • 38. Topworking
    • Several shoots are budded on same tree
    • Done in midsummer when everything active
  • 39. Microbudding
    • T-budding method - done on citrus
    • Everything cut away except bud and tiny bit of wood
    • T-budding done as usual.
  • 40. Aftercare of budded plants
    • Hot-pipe callusing system for bench grafting - graft inserted in pipe where warm water circulates around graft. Rest of plant kept cool and dormant.
    • May bury graft in slightly most peat moss or bark and bottom heat added
  • 41.
    • Planted out in nursery as soon as weather permits, before any growth starts
    • Usually established enough after first year to be transplanted or sold.
  • 42. Planting
    • Bud union just below soil for most ornamentals
    • If rootstock is for dwarfing or disease resistance, put union just above soil because want absolutely no roots from scion
  • 43. Timing for budding
    • Late summer or fall preferred in Wisconsin when done outdoors:
      • wood of good size
      • weather good
      • no storage needed
      • stock and scion not succulent
      • Scion – current season
      • Stock – current season