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Fruits tree pruning


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Fruits - Tree Pruning …

Fruits - Tree Pruning
Fruit and Vegetable Science
K. Jerome

Published in: Education
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  • 1. Pruning Fruit Trees
  • 2.
    • All fruit trees need pruning to help them develop into strong, productive trees
    • Pruning thins bearing limbs - fewer but larger fruits
    • Gets rid of unproductive old wood
    • Lets light, air into center of tree for healthy production
  • 3.
    • Each type has natural form
    • Following this form leads to attractive tree that generally needs pruning only once a year
  • 4.  
  • 5.
    • Pruning generally done in spring on dormant trees
    • Sucker, water sprout removal most successful in mid-summer since tree is slowing growth - sprouts don’t come back as readily
  • 6.
    • Keep in mind framework
    • of tree
    • Make clean cuts with sharp, clean tools
    • Well-pruned fruit tree will be shaped somewhat like Christmas tree
  • 7.
    • Prune to remove
    • crossing branches
    • diseased or damaged
    • branches
    • water sprouts
    • branches that form narrow, weak angles
    • Prune to open canopy for maximum air circulation
  • 8.
    • Best methods for high production, easy picking:
    • central leader
    • modified central leader
    • Tree pruned to have one central trunk, scaffold branches evenly spaced around center leader
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11. Central Leader
    • Used on dwarf, semi-dwarf trees
    • Leader allowed to grow
  • 12. Modified Central Leader
    • Used on standard-sized trees
    • Central leader cut back yearly to keep tree shorter
  • 13. Year One
    • one-year whip (no branches)
    • cut back to bud three feet above
    • ground
    • as shoots grow during summer, select 3-4 scaffold branches, 4-8 inches apart, evenly spaced in spiral around central leader
    • pinch out or rub off all other shoots on main trunk
    • forces energy into growing scaffold branches
  • 14. Year One
    • If tree already branched, select appropriate scaffold branches and prune out all others
    • Cut back central leader to 4-6 inches above top scaffold
    • Through summer, allow new central leader to emerge
    • Remove all shoots that arise from the trunk
  • 15. Year Two
    • In dormant season, cut back central leader to about 3 feet above lowest scaffold branch
    • Cut just above bud on opposite side of trunk from which leader emerged last year
    • Zigzag will keep trunk straight
  • 16. Year Two
    • Head back scaffold branches by cutting at outward facing bud
    • This will force secondary growth and begin developing fruiting wood
    • You can also let some branches form more scaffolds
  • 17. Year Two
    • Through summer, remove shoots that arise within about 8 inches of newly emerging central leader
    • Prune out water sprouts, suckers and any unwanted branches
  • 18. Spreading
    • Fruit trees with natural tendency to grow upward will need help “spreading”, beginning in second year
    • Method of placing spreaders in young branch angles to help push the branch into 45 to 60 degree angle with trunk
    • Promotes earlier, heavier fruit production
  • 19. Spreading
    • Done in early spring when
    • branches pliable
    • Types of spreaders:
    • notched pieces of wood
    • pieces of wood with nails protruding from both ends
    • clothespins
    • weights tied to branches
  • 20. Year three
    • Prune leader as in year two
    • Slightly head back scaffold branches
    • Thin out extra branches
    • Prune water sprouts, suckers in mid summer
  • 21. Fourth year
    • Tree should be at maximum height, so don’t prune central leader any more
    • Should have sturdy network of scaffold branches, so will only need minor pruning from here on
  • 22. Modified central leader
    • Prune just as for central leader system, except in fourth year, cut out leader flush with topmost scaffold branch
    • From this point on, will not let branch assume position of central leader
  • 23. Espalier
    • es pal' yay
    • Decoratively trained flat
    • against wall or trellis
    • Take up less space than
    • if grown at full diameter
    • Provide fruit and focal point
    • Can also shade south or west wall,
    • cooling the home
  • 24. Espalier
    • Pruned carefully to maintain only branches against wall or trellis
    • Practiced as art for hundreds of years
    • Countless special designs for training
  • 25. Espalier
    • candelabra
    • Belgian fence
    • informal fan
  • 26. Espalier
    • Considerable amount of extra pruning time needed than when growing fruits traditionally
    • Will yield larger fruits since competing fruits removed, branches receive more sun
    • Major pruning 2-3 times a year with additional minor pruning throughout growing season
  • 27. Espalier
    • Can purchase plants already started in training system
    • Can start with whip – much less expensive
  • 28. Espalier
    • Begin with very young tree
    • Single stem will give best start
    • Plant tree very close to south, west, east wall
    • Or, plant at base of frame or trellis
  • 29. Espalier
    • Branches tied to framework with soft ties
    • Purchase ties or make
    • them
    • If using wall, need
    • frame to tie
    • branches to
  • 30. Espalier
    • Common framework:
    • Permanent stainless
    • steel wires attached
    • with pegs directly to wall
    • Watch weight
    • rot-resistant wood
  • 31. Espalier
    • When plant sends out first branches, start shaping
    • Prune each branch and branchlet to train it to grow in direction desired
    • If lacking symmetry, can graft bud into empty spot
    • As branches grow, tie them gently to framework
  • 32. Espalier
    • Throughout growing season, watch each bud
    • If branch begins to grow in incorrect spot, remove it
  • 33. Pleaching
    • Traditional pruning technique involves weaving branches of trees planted in row to form screen or arch.
    • Vertical branches cut off, horizontal shoots trained in single plane
    • As shoots from neighboring trees intermingle, they are pleached
  • 34. Pleaching
  • 35. Pleaching