Fruits tree pruning


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Fruits - Tree Pruning
Fruit and Vegetable Science
K. Jerome

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Fruits tree pruning

  1. 1. Pruning Fruit Trees
  2. 2. <ul><li>All fruit trees need pruning to help them develop into strong, productive trees </li></ul><ul><li>Pruning thins bearing limbs - fewer but larger fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Gets rid of unproductive old wood </li></ul><ul><li>Lets light, air into center of tree for healthy production </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Each type has natural form </li></ul><ul><li>Following this form leads to attractive tree that generally needs pruning only once a year </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Pruning generally done in spring on dormant trees </li></ul><ul><li>Sucker, water sprout removal most successful in mid-summer since tree is slowing growth - sprouts don’t come back as readily </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Keep in mind framework </li></ul><ul><li>of tree </li></ul><ul><li>Make clean cuts with sharp, clean tools </li></ul><ul><li>Well-pruned fruit tree will be shaped somewhat like Christmas tree </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Prune to remove </li></ul><ul><li>crossing branches </li></ul><ul><li>diseased or damaged </li></ul><ul><li> branches </li></ul><ul><li>water sprouts </li></ul><ul><li>branches that form narrow, weak angles </li></ul><ul><li>Prune to open canopy for maximum air circulation </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Best methods for high production, easy picking: </li></ul><ul><li>central leader </li></ul><ul><li>modified central leader </li></ul><ul><li>Tree pruned to have one central trunk, scaffold branches evenly spaced around center leader </li></ul>
  8. 11. Central Leader <ul><li>Used on dwarf, semi-dwarf trees </li></ul><ul><li>Leader allowed to grow </li></ul>
  9. 12. Modified Central Leader <ul><li>Used on standard-sized trees </li></ul><ul><li>Central leader cut back yearly to keep tree shorter </li></ul>
  10. 13. Year One <ul><li>one-year whip (no branches) </li></ul><ul><li>cut back to bud three feet above </li></ul><ul><li>ground </li></ul><ul><li>as shoots grow during summer, select 3-4 scaffold branches, 4-8 inches apart, evenly spaced in spiral around central leader </li></ul><ul><li>pinch out or rub off all other shoots on main trunk </li></ul><ul><li>forces energy into growing scaffold branches </li></ul>
  11. 14. Year One <ul><li>If tree already branched, select appropriate scaffold branches and prune out all others </li></ul><ul><li>Cut back central leader to 4-6 inches above top scaffold </li></ul><ul><li>Through summer, allow new central leader to emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Remove all shoots that arise from the trunk </li></ul>
  12. 15. Year Two <ul><li>In dormant season, cut back central leader to about 3 feet above lowest scaffold branch </li></ul><ul><li>Cut just above bud on opposite side of trunk from which leader emerged last year </li></ul><ul><li>Zigzag will keep trunk straight </li></ul>
  13. 16. Year Two <ul><li>Head back scaffold branches by cutting at outward facing bud </li></ul><ul><li>This will force secondary growth and begin developing fruiting wood </li></ul><ul><li>You can also let some branches form more scaffolds </li></ul>
  14. 17. Year Two <ul><li>Through summer, remove shoots that arise within about 8 inches of newly emerging central leader </li></ul><ul><li>Prune out water sprouts, suckers and any unwanted branches </li></ul>
  15. 18. Spreading <ul><li>Fruit trees with natural tendency to grow upward will need help “spreading”, beginning in second year </li></ul><ul><li>Method of placing spreaders in young branch angles to help push the branch into 45 to 60 degree angle with trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes earlier, heavier fruit production </li></ul>
  16. 19. Spreading <ul><li>Done in early spring when </li></ul><ul><li>branches pliable </li></ul><ul><li>Types of spreaders: </li></ul><ul><li>notched pieces of wood </li></ul><ul><li>pieces of wood with nails protruding from both ends </li></ul><ul><li>clothespins </li></ul><ul><li>weights tied to branches </li></ul>
  17. 20. Year three <ul><li>Prune leader as in year two </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly head back scaffold branches </li></ul><ul><li>Thin out extra branches </li></ul><ul><li>Prune water sprouts, suckers in mid summer </li></ul>
  18. 21. Fourth year <ul><li>Tree should be at maximum height, so don’t prune central leader any more </li></ul><ul><li>Should have sturdy network of scaffold branches, so will only need minor pruning from here on </li></ul>
  19. 22. Modified central leader <ul><li>Prune just as for central leader system, except in fourth year, cut out leader flush with topmost scaffold branch </li></ul><ul><li>From this point on, will not let branch assume position of central leader </li></ul>
  20. 23. Espalier <ul><li>es pal' yay </li></ul><ul><li>Decoratively trained flat </li></ul><ul><li>against wall or trellis </li></ul><ul><li>Take up less space than </li></ul><ul><li>if grown at full diameter </li></ul><ul><li>Provide fruit and focal point </li></ul><ul><li>Can also shade south or west wall, </li></ul><ul><li>cooling the home </li></ul>
  21. 24. Espalier <ul><li>Pruned carefully to maintain only branches against wall or trellis </li></ul><ul><li>Practiced as art for hundreds of years </li></ul><ul><li>Countless special designs for training </li></ul>
  22. 25. Espalier <ul><li>candelabra </li></ul><ul><li>Belgian fence </li></ul><ul><li>informal fan </li></ul>
  23. 26. Espalier <ul><li>Considerable amount of extra pruning time needed than when growing fruits traditionally </li></ul><ul><li>Will yield larger fruits since competing fruits removed, branches receive more sun </li></ul><ul><li>Major pruning 2-3 times a year with additional minor pruning throughout growing season </li></ul>
  24. 27. Espalier <ul><li>Can purchase plants already started in training system </li></ul><ul><li>Can start with whip – much less expensive </li></ul>
  25. 28. Espalier <ul><li>Begin with very young tree </li></ul><ul><li>Single stem will give best start </li></ul><ul><li>Plant tree very close to south, west, east wall </li></ul><ul><li>Or, plant at base of frame or trellis </li></ul>
  26. 29. Espalier <ul><li>Branches tied to framework with soft ties </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase ties or make </li></ul><ul><li>them </li></ul><ul><li>If using wall, need </li></ul><ul><li>frame to tie </li></ul><ul><li>branches to </li></ul>
  27. 30. Espalier <ul><li>Common framework: </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent stainless </li></ul><ul><li>steel wires attached </li></ul><ul><li>with pegs directly to wall </li></ul><ul><li>Watch weight </li></ul><ul><li>rot-resistant wood </li></ul>
  28. 31. Espalier <ul><li>When plant sends out first branches, start shaping </li></ul><ul><li>Prune each branch and branchlet to train it to grow in direction desired </li></ul><ul><li>If lacking symmetry, can graft bud into empty spot </li></ul><ul><li>As branches grow, tie them gently to framework </li></ul>
  29. 32. Espalier <ul><li>Throughout growing season, watch each bud </li></ul><ul><li>If branch begins to grow in incorrect spot, remove it </li></ul>
  30. 33. Pleaching <ul><li>Traditional pruning technique involves weaving branches of trees planted in row to form screen or arch. </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical branches cut off, horizontal shoots trained in single plane </li></ul><ul><li>As shoots from neighboring trees intermingle, they are pleached </li></ul>
  31. 34. Pleaching
  32. 35. Pleaching