Fruits tree fruit general


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Fruits - Fruit Trees - General
Fruit and Vegetable Science
K. Jerome

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Fruits tree fruit general

  1. 1. Tree Fruits
  2. 2. <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Delicious harvest </li></ul><ul><li>Beauty in several seasons – </li></ul><ul><li>attractive flowers, form, fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Growing surprisingly easy </li></ul>
  4. 4. CHOOSING A SITE <ul><li>Very well drained soil </li></ul><ul><li>Full sun </li></ul><ul><li>Some protection from </li></ul><ul><li>strong winds </li></ul><ul><li>Slight slope for drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Fertile soil with no competition from weeds, power lines, rocks, other trees </li></ul>
  5. 5. Planting <ul><li>Bare root - prune broken roots </li></ul><ul><li>Potted - remove from pot, clip circling roots </li></ul><ul><li>Dig hole two to three times width of roots or soil ball </li></ul><ul><li>Gently slope sides of hole </li></ul>
  6. 6. Planting <ul><li>Plant tree at same depth as in nursery or container </li></ul><ul><li>Place graft at least six inches above soil to allow for settling </li></ul><ul><li>Place root ball on slight pedestal of undisturbed soil, up to 1/3 above grade if soil is wet </li></ul>
  7. 7. Planting <ul><li>Backfill hole with same soil that was removed </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t amend soil </li></ul>
  8. 8. Planting <ul><li>Build 3-4&quot; high soil dike around root ball to retain water </li></ul><ul><li>Mulch with 3-5&quot; of organic mulch, keeping it at least 2&quot; from trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Water well </li></ul>
  9. 9. Tree paint <ul><li>Paint trunk up to second branch or bud with white latex paint, diluted 50-50 with water </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents sunscald </li></ul><ul><li>By the time the paint flakes off, bark strong enough to withstand full strength of sun </li></ul>
  10. 10. Watering <ul><li>Water is key to stimulating new roots to replace those lost when dug </li></ul><ul><li>After planting, water well to get rid of air pockets </li></ul>
  11. 11. Watering <ul><li>If rain not plentiful, must provide irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>inch of water every week to ten days </li></ul><ul><li>rain gauge </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t overwater - tender roots easily drown </li></ul><ul><li>Long, deep, infrequent watering encourages deeper rooting </li></ul>
  12. 12. Fertilizing <ul><li>Don’t fertilize newly planted tree </li></ul><ul><li>In subsequent years, in early spring give tree 1/4 to 1/2 pound of fertilizer per year of age (to a maximum of ten pounds) </li></ul><ul><li>If prune heavily in dormant season, this acts as stimulus, so don’t fertilize that year. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mulch <ul><li>3-4 inches organic mulch </li></ul><ul><li>protects plant roots </li></ul><ul><li>prevents evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>moderates soil temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>keeps weeds down </li></ul><ul><li>Organic mulch feeds tree </li></ul><ul><li>compost, rotted sawdust, pine needles, oak leaves, clean straw, shredded bark </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mulch <ul><li>Pull mulch back two feet from trunk before winter to keep rodents from damaging tender bark </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pests and diseases <ul><li>Good cultural practices will keep plants healthy and reduce stress </li></ul><ul><li>regular watering and fertilizing </li></ul><ul><li>remove all fallen fruits and leaves </li></ul><ul><li>remove weeds that may harbor pests in fall </li></ul><ul><li>Prune to improve air circulation </li></ul><ul><li>remove insects by hand or strong spray of water </li></ul><ul><li>remove diseased branches or leaves and dispose of them </li></ul><ul><li>use barriers and traps </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pests and diseases <ul><li>Disease-resistant plants </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage predators </li></ul><ul><li>One of best defenses in orchard – </li></ul><ul><li>dormant oil spray before or just as buds swell </li></ul><ul><li>Controls many different insects </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence that it helps control some fungal diseases </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cultivar Selection <ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold hardiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frost tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Days to fruit maturity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Date of bloom (frost avoidance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease, insect resistance </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Cultivar Selection <ul><ul><li>Match cultivar to site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation to soil type </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Cultivar Selection <ul><li>Intended Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick-Your-Own sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retail sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wholesale sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(processing) </li></ul></ul>