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Fruits tree fruit general

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Fruits - Fruit Trees - General …

Fruits - Fruit Trees - General
Fruit and Vegetable Science
K. Jerome

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Transcript

  • 1. Tree Fruits
  • 2.
    • [email_address]
  • 3.
    • Delicious harvest
    • Beauty in several seasons –
    • attractive flowers, form, fruits
    • Growing surprisingly easy
  • 4. CHOOSING A SITE
    • Very well drained soil
    • Full sun
    • Some protection from
    • strong winds
    • Slight slope for drainage
    • Fertile soil with no competition from weeds, power lines, rocks, other trees
  • 5. Planting
    • Bare root - prune broken roots
    • Potted - remove from pot, clip circling roots
    • Dig hole two to three times width of roots or soil ball
    • Gently slope sides of hole
  • 6. Planting
    • Plant tree at same depth as in nursery or container
    • Place graft at least six inches above soil to allow for settling
    • Place root ball on slight pedestal of undisturbed soil, up to 1/3 above grade if soil is wet
  • 7. Planting
    • Backfill hole with same soil that was removed
    • Don’t amend soil
  • 8. Planting
    • Build 3-4" high soil dike around root ball to retain water
    • Mulch with 3-5" of organic mulch, keeping it at least 2" from trunk
    • Water well
  • 9. Tree paint
    • Paint trunk up to second branch or bud with white latex paint, diluted 50-50 with water
    • Prevents sunscald
    • By the time the paint flakes off, bark strong enough to withstand full strength of sun
  • 10. Watering
    • Water is key to stimulating new roots to replace those lost when dug
    • After planting, water well to get rid of air pockets
  • 11. Watering
    • If rain not plentiful, must provide irrigation
    • inch of water every week to ten days
    • rain gauge
    • Don’t overwater - tender roots easily drown
    • Long, deep, infrequent watering encourages deeper rooting
  • 12. Fertilizing
    • Don’t fertilize newly planted tree
    • In subsequent years, in early spring give tree 1/4 to 1/2 pound of fertilizer per year of age (to a maximum of ten pounds)
    • If prune heavily in dormant season, this acts as stimulus, so don’t fertilize that year.
  • 13. Mulch
    • 3-4 inches organic mulch
    • protects plant roots
    • prevents evaporation
    • moderates soil temperatures
    • keeps weeds down
    • Organic mulch feeds tree
    • compost, rotted sawdust, pine needles, oak leaves, clean straw, shredded bark
  • 14. Mulch
    • Pull mulch back two feet from trunk before winter to keep rodents from damaging tender bark
  • 15. Pests and diseases
    • Good cultural practices will keep plants healthy and reduce stress
    • regular watering and fertilizing
    • remove all fallen fruits and leaves
    • remove weeds that may harbor pests in fall
    • Prune to improve air circulation
    • remove insects by hand or strong spray of water
    • remove diseased branches or leaves and dispose of them
    • use barriers and traps
  • 16. Pests and diseases
    • Disease-resistant plants
    • Encourage predators
    • One of best defenses in orchard –
    • dormant oil spray before or just as buds swell
    • Controls many different insects
    • Evidence that it helps control some fungal diseases
  • 17. Cultivar Selection
    • Adaptation
      • Cold hardiness
      • Heat tolerance
      • Frost tolerance
      • Days to fruit maturity
      • Date of bloom (frost avoidance)
      • Disease, insect resistance
  • 18. Cultivar Selection
      • Match cultivar to site
      • Adaptation to soil type
  • 19. Cultivar Selection
    • Intended Use
      • Home use
      • Pick-Your-Own sales
      • Retail sales
      • Wholesale sales
      • (processing)