Fruits   apples
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Fruits - Apples

Fruits - Apples

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    Fruits   apples Fruits apples Presentation Transcript

    • Apples
    • CHOOSING PLANTS
      Ripen July through October
      By choosing different ripening times, can have 4-month apple harvest that extends
    • Dessert apples
      Best apples for eating fresh
      Can be cooked or preserved, but best when fresh
    • Processing apples
      Usually more tart
      Make best pies and
      sauce
      Firmer flesh so don’t
      turn to mush when cooked
    • Storage apples
      Bred to remain crisp, flavorful when stored under refrigeration or root cellar through winter
      Ripen late, tough skins
      Many types taste better after several months of storage
    • Heirloom apples
      Old varieties being brought back into production
      Many have superb flavor
      Drawback - seldom
      have disease
      resistance
    • Disease resistance
      Apples naturally disease prone
      New class of disease-resistant apples that are flavorful
      Resistant to scab, fireblight, rust
      Examples: Liberty, Freedom, Prima, Jonafree, Williams' Pride, Redfree, Dayton, Novamac, Nova Easygro, Sir Prize, Macfree
    • Size selection
      Most apples grafted
      Desirable top grafted
      onto hardy rootstock
      Rootstock determines size
      of tree
      standard 20-25 feet
      semi-dwarf 10-13 feet
      dwarf 6-8 feet
    • Size selection
      Dwarf, semi-dwarf trees strongly recommended for home garden
      Take up less room
      Provide more apples per square foot of canopy
      Begin to bear earlier
      Easier to pick
      Easier to prune
      Easier to spray
    • Planting
      Give plenty of room to spread without crowding
      20-25 feet between semi-dwarfs
      10-15 feet between
      dwarfs
    • Cross-pollination
      Most need another variety planted nearby for cross-pollination
      Can be accomplished with wild apples and crabapples
      To assure good crop, plant pollinator
      Most resources give extensive lists of appropriate pollinators
      http://www.fruit-tree.com/applepollen.html
    • Pruning and training
      Use central or modified central leader method of pruning
      Thin in late winter
      for improved air circulation
    • Pests, diseases
      For absolutely clean fruit, necessary to use spray program with fungicide, insecticide
      Attitude adjustment - accept fruits that aren’t spotless, perfect specimens
      Will allow reduction of spray programs
    • Plum curculio
      Overwinter in woods and hedgerows
      Emerge after petal fall, lay eggs at night when above 70 degrees
      Small, crescent-shaped cuts in fruit made by females to lay eggs
      Can place cloth on ground and shake tree vigorously
      Weevils "play dead" and will fall onto cloth - gather and dispose of
      Botanical spray
    • Codling moth
      Worm in apple - usually codling moth
      Overwinter as eggs under loose bark
      female moths lay eggs on developing
      fruit
      Caterpillar larvae burrow into fruit to core
      Pheromone traps – monitoring
      Botanical sprays effective for control
      Corrugated cardboard strips around base of tree in early spring - first generation of caterpillars emerges from apples and pupate under cardboard.
      Removing cardboard every couple of weeks, destroying pupal cases reduces populations
    • Apple maggot
      Fly larvae burrow leaving brown trails, unusable flesh
      Traps - hang red spheres covered with Tanglefoot
      Flies attracted, get stuck
      One trap for every 100 apples
      Leave 9-18" of open space around
      trap
    • Apple scab
      Fungal spores overwinter in fallen leaves
      As leaf, flower buds open, spores released into
      air to and on leaves and buds
      Dry weather – less infection
      Wet springs - severe
      1. Resistant varieties
      2. Clean up all debris to reduce
      overwintering spores
      3. Sulfur sprays
    • Fruitworm, leafroller
      Caterpillars - feed on surface of fruit
      Careful monitoring – pheromone traps
      Control- Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) as soon as they emerge from egg
    • Harvest, storage
      Picked when ripe rather than letting them ripen off the trees (exception - storage apples)
      Twist apple off branch, leaving small portion of stem attached.
      Don’t puncture or bruise
      Freeze - peel, slice, dip in
      ascorbic acid or lemon
      juice. Bag and freeze.