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Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
Fruits   apples
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Fruits apples

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Fruits - Apples

Fruits - Apples

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  • 1. Apples<br />
  • 2. CHOOSING PLANTS<br />Ripen July through October <br />By choosing different ripening times, can have 4-month apple harvest that extends <br />
  • 3. Dessert apples<br />Best apples for eating fresh<br />Can be cooked or preserved, but best when fresh <br />
  • 4. Processing apples<br />Usually more tart<br />Make best pies and<br /> sauce<br />Firmer flesh so don’t <br />turn to mush when cooked<br />
  • 5. Storage apples<br />Bred to remain crisp, flavorful when stored under refrigeration or root cellar through winter <br />Ripen late, tough skins<br />Many types taste better after several months of storage<br />
  • 6. Heirloom apples<br />Old varieties being brought back into production<br />Many have superb flavor<br />Drawback - seldom <br />have disease <br />resistance<br />
  • 7. Disease resistance<br />Apples naturally disease prone<br />New class of disease-resistant apples that are flavorful<br />Resistant to scab, fireblight, rust<br />Examples: Liberty, Freedom, Prima, Jonafree, Williams' Pride, Redfree, Dayton, Novamac, Nova Easygro, Sir Prize, Macfree<br />
  • 8. Size selection<br />Most apples grafted<br />Desirable top grafted <br />onto hardy rootstock<br />Rootstock determines size <br />of tree<br /> standard 20-25 feet<br /> semi-dwarf 10-13 feet<br /> dwarf 6-8 feet<br />
  • 9. Size selection <br />Dwarf, semi-dwarf trees strongly recommended for home garden<br /> Take up less room<br /> Provide more apples per square foot of canopy<br /> Begin to bear earlier<br /> Easier to pick<br /> Easier to prune<br /> Easier to spray<br />
  • 10. Planting<br />Give plenty of room to spread without crowding<br />20-25 feet between semi-dwarfs<br />10-15 feet between <br />dwarfs<br />
  • 11. Cross-pollination<br />Most need another variety planted nearby for cross-pollination<br />Can be accomplished with wild apples and crabapples<br />To assure good crop, plant pollinator<br />Most resources give extensive lists of appropriate pollinators<br />http://www.fruit-tree.com/applepollen.html<br />
  • 12.
  • 13. Pruning and training<br />Use central or modified central leader method of pruning<br />Thin in late winter <br />for improved air circulation<br />
  • 14. Pests, diseases<br />For absolutely clean fruit, necessary to use spray program with fungicide, insecticide<br />Attitude adjustment - accept fruits that aren’t spotless, perfect specimens<br />Will allow reduction of spray programs<br />
  • 15. Plum curculio<br />Overwinter in woods and hedgerows<br />Emerge after petal fall, lay eggs at night when above 70 degrees<br />Small, crescent-shaped cuts in fruit made by females to lay eggs <br />Can place cloth on ground and shake tree vigorously<br />Weevils "play dead" and will fall onto cloth - gather and dispose of<br />Botanical spray<br />
  • 16. Codling moth<br />Worm in apple - usually codling moth <br />Overwinter as eggs under loose bark<br />female moths lay eggs on developing <br /> fruit<br />Caterpillar larvae burrow into fruit to core<br />Pheromone traps – monitoring<br />Botanical sprays effective for control<br />Corrugated cardboard strips around base of tree in early spring - first generation of caterpillars emerges from apples and pupate under cardboard. <br />Removing cardboard every couple of weeks, destroying pupal cases reduces populations<br />
  • 17. Apple maggot<br />Fly larvae burrow leaving brown trails, unusable flesh<br />Traps - hang red spheres covered with Tanglefoot<br />Flies attracted, get stuck<br />One trap for every 100 apples<br />Leave 9-18" of open space around <br /> trap<br />
  • 18. Apple scab<br />Fungal spores overwinter in fallen leaves<br />As leaf, flower buds open, spores released into <br />air to and on leaves and buds<br />Dry weather – less infection<br />Wet springs - severe <br />1. Resistant varieties<br />2. Clean up all debris to reduce <br /> overwintering spores<br />3. Sulfur sprays<br />
  • 19. Fruitworm, leafroller<br />Caterpillars - feed on surface of fruit<br />Careful monitoring – pheromone traps<br />Control- Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) as soon as they emerge from egg<br />
  • 20. Harvest, storage<br />Picked when ripe rather than letting them ripen off the trees (exception - storage apples)<br />Twist apple off branch, leaving small portion of stem attached. <br />Don’t puncture or bruise <br />Freeze - peel, slice, dip in <br />ascorbic acid or lemon <br />juice. Bag and freeze.<br />

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