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Fruits - Apples

Fruits - Apples

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Fruits apples Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Apples
  • 2. CHOOSING PLANTS
    Ripen July through October
    By choosing different ripening times, can have 4-month apple harvest that extends
  • 3. Dessert apples
    Best apples for eating fresh
    Can be cooked or preserved, but best when fresh
  • 4. Processing apples
    Usually more tart
    Make best pies and
    sauce
    Firmer flesh so don’t
    turn to mush when cooked
  • 5. Storage apples
    Bred to remain crisp, flavorful when stored under refrigeration or root cellar through winter
    Ripen late, tough skins
    Many types taste better after several months of storage
  • 6. Heirloom apples
    Old varieties being brought back into production
    Many have superb flavor
    Drawback - seldom
    have disease
    resistance
  • 7. Disease resistance
    Apples naturally disease prone
    New class of disease-resistant apples that are flavorful
    Resistant to scab, fireblight, rust
    Examples: Liberty, Freedom, Prima, Jonafree, Williams' Pride, Redfree, Dayton, Novamac, Nova Easygro, Sir Prize, Macfree
  • 8. Size selection
    Most apples grafted
    Desirable top grafted
    onto hardy rootstock
    Rootstock determines size
    of tree
    standard 20-25 feet
    semi-dwarf 10-13 feet
    dwarf 6-8 feet
  • 9. Size selection
    Dwarf, semi-dwarf trees strongly recommended for home garden
    Take up less room
    Provide more apples per square foot of canopy
    Begin to bear earlier
    Easier to pick
    Easier to prune
    Easier to spray
  • 10. Planting
    Give plenty of room to spread without crowding
    20-25 feet between semi-dwarfs
    10-15 feet between
    dwarfs
  • 11. Cross-pollination
    Most need another variety planted nearby for cross-pollination
    Can be accomplished with wild apples and crabapples
    To assure good crop, plant pollinator
    Most resources give extensive lists of appropriate pollinators
    http://www.fruit-tree.com/applepollen.html
  • 12.
  • 13. Pruning and training
    Use central or modified central leader method of pruning
    Thin in late winter
    for improved air circulation
  • 14. Pests, diseases
    For absolutely clean fruit, necessary to use spray program with fungicide, insecticide
    Attitude adjustment - accept fruits that aren’t spotless, perfect specimens
    Will allow reduction of spray programs
  • 15. Plum curculio
    Overwinter in woods and hedgerows
    Emerge after petal fall, lay eggs at night when above 70 degrees
    Small, crescent-shaped cuts in fruit made by females to lay eggs
    Can place cloth on ground and shake tree vigorously
    Weevils "play dead" and will fall onto cloth - gather and dispose of
    Botanical spray
  • 16. Codling moth
    Worm in apple - usually codling moth
    Overwinter as eggs under loose bark
    female moths lay eggs on developing
    fruit
    Caterpillar larvae burrow into fruit to core
    Pheromone traps – monitoring
    Botanical sprays effective for control
    Corrugated cardboard strips around base of tree in early spring - first generation of caterpillars emerges from apples and pupate under cardboard.
    Removing cardboard every couple of weeks, destroying pupal cases reduces populations
  • 17. Apple maggot
    Fly larvae burrow leaving brown trails, unusable flesh
    Traps - hang red spheres covered with Tanglefoot
    Flies attracted, get stuck
    One trap for every 100 apples
    Leave 9-18" of open space around
    trap
  • 18. Apple scab
    Fungal spores overwinter in fallen leaves
    As leaf, flower buds open, spores released into
    air to and on leaves and buds
    Dry weather – less infection
    Wet springs - severe
    1. Resistant varieties
    2. Clean up all debris to reduce
    overwintering spores
    3. Sulfur sprays
  • 19. Fruitworm, leafroller
    Caterpillars - feed on surface of fruit
    Careful monitoring – pheromone traps
    Control- Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) as soon as they emerge from egg
  • 20. Harvest, storage
    Picked when ripe rather than letting them ripen off the trees (exception - storage apples)
    Twist apple off branch, leaving small portion of stem attached.
    Don’t puncture or bruise
    Freeze - peel, slice, dip in
    ascorbic acid or lemon
    juice. Bag and freeze.