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Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
Compost, oganic matter
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Compost, oganic matter

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Compost …

Compost
Fruit and Vegetable Science
K. Jerome

Published in: Education
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  • I have approx 5/6 kg of horse manure which I collected from a nearby bridle path. I want make some liquid manure for my tomato's, peppers etc. How much water do I need to add to this quantity of manure to make a good feed?
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  • 1. Composting, Organic Matter
  • 2. Waste facts
    • Organic materials comprise
    • more than 25% of residential waste
    • most of this is compostable
  • 3. Organic Matter
    • Any material that was once living, has died, has decomposed to one degree or another
  • 4. Organic Matter
    • horse, cow, duck, sheep manures
    • straw and hay
    • grass clippings, shredded leaves
    • vegetable waste
    • shredded bark, wood chips, sawdust
    • garden debris – compost
    • oil particle size or type, but can control organic matter
  • 5. Organic Matter
    • Influences physical, chemical properties of soils and way soil behaves
  • 6. Organic Matter
    • improves heavy clay – better drainage
    • improves sandy soils - increases water-holding capacity
  • 7. Organic Matter
    • organic matter affects soil -
    • better able to store nutrients, water
    • improved structure
  • 8. Organic Matter
    • Compost adds organic matter, recycles plants
  • 9. Organic Matter
    • Animal manures - should be well rotted, usually applied in fall, may have weed seeds
    • Horse
    • Cow
    • Poultry
    • Rabbit
    • Sheep, goat
  • 10. Liquid manure
  • 11. What is compost?
    • Product of decomposition of organic materials by decomposers
  • 12. What is compost?
    • Valuable soil
    • amendment
    • Dark, crumbly,
    • earthy odor
    • Can be utilized in
    • home yards,
    • commercial landscapes
  • 13. Benefits of composting
    • Valuable soil amendment
    • Effective mulch
    • Reduction in waste
  • 14.
    • Improves soil structure
      • Increases aeration
      • Holds moisture
    Soil amendment
  • 15. Soil amendment
    • Promotes plant growth
      • Stores nutrients
      • Contains essential
      • micronutrients
      • Prevents disease
  • 16. Soil amendment
    • Flower and vegetable gardens:
      • Dig or till 8 to 10 inch deep
      • Mix 3 to 4 inches of compost
  • 17. Mulch
    • Suppress weeds
    • Maintain moisture levels
    • Control temperature
    • Prevent soil erosion
  • 18. Reduce waste
    • Reduces amount of waste
    • sent to landfills
    • Often illegal to dispose
    • of yard waste with
    • other municipal solid
    • waste
  • 19. How does compost happen?
    • Organic material processed by decomposers:
      • Bacteria
      • Fungi
      • Worms
      • Invertebrates
    • Need food, air and water
    • (we supply)
    • Need heat
    • (they supply their own)
  • 20. Decomposers – microorganisms and soil animals
  • 21. Decomposers - bacteria
    • Most numerous organisms in
    • compost pile
    • Don’t need to be added –
    • present everywhere
    • Generate heat associated
    • with composting
    • Perform primary breakdown of organic materials
  • 22. Decomposers - fungi
    • Perform primary decomposition
    • Identified by hyphae or
    • presence of mushrooms
    Not as efficient as bacteria Less temperature tolerant than bacteria
  • 23. Decomposers - nematodes
    • Most abundant invertebrate in soil
    • Usually less then 1 millimeter in length
    • Prey on bacteria, protozoa, fungal
    • spores and each other
  • 24. Decomposers - mites
    • Called fermentation mites or mold mites
    • Transparent
    • Feed on yeast
    • Masses often develop over
    • fermenting surfaces
  • 25. Decomposers - collembula
    • springtails
    • Feed mainly on fungi but
    • also eat organic detritus
  • 26. Decomposers - sow bug
    • Feed on rotting woody
    • Material, leaf tissue
    • pill bugs
  • 27. Decomposers - ground beetle
    • Many different types found in, around compost piles
    • Feed on other organisms,
    • seeds vegetable matter
  • 28. Decomposers - earthworms
    • Coat processed organic material with mucus films that binds small particles together
    • Aerate soil, compost pile
  • 29. Other compost residents - pests
    • House flies
    • Fruit flies
    • Rodents
    • Raccoons
    • Proper bin maintenance,
    • selective material usage
    • will reduce pest problems
  • 30. Pest control
    • Avoid
    • meat
    • dairy
    • fats
    • pet food
    • pet feces
    • Cover food waste with layer
    • of grass, straw, leaves,
    • soil or finished compost
  • 31. Key ingredients
    • Green and brown materials
    • Moisture
    • Air movement
    • Temperature
  • 32. Carbon:Nitrogen Ratio
    • Microorganisms in compost use:
    • carbon for energy
    • nitrogen for protein synthesis
  • 33. C:N Ratio Green materials = nitrogen green grass clippings Brown materials = carbon autumn leaves, straw
  • 34. Average Carbon:Nitrogen Ratios Food Scraps 15:1 GREENS Grass Clippings 19:1 Rotted Manure 25:1 30:1 Ideal for Composting Corn Stalks 60:1 Leaves 40-80:1 Straw 80:1 BROWNS Paper 170:1 Sawdust, woodchips 500:1
  • 35. Moisture
    • Strive for moisture content around 50%
    • lower - bacteria slow down
    • higher - anaerobic decomposition begins
  • 36. Moisture
    • Optimal moisture levels:
    • moist as wrung out sponge
    • Mix when watering to avoid shedding
  • 37. Aeration
    • Mixing monthly
    • increases rate of decomposition
    • by increasing air spaces
    • Takes 3–6 times longer
    • if not turned
  • 38.
    • Reduce particle size by shredding
    • increases surface area for decomposers
    • If too small, may compact
    • Mixture of small and large particles ideal
    Particle size
  • 39. Temperature
    • High temperature =
    • Faster decomposition
    • High temperature kills weeds and pathogens
  • 40. What can be composted?
    • Grass, yard trimmings/clippings
    • Leaves
    • Coffee grounds/filters
    • Tea leaves/bags
    • Fruit, vegetable trimmings
    • Wood chips
    • Sawdust
    • Egg shells
    • Livestock manure
  • 41. What should not be composted?
    • Diseased, insect infested plants
    • Cat, dog manure
    • Evergreen needles
    • Poison ivy, other poisonous plants
    • Weeds that contain seeds
    • Meat, animal products
    • Dairy products
  • 42. Building compost pile
    • Build in layers
      • 8 to 10 inches of
      • ‘brown’ material
      • Several inches of
      • ‘green’ material
      • One inch of soil
  • 43. Compost bins
    • At least 3 x 3 x 3
    • No larger than 5 x 5 (any length)
    • Large enough to hold heat, moisture
    • Small enough for air to reach middle
  • 44. Compost bin types
    • Variety in cost, labor,
    • volume, time required for
    • finished compost
  • 45.  
  • 46. Open piles
    • Slowest rate of decomposition
    • Least expensive method
    • Minimal pest control, containment
  • 47. Holding units
    • Helps keep decomposing materials organized
    • Reduces pest problems
    • Requires no turning
    • Relatively slow rate of decomposition (6 months to 2 years)
  • 48. Turning units Three-chambered bin Barrel or drum composter Allow easier mixing of materials hotter pile, reduced composting time (as soon as 2-3 weeks) more expensive, more labor intensive
  • 49.  
  • 50. Location
    • Avoid areas with drying wind
    • Partial sun will help heat pile
    • easily accessible yet not interfere with yard activities
    • not be offensive to neighbors
  • 51. Finished Compost
    • Avoid using unfinished compost
    • Organic acids may harm plant roots
    • Do not use if:
    • still hot
    • smells like ammonia
    • plant parts are still identifiable
  • 52.
    • Use if:
    • Pile stays at or near ambient temperature
    • Compost is dark, crumbly, and has earthy smell
    • Volume of has been reduced by 30 to 50 percent
    Finished Compost
  • 53. Problem solving
    • Smells like rotten eggs:
      • Not enough air/too much water
      • Add coarse material like dry leaves
      • Pile should be wet like a wrung out sponge
    • Smells like ammonia:
      • Too much nitrogen, not enough carbon
      • Add dry leaves, sawdust or straw
  • 54. Problem solving
    • Pile not heating up:
      • bin too small
      • Too dry
      • Too little air flow
      • material ratios (C:N)
    • Pile attracting pests:
      • Eliminate meat, dairy products, fats
      • Bury food waste under leaves, grass
  • 55.
      • Available though many cities,
      • villages
      • Often take larger yard
      • trimmings for chipping
      • Usually offered as
      • free service
      • Finished compost often
      • available for free
    Municipal Composting
  • 56. Vermicomposting
    • Method of composting kitchen scraps and other organic material indoors
    • Materials placed in aerated
    • container with redworms
    • Redworms able to digest
    • 2/3 their body weight in a day
  • 57.  
  • 58.  

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