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  • http://home.earthlink.net/~ravennacreek/images/RCDRPdesign.JPGhttp://seattletimes.com/html/localnews/2002355545_ravenna02m.htmlhttp://www.seattle.gov/parks/proparks/projects/RavennaCreekatCowen.htm
  • EPA - http://www.epa.gov/ord/gems/buriedstream.htm: “So far what we found is that the daylighted streams are far more effective than buried streams at processing nitrogen, up to 23 times more effective,” says ecologist Dr. Paul Mayer explaining the preliminary results. Showing Buried Streams the DaylightResearchers compare the effectiveness of buried streams versus open-air streams for removing harmful nitrogen from water systems
  • Projected elevated crossings are modeled on thecurrent pedestrian overpass at 20th Street (approx.540 feet total length), modified slightly for each site.Data from NYC DCP, DOITTNetwork construction & analysis, modeling ofcrossings, and modifications to the LION streets fileby Steve Duncan Feb 2013.
  • DEAN RUTZ / THE SEATTLE TIMES
  • Portland:CombinedSewerOverflowCSOAbatementProgramFinal Report1991 - 2011
  • “Coordinate with DEP in long term plan to daylight Tibbets Brook.”vision2020/chapter4.pdf
  • “Coordinate with DEP in long term plan to daylight Tibbets Brook.”vision2020/chapter4.pdf
  • “Coordinate with DEP in long term plan to daylight Tibbets Brook.”vision2020/chapter4.pdf
  • “Coordinate with DEP in long term plan to daylight Tibbets Brook.”vision2020/chapter4.pdf
  • [SUMMARY: TWO LESSONS: PAST REMAINS IN PRESENT, and thus NATURAL PROCESSES (i.e. the past of the city- the pre-urban landscape) ALSO REMAIN AND CONTINUE TO FLOW IN THE “ARTIFICIAL” URBAN ENVIRONMENT]…And that brings me back to sewers.This is a mainline sewer in Queens, just north of Long Island City.19th century sewer, but vital for all buildings today– from 19th century construction to the very newest buildings today, all rely on this tunnel to avoid being flooded and to make it possible to flush toilets.FIRST LESSON: THE PAST REMAINS IN THE PRESENT. THIS 19TH-CENT INFRASTRUCTURE UNDERLIES THE PRESENT. HISTORY IS NOT SEPARATE FROM TODAY, BUT IS THE FOUNDATION THAT THE CITY TODAY GROWS FROM. CLICK FOR ADDITION OF 1880s MAPBut this isn’t JUST a sewer. Used to be the Sunswick Creek, which flowed above-ground until late 19th century.So not just the 19th century remains present, but the pre-urban past ALSO remains in the present-day city, though unseen.SECOND LESSSON: BECAUSE THE PAST REMAINS IN THE PRESENT-DAY CITY, THAT MEANS THAT “NATURAL PROCESSES” ALSO REMAIN– THE HISTORY OF THE LANDSCAPE AND THE PRE-URBAN TOPOGRAPHY ARE ALSO PART OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE CITY TODAY.
  • 4.2. East New York Well FieldThe well field in East New York differs from the well field on Lenox Avenue in that it consists of eightdeep wells in lieu of shallow wellpoints. Each deep well is located in individual pump rooms along PitkinAvenue in Brooklyn, New York that surround the Van Siclen Avenue subway station. The pumps areconnected to a single dedicated discharge line that runs along Pitkin Avenue, turns south at SchenckAvenue and outlets into Hendrix Creek which feeds into Jamaica Bay as shown in Figure 7. Individualpump room locations are shown in Figure 8.4.3. FlatbushWell FieldThe well field at Flatbush is similar to the wells at East New York in that they are deep wells housed inindependent pump rooms. The pump rooms are located over several blocks along Nostrand Avenue inBrooklyn as shown in Figure 11. These wells were recently cleaned and upgraded and were operationalduring the course of this study. The well field consists of eight pump rooms with 11 wells, with three ofthe pump rooms containing two wells. Each well is equipped with an electric submersible pump withvariable frequency drive.The water pumped from the wells travels within a dedicated 16 inch diameter discharge line that runsbelow Nostrand Avenue, Avenue I and then Ocean Avenue where it empties to a storm water sewer at theintersection of Ocean Avenue and Avenue M. This junction is labeled as a pressure relief manhole asfrom this point forward, the water flows via gravity to the outfall at the end of Ocean Avenue intoJamaica Bay. This information was obtained from NYCT drawings and verified in the field. Thearrangement of the discharge line and pumps rooms is shown in Figure 11 and Figure 12.Source: Feasibility Study for theBeneficial Re‐use of Groundwater ExtractionFrom New York City Transit Deep Wells and WellPointshttp://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/press_releases/10-79pr.shtmlhttp://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/24/nyregion/24oysters.html?_r=0
  • 4.2. East New York Well FieldThe well field in East New York differs from the well field on Lenox Avenue in that it consists of eightdeep wells in lieu of shallow wellpoints. Each deep well is located in individual pump rooms along PitkinAvenue in Brooklyn, New York that surround the Van Siclen Avenue subway station. The pumps areconnected to a single dedicated discharge line that runs along Pitkin Avenue, turns south at SchenckAvenue and outlets into Hendrix Creek which feeds into Jamaica Bay as shown in Figure 7. Individualpump room locations are shown in Figure 8.4.3. FlatbushWell FieldThe well field at Flatbush is similar to the wells at East New York in that they are deep wells housed inindependent pump rooms. The pump rooms are located over several blocks along Nostrand Avenue inBrooklyn as shown in Figure 11. These wells were recently cleaned and upgraded and were operationalduring the course of this study. The well field consists of eight pump rooms with 11 wells, with three ofthe pump rooms containing two wells. Each well is equipped with an electric submersible pump withvariable frequency drive.The water pumped from the wells travels within a dedicated 16 inch diameter discharge line that runsbelow Nostrand Avenue, Avenue I and then Ocean Avenue where it empties to a storm water sewer at theintersection of Ocean Avenue and Avenue M. This junction is labeled as a pressure relief manhole asfrom this point forward, the water flows via gravity to the outfall at the end of Ocean Avenue intoJamaica Bay. This information was obtained from NYCT drawings and verified in the field. Thearrangement of the discharge line and pumps rooms is shown in Figure 11 and Figure 12.Source: Feasibility Study for theBeneficial Re‐use of Groundwater ExtractionFrom New York City Transit Deep Wells and WellPointshttp://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/press_releases/10-79pr.shtmlhttp://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/24/nyregion/24oysters.html?_r=0
  • 4.2. East New York Well FieldThe well field in East New York differs from the well field on Lenox Avenue in that it consists of eightdeep wells in lieu of shallow wellpoints. Each deep well is located in individual pump rooms along PitkinAvenue in Brooklyn, New York that surround the Van Siclen Avenue subway station. The pumps areconnected to a single dedicated discharge line that runs along Pitkin Avenue, turns south at SchenckAvenue and outlets into Hendrix Creek which feeds into Jamaica Bay as shown in Figure 7. Individualpump room locations are shown in Figure 8.4.3. FlatbushWell FieldThe well field at Flatbush is similar to the wells at East New York in that they are deep wells housed inindependent pump rooms. The pump rooms are located over several blocks along Nostrand Avenue inBrooklyn as shown in Figure 11. These wells were recently cleaned and upgraded and were operationalduring the course of this study. The well field consists of eight pump rooms with 11 wells, with three ofthe pump rooms containing two wells. Each well is equipped with an electric submersible pump withvariable frequency drive.The water pumped from the wells travels within a dedicated 16 inch diameter discharge line that runsbelow Nostrand Avenue, Avenue I and then Ocean Avenue where it empties to a storm water sewer at theintersection of Ocean Avenue and Avenue M. This junction is labeled as a pressure relief manhole asfrom this point forward, the water flows via gravity to the outfall at the end of Ocean Avenue intoJamaica Bay. This information was obtained from NYCT drawings and verified in the field. Thearrangement of the discharge line and pumps rooms is shown in Figure 11 and Figure 12.Source: Feasibility Study for theBeneficial Re‐use of Groundwater ExtractionFrom New York City Transit Deep Wells and WellPointshttp://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/press_releases/10-79pr.shtmlhttp://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/24/nyregion/24oysters.html?_r=0
  • Source: Feasibility Study for theBeneficial Re‐use of Groundwater ExtractionFrom New York City Transit Deep Wells and WellPoints
  • Source: Feasibility Study for theBeneficial Re‐use of Groundwater ExtractionFrom New York City Transit Deep Wells and WellPoints
  • Source: Feasibility Study for theBeneficial Re‐use of Groundwater ExtractionFrom New York City Transit Deep Wells and WellPoints
  • Source: Feasibility Study for theBeneficial Re‐use of Groundwater ExtractionFrom New York City Transit Deep Wells and WellPoints
  • Source: Feasibility Study for theBeneficial Re‐use of Groundwater ExtractionFrom New York City Transit Deep Wells and WellPoints
  • Vielé created the map because, as he explained in various letters to the editor of the NY Times in the 19th century, buildings along those routes consistently encountered water– the routes still had groundwater flow, and ignoring that on the surface didn’t change what happened beneath. His 1865 map was created at historical moment when those waterways were becoming invisible due to landscape and infrastructure development– first Dept of Public Works was created in NYC in 1871/1872, and given charge of sewers – and as sewers were constructed the waterflow went underground and became invisible to most residents, although same hydrological processes continue today as the ever did.This presentation also uses existing materials from other sources extensively (particularly in the section on existing proposals for daylighting) – such sources are cited either in the text in the slide or in the notes to the slide. Any non-cited material used here– such as photographs, GIS analyses, historic landscape visualizations, runoff calculation results, etc– is the original work of Steve Duncan.

Transcript

  • 1. STREAM DAYLIGHTING IN NYC: BENEFITS, OPPORTUNITIE S, CHALLENGESCUNY Institute for Sustainable Cities: http://www.cunysustainablecities.org/ Director, Dr. William Solecki Phone: 212.772.5450 Professor, Department of Geography, Hunter College Phone: 212-772-4536 E-mail: wsolecki@hunter.cuny.edu CUNY Institute for Sustainable Cities: John Waldman, PhD Professor, Queens College Office: NSB D-320, Tel: (718) 997-3603; Laboratory: NSB E-335, Tel: (718) 997-3529 E-mail: john.waldman@qc.cuny.edu Steve Duncan, PhD Candidate, CUNY Grad Center Earth & Environmental Sciences/Urban Geography CUNY Institute for Sustainable Cities (CISC)
  • 2. 2  Introduction & definition of stream daylighting  Benefits of daylighting  Exemplary case studies  Proposals and opportunities in NYC region Outline/Objectives for Discussion
  • 3. 3  Definition - 'Daylighting' is a term used to describe restoration projects that redirect waterways that have been previously buried in pipes into an above-ground channel.  Recent examples - Stream daylighting projects are present in Seoul, Korea, Seattle, WA, Providence, RI, and Yonkers, NY. Such projects are known to have significant ecological, recreational, cultural, and economic benefits to the communities in which they are located. Stream Daylighting
  • 4. 4 1. CSO Reduction/Separation-at-Source for stormwater management 2. Water Quality Improvement 3. Connectivity 4. Visibility 5. Open Space/Neighborhood Amenity 6. Historic Preservation/Cultural Resource Preservation 7. Resilience Benefits of Daylighting: Summary Benefits of Daylighting
  • 5. 5  In New York City‟s combined sewer system (CSS), sanitary sewage is mixed with rainwater runoff and groundwater flow. During rainfall, wastewater often exceeds the capacity of interceptor sewers and treatment plants and is discharged in Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) events.  Daylighting streams allows the separation of runoff or groundwater from sanitary sewage at the sources, reducing both wet-weather and dry-weather flows to treatment plants. In combined-sewer areas, this can reduce or eliminate the problem of CSO discharges.  Daylighting is one of the methods for source separation currently advocated by the NYC DEP, the NYDEC, and the NYC Mayor's office (NYC Vision2020; New York City Sustainable Stormwater Management Plan, 2007; New York City Green Infrastructure Plan, 2010). 1. CSO Reduction/Separation-at-Source Benefits of Daylighting Example of daylighting in Combined-Sewer area: Ravenna Creek, Seattle (2004-2006) As part of Ravenna Creek‟s daylighting in Ravenna Park, the creek flow was disconnected from the combined sewer system, redirecting estimated 2 mgd from King County's West Point Treatment Plant in northwest Seattle. New York City‟s Drainage Area types: Combined Sewer (Red) Direct Drainage (Blue) Separated Sewers (Green)
  • 6. 6  Daylighting simultaneously engages in infiltration and filtration practices, when used as a stormwater management BMP.  Infiltration: Waterflow through a daylight channel can infiltrate through permeable streambeds.  Filtration: Exposing water to sunlight, vegetation, and soil can help filter, bind up, or neutralize pollutants.  Permeable streambeds and curving flow paths (simulating naturally meandering streams) reduce flow speed and offer more time for both filtration and infiltration.  Living ecologies can begin to develop in daylit, slower-flowing streambeds.  Daylighting helps in processing Nitrogen.  Nitrogen is a major factor in waterway impairment. Current research suggests that daylit streams have significant advantages in controlling nitrogen.  “„So far what we found is that the daylighted streams are far more effective than buried streams at processing nitrogen, up to 23 times more effective,‟ says ecologist Dr. Paul Mayer.” (EPA: http://www.epa.gov/ord/gems/buriedstream.htm) 2. Water Quality Improvement Benefits of Daylighting
  • 7. 7  Daylighting is the only GI/stormwater BMP practice that also makes the actual flow of water visible as a networked system.  Visibility raises awareness of the processes at work and encourages community awareness, stewardship, and understanding of urban systems.  Many daylighting projects “serve as an „outdoor laboratory‟ for local schools” or “create educational sites” that “reconnect people” with nature and hydrological processes. [Pinkham, “Daylighting: New Life for Buried Streams,” 2000] 3. Visibility Benefits of Daylighting Other ways to make urban hydrology more visible: 1) Clear plexiglass “window” manhole cover above historic underground river tunnel – in Brescia, Italy, created by Brescia Underground www.bresciaunderground.com 2) Concept design for “Sewer Viewer Periscope”, a Street Viewing station for underground rivers flowing in mainline sewers underneath NYC streets (e.g. Canal Street, Carmine Street) – Steve Duncan
  • 8. 8  Daylighting directly connects runoff and groundwater sources to streamflow routes. Daylighting along stream routes also offers best connections for pedestrian, bicycle, and recreation routes. 4. Connectivity Benefits of Daylighting EXAMPLE: DAYLIGHTING HARLEM CREEK IN EAST HARLEM In East Harlem, the FDR Drive creates a barrier between the community and the East River Esplanade park space along the Harlem River. Network analysis through GIS allows accurate assessments of pedestrian Current access for pedestrians is only via two pedestrian overpasses, at 102nd Street and 111th Street. (Area within ¼ mile walking route shown in green) Adding a new overpass at 106th Street (route of Harlem Creek) would expand the area within ¼ mile walk (in yellow). However, the switchbacks of the elevated overpass make the walking distances longer and limit the access. Daylighting the former Harlem Creek would offer an at-grade route (by slightly elevating the highway over the creek & walking path). As pedestrians follow the creek to the Esplanade, this would more than double the area within a ¼ mile walk.
  • 9. 9  Daylighting streams can offer neighborhood amenities of increased accessible or vegetated open space.  Visible waterways contribute to “sense of place” and daylighting projects are linked to increase property values and economic benefits.  Daylighting projects “revitalize surrounding neighborhoods” and “Planning and implementing daylighting projects can bring communities, businesses, and governments together.” [Pinkham, “Daylighting: New Life for Buried Streams,” 2000]  “Stream restoration is neighborhood restoration.” [Ann Riley, “Urban Stream Restoration” 1998] 5. Open Space/Neighborhood Amenity Benefits of Daylighting
  • 10. 10  Natural landscape features like streams are an important part of the cultural heritage of urban residents. Recent work such as Eric Sanderson‟s Mannahatta Project has emphasized the historic/cultural resource value of physical landscape elements.  “Stream daylighting is not only an important water quality practice, but it is also a powerful economic development and community revitalization tool.” [NY State Environmental Facilities Corporation, “Restoring Natural Stream Morphology”]  Many successful daylighting projects emphasize the historic and cultural value of waterways as unique, historically significant landscape elements, although this is not quantifiable in the same way hydrologic benefits are. 6. Historic Preservation/Cultural Resource Value Benefits of Daylighting Daylight stream as cultural resource & landscape amenity: Neglinnaya Stream, Moscow, Russia The Neglinnaya stream is an example of a daylighting project with solely historic and cultural benefits, rather than hydrologic benefits. The stream was recreated outside the walls of the Kremlin using municipal water supply, while the actual watershed‟s flow remains in the combined sewers below. Although it does not alleviate sewage volumes, the project‟s intangible values made it worthwhile for the city to build and maintain.
  • 11. 11  Daylit, above-ground stream channels that simulate “natural” stream patterns can offer greater environmental resiliency than closed culverts.  Separating “clean” water from sanitary sewage means less risk of sewage contamination in floods.  Daylit channels reduce likelihood of network “choke points” from low- capacity culverts and sewers  Open channels offer higher capacity for peak flow (over culverts) by reproducing “bankful” flow capacity of natural streams. 7. Resilience Benefits of Daylighting East Harlem flood-risk map: Daylighting will not reduce storm- surge flood risk in low elevations, but the separation of sanitary sewage from storm runoff will reduce the risk factor of bacterial contaminants, thus increasing resilience to flood hazards. Gowanus area flooding from Sandy (Local resident points to high- water mark in home): Inundation with untreated sewage (high bacterial content) was a major contaminant in Sandy flooding, according to EPA testing.
  • 12. 12 Examples of Successful Daylighting Projects Cheonggyecheon Recovery Project Seoul, South Korea Thornton Creek, Seattle (foreground: holding ponds filter runoff) Examples of Successful Daylighting
  • 13. 13 Examples of Successful Daylighting: Sawmill River, Yonkers, NY Examples of Successful Daylighting Above: Sawmill River, Yonkers, NY River walk with park amenities and ecological restoration (800 feet - $20 million USD) Below: Underground diversion chamber for Sawmill daylighting. Culverted stream exits through gate (center background) and flows into daylit channel. In case of flood levels, water will run over dam regulator (in foreground) and will drain through original culvert to right.
  • 14. 14 Examples of Successful Daylighting Examples of Successful Daylighting Seattle: Madrona Park Creek Berkeley, CA: Strawberry Cree (original daylighting 1984, additional sections proposed) Philadelphia, PA: Indian Creek “Constructing a stream channel to connect the West Branch of Indian Creek with the East Branch prior to the combined sewer will reduce the number of sewage overflows and lead to a healthier stream…” Portland, OR “Stream Diversion 1995-2005: Environmental Services built pipelines to divert the large Tanner Creek stream system from the combined sewer system and let this relatively clean water flow directly to the Willamette River. Stream diversion projects remove about 300 million gallons of water annually from combined sewers.”
  • 15. DAYLIGHTING IN NYC - POTENTIAL SITES AND EXISTING PROPOSALS Photo: the Canal Street Sewer today. This was constructed around 1812 to contain the Canal Street drainage ditch (route shown in map) and serving today as combined sewer and drainage for groundwater flow.
  • 16. 16 Proposal for daylighting Flushing River, Flushing Meadows/Corona Park, Queens Source: Flushing Meadows Corona Park : Strategic Framework Plan for The New York City Department of Parks and Recreation; prepared by Quennell Rothschild & Partners | Smith-Miller + Hawkinson Architects. Flushing River, Flushing Meadows/Corona Park, Queens Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC
  • 17. 17 Source: Friends of Brook Park (community group). Study phase funded by: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); South Bronx Waterfront Partnership funded by Congressman José E. Serrano; In Partnership with The Gaia Institute and others. Brook Restoration/ Mill Brook (Brook Park, Bronx) "The Brook Restoration project includes planning a wetland system in the Mott Haven neighborhood of the South Bronx with native plantings to support fauna… Our South Bronx community needs and wants more green and aquatic open space to provide a more natural landscape.”Further information: http://www.friendsofbrookpark.org/brook-park/brook- daylighting/ Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC
  • 18. 18 The Denton‟s Spring/Denton Mill Creek proposal is an example of a small-scale, community-led project combining historic resource conservation and hydrological sustainability efforts. The former spring is next to the Gowanus Canal, Brooklyn. Source: Eymund Diegel; Gowanus Canal Community Advisory Group (CAG); Gowanus Canal Conservancy (GCC) Denton‟s Spring/Denton Mill Creek, Brooklyn “We are interested in improving water quality and have been researching sites that can help the City achieve it’s Green Infrastructure and water quality goals… [this] is one of those sites because it still has historic streams running under it.” -From “LOST STREAM OF THE GOWANUS: Community Research Resource” Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC
  • 19. 19  Historic waterway that flows through Tibbetts Brook Park (north of NYC city line) and supplies the Van Cortlandt Park pond. The waterflow remains separated until south of Van Cortlandt Park, flowing through an 1899 tunnel before entering a combined sewer.  NYC‟s Vision2020 calls for ““Coordinate with DEP in long term plan to daylight Tibbets Brook” (Chapt 4, Reach 6). Local groups have also discussed daylighting for Tibbetts Brook, but no coherent plan or assessement exists. Tibbetts Brook, Bronx Further information: http://cooper.edu/isd/projects/tibbetts http://riverdalepress.com/stories/A-river-runs-through-Kingsbridge,48267?page=1& http://www.nycgovparks.org/parks/VanCortlandtPark/highlights/8183 • The existing separated waterflow from Van Cortland park offers optimal conditions for daylighting. • This would reduce load on Ward‟s Island Wastewater Treatment Plant in both wet weather and dry weather. Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC Histori c route
  • 20. 20 Tibbetts Brook, Bronx Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC
  • 21. 21 Tibbetts Brook, Bronx Under Van Cortlandt park: separated flow, clean streamwater flow from Van Cortlandt Park Pond Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC
  • 22. 22 Tibbetts Brook, Bronx Downstream of park: flows into combined sewer under Broadway in the Bronx (Wards Island WPCP) and mixes with sanitary sewage. Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC
  • 23. 23 Project by Mary Miss/City as Living Laboratory (CaLL), Inc Focus on historic & cultural resource development; completed pilot projects include self-guided audio tour using site installations along route & 2012 exhibit at Socrates Sculpture Park, Queens. About CaLL: “City as Living Laboratory (CaLL) is a framework for connecting the arts with sustainability to help image and create cities that redefine how we live our lives, use our resources, communicate, educate and work…” Sunswick Creek, Queens: CHALLENGES IN CSS Further information: http://cityaslivinglab.org/ravenswoo d/sunswick-creek/ http://watercourses.typepad.com/w atercourses/sunswick_creek/ Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC SUNSWICK CREEK = HIGH HISTORIC/CULTU RAL VALUE…..
  • 24. 25 Sunswick Creek, Queens: CHALLENGES IN CSS Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC …BUT A DIFFICULT-TO-IMPOSSIBLE CHALLENGE OF SEPARATION OF SANITARY SEWAGE FROM CLEAN STREAMFLOW. Sunswick Creek 1880s (Above) and today (below)
  • 25. 26  Kissena Creek was the major tributary to the Flushing Creek, and is contained today within a very large storm sewer channel under the Kissena Park Corridor. It outlets into the area of Flushing Meadows/Corana Park. Upstream regulators for combined-sewer discharge within this storm sewer make it a priority sewershed for DEP efforts to reduce CSO discharge.  The major project of the Flushing River Detention Tank (completed 2007), located under the Al Oerter Recreation Center, 131-40 Fowler Avenue, receives the flow from the Kissena Corridor drainage and the former Kissena Creek.  There are no existing plans or assessments for daylighting Kissemns Creek. Kissena Creek, Queens Two sources of water for daylighting: 1) Inflow from Kissena Pond, in Kissena Park (photo on left) 2) Groundwater infiltration into storm sewer (photo on right) Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC
  • 26. 27 Kissena Creek, Queens Two sources of water for daylighting: 1)Inflow from Kissena Pond, in Kissena Park (left) 2)Groundwater infiltration into storm sewer (below) Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC
  • 27. 28 Kissena Creek, Queens- Tributary to Flushing Creeek Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC
  • 28. 29 Kissena Creek, Queens- Tributary to Flushing Creeek Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC
  • 29. 30 Kissena Creek, Queens- Tributary to Flushing Creeek Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC Above: Cleaner separated stormwater/natural streamflow/lake runoff upstream in Kissena Drain. Right: combined sewer network next to Kissena Drain, with underground regulator – just a short dam, a wall 1/3 the height of the tunnel – allowing any higher flows of combined sewage to overflow and mix with the storm drain water. Bottom right: looking upstream at the sewage regulator dam.
  • 30. 31 Hendrix Creek is one of several historic stream drainage routes into Jamaica bay. The stormwater drainage routes into Jamaica Bay currently are primarily through storm sewer lines that receive significant CSO discharge from upsteam combined-sewer overflow regulators (i.e. check dams within sewers). Existing efforts to combat CSO discharge have focused on “hard” infrastructure, such as the massive Paerdegat Basin Detention basin. Currently, there are no public proposals for daylighting these streams or for reliably assessing the impacts of daylighting. Hendrix Creek, Brooklyn Further information: http://www.nycgovparks.org/greening/natural-resources-group/restoration-sites http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/press_releases/10-79pr.shtml http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/24/nyregion/24oysters.html?_r=0 From NYC Dept. of Parks and Recreation “Restoration sites” Brooklyn Restoration Sites: 1. Hendrix Creek - Freshwater wetland and salt marsh restoration, 10 Acres 2. Paerdegat Basin - CSO Abatement, 92 Acres 3. White Island - Grassland mitigation, 77 Acres 4. Gerritsen Creek - Maritime restoration, 16 Acres 5. Dreier - Offerman - Salt Marsh restoration, 4 Acres 6. Four Sparrow Marsh Habitat Restoration The shoreline areas of southern Brooklyn and Queens are primarily served by separated storm sewers. Current efforts (1990s-present) by the DEP have focused on eliminating CSO discharges through detention basins, along with pilot GI projects. Below: groundwater is currently pumped from the Flatbush Well Field of the MTA, through a discharge line that drains into Hendrix Creek. Estimated flow is 3,000- 5,000 gpm. Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC
  • 31. 32 Hendrix Creek, Brooklyn Below: groundwater is currently pumped from the Flatbush Well Field of the MTA, through a discharge line that drains into Hendrix Creek. Estimated flow is 3,000- 5,000 gpm. Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC
  • 32. 33 Hendrix Creek, Brooklyn Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC ELEVATION ANALYSIS – route contour via google earth – widely accessible tool
  • 33. 34 Harlem Creek‟s watershed currently drains into the combined sewer network of the Ward‟s Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, primarily through the combined sewersheds of WI-24 and WI-25. These discharge into Harlem River during rain through CSOs. Waterflow in the former Harlem Creek area includes: 1. 1. groundwater pumped from the MTA well sites along Lenox Ave, and 1) 2. overflow and drainage from the Harlem Meer in Central Park. Overflow from the Harlem Meer flows through 19th-entury drainage tunnels into the combined sewer system under 5th Ave. There are no existing reliable assessments or proposals for daylighting or source-separation. Harlem Creek, Manhattan Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC
  • 34. 35 Harlem Creek, Manhattan Left: the MTA currently pumps out an estimated 300-500 gpm of groundwater from well sites near Lenox Ave. Discharge line drains to Harlem River. Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC Right: the historic flow of Harlem Creek mapped out over current combined sewersheds (left) and land-use types (right). Most of the former Harlem Creek watershed is currently within the combined sewersheds of WI-24 and WI-25, leading to CSO discharges during wet weather.
  • 35. 36 Harlem Creek, Manhattan Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC
  • 36. 37 Harlem Creek, Manhattan Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC DRAINAGE FROM CENTRAL PARK RESERVOIR AND HARLEM MEER
  • 37. 38 Harlem Creek, Manhattan Opportunities & Existing Proposals in NYC
  • 38. 39 John Waldman, PhD CUNY Institute for Sustainable Cities NAC-CESU (North Atlantic Coastal- Cooperative Ecosystems Study Unit) Queens College Dr. William Solecki Professor and Director, CUNY Institute for Sustainable Cities. Department of Geography, Hunter College Steve Duncan Urban Geog. Program, CUNY Graduate Center Graduate Teaching Fellow, Hunter College, Dept. of Urban Planning This presentation was developed for the CUNY Institute for Sustainable Cities (CISC) to stimulate discussion on daylighting as a tool in hydro-ecological sustainability efforts. Detail from the “Sanitary & Topographical Map of the City and Island of New York,” created Egbert L. Vielé in 1865, showing the natural pre-urban streams, ponds, springs, and drainage routes mapped to the contemporary (19th/20th century) street grid. This version of this presentation (April/May 2013) was developed by Steve Duncan, based on initial project conceptualizations and prior work by Dr. William Solecki and Dr. John Waldman, and additional previous work by CISC on stream daylighting. (see slide notes for additional notes on sources)